Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

  1. Nashihah AK, Muhammad Firdaus FI, Fauzi MB, Mobarak NN, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2023 Oct 05;24(19).
    PMID: 37834382 DOI: 10.3390/ijms241914935
    Respiratory diseases have a major impact on global health. The airway epithelium, which acts as a frontline defence, is one of the most common targets for inhaled allergens, irritants, or micro-organisms to enter the respiratory system. In the tissue engineering field, biomaterials play a crucial role. Due to the continuing high impact of respiratory diseases on society and the emergence of new respiratory viruses, in vitro airway epithelial models with high microphysiological similarities that are also easily adjustable to replicate disease models are urgently needed to better understand those diseases. Thus, the development of biomaterial scaffolds for the airway epithelium is important due to their function as a cell-support device in which cells are seeded in vitro and then are encouraged to lay down a matrix to form the foundations of a tissue for transplantation. Studies conducted in in vitro models are necessary because they accelerate the development of new treatments. Moreover, in comparatively controlled conditions, in vitro models allow for the stimulation of complex interactions between cells, scaffolds, and growth factors. Based on recent studies, the biomaterial scaffolds that have been tested in in vitro models appear to be viable options for repairing the airway epithelium and avoiding any complications. This review discusses the role of biomaterial scaffolds in in vitro airway epithelium models. The effects of scaffold, physicochemical, and mechanical properties in recent studies were also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
  2. Danagody B, Bose N, Rajappan K, Iqbal A, Ramanujam GM, Anilkumar AK
    ACS Biomater Sci Eng, 2024 Jan 08;10(1):468-481.
    PMID: 38078836 DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.3c00892
    Developing biomaterial scaffolds using tissue engineering with physical and chemical surface modification processes can improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the materials. The appropriate substrate and site for cell attachment are crucial in cell behavior and biological activities. Therefore, the study aims to develop a conventional electrospun nanofibrous biomaterial using reproducible surface topography, which offers beneficial effects on the cell activities of bone cells. The bioactive MgO/gC3N4 was incorporated on PAN/PEG and fabricated into a nanofibrous membrane using electrospinning. The nanocomposite uniformly distributed on the PAN/PEG nanofiber helps to increase the number of induced pores and reduce the hydrophobicity of PAN. The physiochemical characterization of prepared nanoparticles and nanofibers was carried out using FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water contact angle measurements. SEM and TEM analyses examined the nanofibrous morphology and the structure of MgO/gC3N4. In vitro studies such as on ALP activity demonstrated the membrane's ability to regenerate new bone and healing capacity. Furthermore, alizarin red staining showed the increasing ability of the cell-cell interaction and calcium content for tissue regeneration. The cytotoxicity of the prepared membrane was about 97.09% of live THP-1 cells on the surface of the MgO/gC3N4@PAN/PEG membrane evaluated using MTT dye staining. The soil burial degradation analysis exhibited that the maximum degradation occurs on the 45th day because of microbial activity. In vitro PBS degradation was observed on the 15th day after the bulk hydrolysis mechanism. Hence, on the basis of the study outcomes, we affirm that the MgO/gC3N4@PAN/PEG nanofibrous membrane can act as a potential bone regenerative substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
  3. Fallahiarezoudar E, Ahmadipourroudposht M, Idris A, Mohd Yusof N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Mar;48:556-65.
    PMID: 25579957 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.016
    The four heart valves represented in the mammalian hearts are responsible for maintaining unidirectional, non-hinder blood flow. The heart valve leaflets synchronically open and close approximately 4 million times a year and more than 3 billion times during the life. Valvular heart dysfunction is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. When one of the valves malfunctions, the medical choice is may be to replace the original valves with an artificial one. Currently, the mechanical and biological artificial valves are clinically used with some drawbacks. Tissue engineering heart valve concept represents a new technique to enhance the current model. In tissue engineering method, a three-dimensional scaffold is fabricated as the template for neo-tissue development. Appropriate cells are seeded to the matrix in vitro. Various approaches have been investigated either in scaffold biomaterials and fabrication techniques or cell source and cultivation methods. The available results of ongoing experiments indicate a promising future in this area (particularly in combination of bone marrow stem cells with synthetic scaffold), which can eliminate the need for lifelong anti-coagulation medication, durability and reoperation problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  4. Anita Lett J, Sundareswari M, Ravichandran K, Latha B, Sagadevan S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar;96:487-495.
    PMID: 30606558 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.082
    The practice of bone implants is the standard procedure for the treatment of skeletal fissures, or to substitute and re-establish lost bone. A perfect scaffold ought to be made of biomaterials that duplicate the structure and properties of natural bone. However, the production of living tissue constructs that are architecturally, functionally and mechanically comparable to natural bone is the major challenge in the treatment and regeneration of bone tissue in orthopaedics and in dentistry. In this work, we have employed a polymeric replication method to fabricate hydroxyapatite (HAP) scaffolds using gum tragacanth (GT) as a natural binder. GT is a natural gum collected from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, possessing antibacterial and wound healing properties. The synthesized porous HAP scaffolds were analyzed structurally and characterized for their phase purity and mechanical properties. The biocompatibility of the porous HAP scaffold was confirmed by seeding the scaffold with Vero cells, and its bioactivity assessed by immersing the scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). Our characterization data showed that the biocompatible porous HAP scaffolds were composed of highly interconnecting pores with compressive strength ranging from 0.036 MPa to 2.954 MPa, comparable to that of spongy bone. These can be prepared in a controlled manner by using an appropriate binder concentration and sintering temperature. These HAP scaffolds have properties consistent with normal bone and should be further developed for potential application in bone implants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  5. Md Saad AP, Prakoso AT, Sulong MA, Basri H, Wahjuningrum DA, Syahrom A
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2019 Jun;18(3):797-811.
    PMID: 30607641 DOI: 10.1007/s10237-018-01115-z
    This study employs a computational approach to analyse the impact of morphological changes on the structural properties of biodegradable porous Mg subjected to a dynamic immersion test for its application as a bone scaffold. Porous Mg was immersed in a dynamic immersion test for 24, 48, and 72 h. Twelve specimens were prepared and scanned using micro-CT and then reconstructed into a 3D model for finite element analysis. The structural properties from the numerical simulation were then compared to the experimental values. Correlations between morphological parameters, structural properties, and fracture type were then made. The relative losses were observed to be in agreement with relative mass loss done experimentally. The degradation rates determined using exact (degraded) surface area at particular immersion times were on average 20% higher than the degradation rates obtained using original surface area. The dynamic degradation has significantly impacted the morphological changes of porous Mg in volume fraction, surface area, and trabecular separation, which in turn affects its structural properties and increases the immersion time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  6. Busra MFM, Lokanathan Y
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2019;20(12):992-1003.
    PMID: 31364511 DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666190731121016
    Tissue engineering focuses on developing biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue functions. The three main components of its application are scaffold, cell and growthstimulating signals. Scaffolds composed of biomaterials mainly function as the structural support for ex vivo cells to attach and proliferate. They also provide physical, mechanical and biochemical cues for the differentiation of cells before transferring to the in vivo site. Collagen has been long used in various clinical applications, including drug delivery. The wide usage of collagen in the clinical field can be attributed to its abundance in nature, biocompatibility, low antigenicity and biodegradability. In addition, the high tensile strength and fibril-forming ability of collagen enable its fabrication into various forms, such as sheet/membrane, sponge, hydrogel, beads, nanofibre and nanoparticle, and as a coating material. The wide option of fabrication technology together with the excellent biological and physicochemical characteristics of collagen has stimulated the use of collagen scaffolds in various tissue engineering applications. This review describes the fabrication methods used to produce various forms of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  7. Nazemi N, Rajabi N, Aslani Z, Kharaziha M, Kasiri-Asgarani M, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, et al.
    J Biomater Appl, 2023 Jan;37(6):979-991.
    PMID: 36454961 DOI: 10.1177/08853282221140672
    Porous structure, biocompatibility and biodegradability, large surface area, and drug-loading ability are some remarkable properties of zeolite structure, making it a great possible option for bone tissue engineering. Herein, we evaluated the potential application of the ZSM-5 scaffold encapsulated GEN with high porosity structure and significant antibacterial properties. The space holder process has been employed as a new fabrication method with interconnected pores and suitable mechanical properties. In this study, for the first time, ZSM-5 scaffolds with GEN drug-loading were fabricated with the space holder method. The results showed excellent open porosity in the range of 70-78% for different GEN concentrations and appropriate mechanical properties. Apatite formation on the scaffold surface was determined with Simulation body fluid (SBF), and a new bone-like apatite layer shaping on all samples confirmed the in vitro bioactivity of ZSM-5-GEN scaffolds. Also, antibacterial properties were investigated against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The incorporation of various amounts of GEN increased the inhibition zone from 24 to 28 (for E. coli) and 26 to 37 (for S. aureus). In the culture with MG63 cells, great cell viability and high cell proliferation after 7 days of culture were determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
  8. Al Qabbani A, Rani KGA, Syarif J, AlKawas S, Sheikh Abdul Hamid S, Samsudin AR, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(4):e0283922.
    PMID: 37018321 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0283922
    Current immunological issues in bone grafting regarding the transfer of xenogeneic donor bone cells into the recipient are challenging the industry to produce safer acellular natural matrices for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel decellularization technique for producing bovine cancellous bone scaffold and compare its physicochemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics with demineralized cancellous bone scaffold in an in-vitro study. Cancellous bone blocks were harvested from a bovine femoral head (18-24 months old) subjected to physical cleansing and chemical defatting, and further processed in two ways. Group I was subjected to demineralization, while Group II underwent decellularization through physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments. Both were then freeze-dried, and gamma radiated, finally producing a demineralized bovine cancellous bone (DMB) scaffold and decellularized bovine cancellous bone (DCC) scaffold. Both DMB and DCC scaffolds were subjected to histological evaluation, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), quantification of lipid, collagen, and residual nucleic acid content, and mechanical testing. The osteogenic potential was investigated through the recellularization of scaffolds with human osteoblast cell seeding and examined for cell attachment, proliferation, and mineralization by Alizarin staining and gene expression. DCC produced a complete acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) with the absence of nucleic acid content, wider pores with extensive interconnectivity and partially retaining collagen fibrils. DCC demonstrated a higher cell proliferation rate, upregulation of osteogenic differentiation markers, and substantial mineralized nodules production. Our findings suggest that the decellularization technique produced an acellular DCC scaffold with minimal damage to ECM and possesses osteogenic potential through the mechanisms of osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and osteogenesis in-vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
  9. Geetha Bai R, Muthoosamy K, Manickam S, Hilal-Alnaqbi A
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:5753-5783.
    PMID: 31413573 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S192779
    Tissue engineering embraces the potential of recreating and replacing defective body parts by advancements in the medical field. Being a biocompatible nanomaterial with outstanding physical, chemical, optical, and biological properties, graphene-based materials were successfully employed in creating the perfect scaffold for a range of organs, starting from the skin through to the brain. Investigations on 2D and 3D tissue culture scaffolds incorporated with graphene or its derivatives have revealed the capability of this carbon material in mimicking in vivo environment. The porous morphology, great surface area, selective permeability of gases, excellent mechanical strength, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good optical properties, and biodegradability enable graphene materials to be the best component for scaffold engineering. Along with the apt microenvironment, this material was found to be efficient in differentiating stem cells into specific cell types. Furthermore, the scope of graphene nanomaterials in liver tissue engineering as a promising biomaterial is also discussed. This review critically looks into the unlimited potential of graphene-based nanomaterials in future tissue engineering and regenerative therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  10. Shaz N, Maran S, Genasan K, Choudhary R, Alias R, Swamiappan S, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Jan;256(Pt 1):128059.
    PMID: 37989428 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.128059
    This study aimed to functionalize a novel porous PLGA (Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffold in combination with nano‑calcium sulphate (nCS) and/or fucoidan (FU) to induce osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. The composite scaffolds (PLGA-nCS-FU, PLGA-nCS or PLGA-FU) were fabricated and subjected to characterization using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX). The biocompatibility and osteogenic induction potential of scaffolds on seeded human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) were studied using cell attachment and alamar blue cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and osteogenic gene expression, respectively. The composition of different groups was reflected in FTIR, XRD and EDX. The SEM micrographs revealed a difference in the surface of the scaffold before and after FU addition. The confocal imaging and SEM micrographs confirmed the attachment of cells onto all three composite scaffolds. However, the AB assay indicated a significant increase (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
  11. Ansari NF, Amirul AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2013 Jun;170(3):690-709.
    PMID: 23604967 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0216-0
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are hydrophobic biodegradable thermoplastics that have received considerable attention in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, the degradation rate was regulated by optimizing the interaction of parameters that influence the enzymatic degradation of P(3HB) film using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM model was experimentally validated yielding a maximum 21 % weight loss, which represents onefold increment in percentage weight loss in comparison with the conventional method. By using the optimized condition, the enzymatic degradation by an extracellular PHA depolymerase from Acidovorax sp. DP5 was studied at 37 °C and pH 9.0 on different types of PHA films with various monomer compositions. Surface modification of scaffold was employed using enzymatic technique to create highly porous scaffold with a large surface to volume ratio, which makes them attractive as potential tissue scaffold in biomedical field. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of salt-leached films was more porous compared with the solvent-cast films, and hence, increased the degradation rate of salt-leached films. Apparently, enzymatic degradation behaviors of PHA films were determined by several factors such as monomer composition, crystallinity, molecular weight, porosity, and roughness of the surface. The hydrophilicity and water uptake of degraded salt-leached film of P(3HB-co-70%4HB) were enhanced by incorporating chitosan or alginate. Salt-leached technique followed by partial enzymatic degradation would enhance the cell attachment and suitable for biomedical as a scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  12. Hoque ME, Chuan YL, Pashby I
    Biopolymers, 2012 Feb;97(2):83-93.
    PMID: 21830198 DOI: 10.1002/bip.21701
    Advances in scaffold design and fabrication technology have brought the tissue engineering field stepping into a new era. Conventional techniques used to develop scaffolds inherit limitations, such as lack of control over the pore morphology and architecture as well as reproducibility. Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, a layer-by-layer additive approach offers a unique opportunity to build complex 3D architectures overcoming those limitations that could ultimately be tailored to cater for patient-specific applications. Using RP methods, researchers have been able to customize scaffolds to mimic the biomechanical properties (in terms of structural integrity, strength, and microenvironment) of the organ or tissue to be repaired/replaced quite closely. This article provides intensive description on various extrusion based scaffold fabrication techniques and review their potential utility for TE applications. The extrusion-based technique extrudes the molten polymer as a thin filament through a nozzle onto a platform layer-by-layer and thus building 3D scaffold. The technique allows full control over pore architecture and dimension in the x- and y- planes. However, the pore height in z-direction is predetermined by the extruding nozzle diameter rather than the technique itself. This review attempts to assess the current state and future prospects of this technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  13. Krishnamurithy G, Shilpa PN, Ahmad RE, Sulaiman S, Ng CL, Kamarul T
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2011 Dec 01;99(3):500-6.
    PMID: 21913317 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.33184
    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is an established biomaterial used in many clinical applications. However, its use for tissue engineering purposes has not been fully realized. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using HAM as a chondrocyte substrate/carrier. HAMs were obtained from fresh human placenta and were process to produced air dried HAM (AdHAM) and freeze dried HAM (FdHAM). Rabbit chondrocytes were isolated and expanded in vitro and seeded onto these preparations. Cell proliferation, GAG expression and GAG/cell expression were measured at days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21, and 28. These were compared to chondrocytes seeded onto plastic surfaces. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe cell attachment. There was significantly higher cell proliferation rates observed between AdHAM (13-51%, P=0.001) or FdHAM (18-48%, p = 0.001) to chondrocytes in monolayer. Similarly, GAG and GAG/cell expressed in AdHAM (33-82%, p = 0.001; 22-60%, p = 0.001) or FdHAM (41-81%, p = 0.001: 28-60%, p = 0.001) were significantly higher than monolayer cultures. However, no significant differences were observed in the proliferation rates (p = 0.576), GAG expression (p = 0.476) and GAG/cell expression (p = 0.135) between AdHAM and FdHAM. The histology and scanning electron microscopy assessments demonstrates good chondrocyte attachments on both HAMs. In conclusion, both AdHAM and FdHAM provide superior chondrocyte proliferation, GAG expression, and attachment than monolayer cultures making it a potential substrate/carrier for cell based cartilage therapy and transplantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  14. Mansouri N, SamiraBagheri
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Apr 1;61:906-21.
    PMID: 26838922 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.12.094
    The actual in vivo tissue scaffold offers a three-dimensional (3D) structural support along with a nano-textured surfaces consist of a fibrous network in order to deliver cell adhesion and signaling. A scaffold is required, until the tissue is entirely regenerated or restored, to act as a temporary ingrowth template for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This review depicts some of the most significant three dimensional structure materials used as scaffolds in various tissue engineering application fields currently being employed to mimic in vivo features. Accordingly, some of the researchers' attempts have envisioned utilizing graphene for the fabrication of porous and flexible 3D scaffolds. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate the topographical and topological optimization of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in order to improve scaffolds' mechanical performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  15. Selvakumar M, Srivastava P, Pawar HS, Francis NK, Das B, Sathishkumar G, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Feb 17;8(6):4086-100.
    PMID: 26799576 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b11723
    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are futile in many clinical applications due to infection problems. In this work, we fabricated GBR with an anti-infective scaffold by ornamenting 2D single crystalline bismuth-doped nanohydroxyapatite (Bi-nHA) rods onto segmented polyurethane (SPU). Bi-nHA with high aspect ratio was prepared without any templates. Subsequently, it was introduced into an unprecedented synthesized SPU matrix based on dual soft segments (PCL-b-PDMS) of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, undoped pristine nHA rods were also ornamented into it. The enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segments of PCL-b-PDMS copolymers of SPU. Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is done by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Bi-nHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (155%) in the mechanical properties with excellent antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Various histological sections reveal the signatures of early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks of the critical defects filled with ornamented scaffold compared to SPU scaffold. This implies osteogenic potential and ability to provide an adequate biomimetic microenvironment for mineralization for GBR of the scaffolds. Organ toxicity studies further confirm that no tissue architecture abnormalities were observed in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissue sections. This finding manifests the feasibility of fabricating a mechanically adequate nanofibrous SPU scaffold by a biomimetic strategy and the advantages of Bi-nHA ornamentation in promoting osteoblast phenotype progression with microbial protection (on-demand) for GBR applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  16. Hazwani A, Sha'Ban M, Azhim A
    Organogenesis, 2019;15(4):120-136.
    PMID: 31495272 DOI: 10.1080/15476278.2019.1656997
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) based bioscaffolds prepared by decellularization has increasingly emerged in tissue engineering application because it has structural, biochemical, and biomechanical cues that have dramatic effects upon cell behaviors. Therefore, we developed a closed sonication decellularization system to prepare ideal bioscaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. The decellularization was achieved at 170 kHz of ultrasound frequency in 0.1% and 2% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) solution for 10 hours. The immersion treatment as control was performed to compare the decellularization efficiency with our system. Cell removal and ECM structure were determined by histological staining and biochemical assay. Biomechanical properties were investigated by the indentation testing to test the stiffness, a residual force and compression of bioscaffolds. Additionally, in vivo implantation was performed in rat to investigate host tissue response. Compared to native tissues, histological staining and biochemical assay confirm the absence of cellularity with preservation of ECM structure. Moreover, sonication treatment has not affected the stiffness [N/mm] and a residual force [N] of the aortic scaffolds except for compression [%] which 2% SDS significantly decreased compared to native tissues showing higher SDS has a detrimental effect on ECM structure. Finally, minimal inflammatory response was observed after 1 and 5 weeks of implantation. This study reported that the novelty of our developed closed sonication system to prepare ideal bioscaffolds for tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  17. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Pandey M, Kesharwani P, Abeer MM, Tekade RK, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Aug;104:496-508.
    PMID: 29800914 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.066
    Myocardial infarction (cardiac tissue death) is among the most prevalent causes of death among the cardiac patients due to the inability of self-repair in cardiac tissues. Myocardial tissue engineering is regarded as one of the most realistic strategies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue. However, hindrance in transduction of electric signals across the cardiomyocytes due to insulating properties of polymeric materials worsens the clinical viability of myocardial tissue engineering. Aligned and conductive scaffolds based on Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have gained remarkable recognition due to their exceptional attributes which provide synthetic but viable microenvironment for regeneration of engineered cardiomyocytes. This review presents an overview and critical analysis of pharmaceutical implications and therapeutic feasibility of CNT based scaffolds in improving the cardiac tissue regeneration and functionality. The expository analysis of the available evidence revealed that inclusion of single- or multi-walled CNT into fibrous, polymeric, and elastomeric scaffolds results in significant improvement in electrical stimulation and signal transduction through cardiomyocytes. Moreover, incorporation of CNT in engineering scaffolds showed a greater potential of augmenting cardiomyocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation and has improved synchronous beating of cardiomyocytes. Despite promising ability of CNT in promoting functionality of cardiomyocytes, their presence in scaffolds resulted in substantial improvement in mechanical properties and structural integrity. Conclusively, this review provides new insight into the remarkable potential of CNT aligned scaffolds in improving the functionality of engineered cardiac tissue and signifies their feasibility in cardiac tissue regenerative medicines and stem cell therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  18. Gnaneshwar PV, Sudakaran SV, Abisegapriyan S, Sherine J, Ramakrishna S, Rahim MHA, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar;96:337-346.
    PMID: 30606541 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.033
    Far-flung evolution in tissue engineering enabled the development of bioactive and biodegradable materials to generate biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for bone repair and replacement therapies. Polymeric bioactive nanofibers are to biomimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), delivering tremendous regenerative potentials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. It's been known from few decades that Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are enhancing bone growth and providing proliferation of osteoblasts when incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HAp). We attempted to investigate the interaction between the human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) with ZnO doped HAp incorporated biocomposite poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin (PLACL/SF) nanofibrous scaffolds for osteoblasts mineralization in bone tissue regeneration. The present study, we doped ZnO with HAp (ZnO(HAp) using the sol-gel ethanol condensation technique. The properties of PLACL/SF/ZnO(HAp) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds enhanced with doped and blended ZnO/HAp were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Contact angle and Tensile studies to determine the morphology, functionality, wettability and stability. The in vitro study results showed that the addition of ZnO and HAp enhances the secretion of bone mineral matrix (98%) with smaller fiber diameter (139.4 ± 27 nm) due to the presence of silk fibroin showing potential tensile properties (322.4%), and increased the proliferation of osteoblasts for bone tissue regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  19. Fauzi MB, Lokanathan Y, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BHI, Chowdhury SR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:163-171.
    PMID: 27524008 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.05.109
    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
  20. Choudhary R, Vecstaudza J, Krishnamurithy G, Raghavendran HRB, Murali MR, Kamarul T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:89-100.
    PMID: 27524000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.04.110
    Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry*
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