Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Goh MS, Lam SD, Yang Y, Naqiuddin M, Addis SNK, Yong WTL, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 10 15;420:126624.
    PMID: 34329083 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126624
    In agriculture, the convenience and efficacy of chemical pesticides have become inevitable to manage cultivated crop production. Here, we review the worldwide use of pesticides based on their categories, mode of actions and toxicity. Excessive use of pesticides may lead to hazardous pesticide residues in crops, causing adverse effects on human health and the environment. A wide range of high-tech-analytical methods are available to analyse pesticide residues. However, they are mostly time-consuming and inconvenient for on-site detection, calling for the development of biosensors that detect cellular changes in crops. Such new detection methods that combine biological and physicochemical knowledge may overcome the shortage in current farming to develop sustainable systems that support environmental and human health. This review also comprehensively compiles domestic pesticide residues removal tips from vegetables and fruits. Synthetic pesticide alternatives such as biopesticide and nanopesticide are greener to the environment. However, its safety assessment for large-scale application needs careful evaluation. Lastly, we strongly call for reversions of pesticide application trends based on the changing climate, which is lacking in the current scenario.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry
  2. Ng ZX, Chai JW, Kuppusamy UR
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2011 Mar;62(2):158-63.
    PMID: 21250903 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2010.526931
    The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  3. Farina Y, Abdullah MP, Bibi N, Khalik WM
    Food Chem, 2017 Jun 01;224:55-61.
    PMID: 28159293 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.113
    A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2(4-1) design and CCD matrices. The method evaluation was done by external standard calibration with linearity range between 0.5 and 3mg/kg, with correlation coefficient 0.99, limit of detection (LOD) ranges between 0.02 and 4.5ng/g, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges between 0.2 and 45ng/g. The average recovery was between 60% and 128%, with RSD 0.2-19.8%. The method was applied on real vegetable samples from Cameron Highlands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  4. Iqbal SZ, Ullah Z, Asi MR, Jinap S, Ahmad MN, Sultan MT, et al.
    J Food Prot, 2018 May;81(5):806-809.
    PMID: 29637809 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-256
    Two hundred ten samples of selected vegetables (okra, pumpkin, tomato, potato, eggplant, spinach, and cabbage) from Faisalabad, Pakistan, were analyzed for the analysis of heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used for the analysis of heavy metals. The mean levels of Cd, Pb, As, and Hg were 0.24, 2.23, 0.58, and 7.98 mg/kg, respectively. The samples with Cd (27%), Pb (50%), and Hg (63%) exceeded the maximum residual levels set by the European Commission. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the current study are high and may pose significant health concerns for consumers. Furthermore, considerable attention should be paid to implement comprehensive monitoring and regulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  5. Abdulra'uf LB, Chai MK, Tan GH
    J AOAC Int, 2012 11 28;95(5):1272-90.
    PMID: 23175958
    This paper reviews the application of various modes of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. SPME is a simple extraction technique that eliminates the use of solvent, and it is applied for the analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile pesticides. SPME has been successfully coupled to both GC and LC. The coupling with GC has been straightforward and requires little modification of existing equipment, but interfacing with LC has proved challenging. The external standard calibration technique is widely used for quantification, while standard addition and internal or surrogate standards are mainly used to account for matrix effects. All parameters that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, and therefore need to be optimized, are also reviewed. Details of the characteristics of analytical procedures and new trends in fiber production using sol-gel technology and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  6. Ismail BS, Cheah UB, Enoma AO, Lum KY, Malik Z
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2002 Sep;69(3):444-51.
    PMID: 12177768
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  7. Hossain MA, Hoque MZ
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2011 Jan;49(1):244-7.
    PMID: 21056073 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.10.023
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur as contaminants in different types of food predominantly from environmental pollution, food packaging and food processing and the levels found depend on the source of the contamination. PAHs emissions from automobile traffic and industry activities were shown to influence the PAHs levels and profiles in vegetables and fruits grown nearby. The present study was carried out to determine the levels of PAHs in samples of tomato, cabbage and apple, collected from six different places of urban and rural areas of plantation in Dhaka city. Eight PAHs listed in the priority pollutant of US Environment Protection Agency and regarded as carcinogens were analyzed in this study. The analytical method involved saponification with methanolic KOH, liquid-liquid extraction with cyclohexane, clean-up on silica gel column and determination by Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The mean levels of total PAHs were 9.50 μg/kg in tomato, 8.86 μg/kg in cabbage and 4.05 μg/kg in apple. Of the carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)anthracene was the most representative, being found in 89% of all samples analysed. Chrysene was not detected in any sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  8. Abdulrauf LB, Tan GH
    J AOAC Int, 2016 Nov 01;99(6):1415-1425.
    PMID: 28206878 DOI: 10.5740/jaoacint.16-0275
    This review presents the application of carbon nanotubes as sorbent materials in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. The advantages, limitations, and challenges of carbon nanotubes, with respect to their use in analytical chemistry, are presented. The efficiency of their application as extraction sorbent materials (in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, relative recovery, and RSD) in SPE, solid-phase microextraction, multi-plug filtration clean-up, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method is reported. The synthesis, functionalization, purification, and characterization methods of carbon nanotubes are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  9. Kumar S, Prasad S, Yadav KK, Shrivastava M, Gupta N, Nagar S, et al.
    Environ Res, 2019 12;179(Pt A):108792.
    PMID: 31610391 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108792
    This review emphasizes the role of toxic metal remediation approaches due to their broad sustainability and applicability. The rapid developmental processes can incorporate a large quantity of hazardous and unseen heavy metals in all the segments of the environment, including soil, water, air and plants. The released hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) entered into the food chain and biomagnified into living beings via food and vegetable consumption and originate potentially health-threatening effects. The physical and chemical remediation approaches are restricted and localized and, mainly applied to wastewater and soils and not the plant. The nanotechnological, biotechnological and genetical approaches required to more rectification and sustainability. A cellular, molecular and nano-level understanding of the pathways and reactions are responsible for potentially toxic metals (TMs) accumulation. These approaches can enable the development of crop varieties with highly reduced concentrations of TMs in their consumable foods and vegetables. As a critical analysis by authors observed that nanoparticles could provide very high adaptability for both in-situ and ex-situ remediation of hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) in the environment. These methods could be used for the improvement of the inbuilt genetic potential and phytoremediation ability of plants by developing transgenic. These biological processes involve the transfer of gene of interest, which plays a role in hazardous metal uptake, transport, stabilization, inactivation and accumulation to increased host tolerance. This review identified that use of nanoremediation and combined biotechnological and, transgenic could help to enhance phytoremediation efficiency in a sustainable way.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  10. Abdulra'uf LB, Tan GH
    Food Chem, 2015 Jun 15;177:267-73.
    PMID: 25660885 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.031
    An HS-SPME method was developed using multivariate experimental designs, which was conducted in two stages. The significance of each factor was estimated using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) design, for the identification of significant factors, followed by the optimization of the significant factors using central composite design (CCD). The multivariate experiment involved the use of Minitab® statistical software for the generation of a 2(7-4) P-B design and CCD matrices. The method performance evaluated with internal standard calibration method produced good analytical figures of merit with linearity ranging from 1 to 500 μg/kg with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99, LOD and LOQ were found between 0.35 and 8.33 μg/kg and 1.15 and 27.76 μg/kg respectively. The average recovery was between 73% and 118% with relative standard deviation (RSD=1.5-14%) for all the investigated pesticides. The multivariate method helps to reduce optimization time and improve analytical throughput.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  11. Chowdhury MA, Jahan I, Karim N, Alam MK, Abdur Rahman M, Moniruzzaman M, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:145159.
    PMID: 24711991 DOI: 10.1155/2014/145159
    In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (n = 16), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb) and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl) were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40-48%, 35-43%, and 30-45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85-90%, 80-91%, and 90-95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80-95% of some pesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  12. Ahmad Aufa Z, Hassan FA, Ismail A, Mohd Yusof BN, Hamid M
    J Agric Food Chem, 2014 Mar 5;62(9):2077-84.
    PMID: 24499380 DOI: 10.1021/jf403481p
    Underutilized vegetables are currently studied not only for their nutrient values but also for their health-promoting components for protection against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts, namely, lalis (Plectocomiopsis geminiflora) and pantu (Eugeissona insignis). Additionally, the vegetable extracts were evaluated for their activities in the inhibition of digestive enzymes and effects on insulin secretion using BRIN BD11 pancreatic cell lines. Both vegetables contain valuable sources of dietary fiber, potassium, and zinc. For the first time, the phenolic compounds of the vegetables were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Appreciable amounts of chlorogenic acid were found in the studied vegetables. The sample extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacities through chemical and biological in vitro assays. High inhibition of α-amylase activity (>50%) was found from the extracts. Thus, it was suggested the vegetable consumption could fulfill the nutrient requirements among local communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  13. Sulaiman SF, Ooi KL, Supriatno
    J Agric Food Chem, 2013 Oct 23;61(42):10080-90.
    PMID: 24059845 DOI: 10.1021/jf4031037
    Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria , isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  14. Sharif Z, Man YB, Hamid NS, Keat CC
    J Chromatogr A, 2006 Sep 15;1127(1-2):254-61.
    PMID: 16857206
    A method to determine six organochlorine and three pyrethroid pesticides in grape, orange, tomato, carrot and green mustard based on solvent extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up is described. The pesticides were spiked into the sample prior to analysis, extracted with ethyl acetate, evaporated and reconstituted with a solvent mixture of acetone:n-hexane (3:7). Three different sorbents (Strong Anion Exchanger/Primary Secondary Amine (SAX/PSA), Florisil and C18) were used for the clean-up step. Pesticides were eluted with 5mL of acetone:n-hexane (3:7, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). SAX/PSA was the sorbent, which provided chromatograms with less interference and the mean recoveries obtained were within 70-120% except for captafol. The captafol recoveries for grape were within acceptable range with C18 clean-up column.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  15. Jaafaru MS, Abd Karim NA, Enas ME, Rollin P, Mazzon E, Abdull Razis AF
    Nutrients, 2018 May 08;10(5).
    PMID: 29738500 DOI: 10.3390/nu10050580
    Crucifer vegetables, Brassicaceae and other species of the order Brassicales, e.g., Moringaceae that are commonly consumed as spice and food, have been reported to have potential benefits for the treatment and prevention of several health disorders. Though epidemiologically inconclusive, investigations have shown that consumption of those vegetables may result in reducing and preventing the risks associated with neurodegenerative disease development and may also exert other biological protections in humans. The neuroprotective effects of these vegetables have been ascribed to their secondary metabolites, glucosinolates (GLs), and their related hydrolytic products, isothiocyanates (ITCs) that are largely investigated for their various medicinal effects. Extensive pre-clinical studies have revealed more than a few molecular mechanisms of action elucidating multiple biological effects of GLs hydrolytic products. This review summarizes the most significant and up-to-date in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective actions of sulforaphane (SFN), moringin (MG), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), 6-(methylsulfinyl) hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and erucin (ER) in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry
  16. Gupta N, Yadav KK, Kumar V, Krishnan S, Kumar S, Nejad ZD, et al.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2021 Feb;82:103563.
    PMID: 33310081 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2020.103563
    This study determined the heavy metals (HMs) accumulation in different vegetables in different seasons and attributed a serious health hazard to human adults due to the consumption of such vegetables in Jhansi. The total amounts of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and cadmium (Cd) were analysed in 28 composite samples of soil and vegetables (Fenugreek, spinach, eggplant, and chilli) collected from seven agricultural fields. The transfer factor (TF) of HMs from soil to analysed vegetables was calculated, and significant non-carcinogenic health risks due to exposure to analysed heavy metals via consumption of these vegetables were computed. The statistical analysis involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation matrix suggested that anthropogenic activities were a major source of HMs in the study areas. The target hazard quotient of Cd, Mn, and Pb for fenugreek (2.156, 2.143, and 2.228, respectively) and spinach (3.697, 3.509, 5.539, respectively) exceeded the unity, indicating the high possibilities of non-carcinogenic health risks if regularly consumed by human beings. This study strongly suggests the continuous monitoring of soil, irrigation water, and vegetables to prohibit excessive accumulation in the food chain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  17. Phan CW, David P, Sabaratnam V
    J Med Food, 2017 Jan;20(1):1-10.
    PMID: 28098514 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3740
    There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Mushrooms and their extracts appear to hold many health benefits, including immune-modulating effects. A number of edible mushrooms have been shown to contain rare and exotic compounds that exhibit positive effects on brain cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the scientific information on edible and culinary mushrooms with regard to their antidementia/AD active compounds and/or pharmacological test results. The bioactive components in these mushrooms and the underlying mechanism of their activities are discussed. In short, these mushrooms may be regarded as functional foods for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry
  18. Lawal A, Wong RCS, Tan GH, Abdulra'uf LB, Alsharif AMA
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2018 Aug 01;56(7):656-669.
    PMID: 29688338 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bmy032
    Fruits and vegetables constitute a major type of food consumed daily apart from whole grains. Unfortunately, the residual deposits of pesticides in these products are becoming a major health concern for human consumption. Consequently, the outcome of the long-term accumulation of pesticide residues has posed many health issues to both humans and animals in the environment. However, the residues have previously been determined using conventionally known techniques, which include liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the recently used liquid-phase microextraction techniques. Despite the positive technological effects of these methods, their limitations include; time-consuming, operational difficulty, use of toxic organic solvents, low selective property and expensive extraction setups, with shorter lifespan of instrumental performances. Thus, the potential and maximum use of these methods for pesticides residue determination has resulted in the urgent need for better techniques that will overcome the highlighted drawbacks. Alternatively, attention has been drawn recently towards the use of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe technique (QuEChERS) coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) to overcome the setback challenges experienced by the previous technologies. Conclusively, the reviewed QuEChERS-dSPE techniques and the recent cleanup modifications justifiably prove to be reliable for routine determination and monitoring the concentration levels of pesticide residues using advanced instruments such as high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  19. Khoo HE, Prasad KN, Kong KW, Jiang Y, Ismail A
    Molecules, 2011 Feb 18;16(2):1710-38.
    PMID: 21336241 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16021710
    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry*
  20. Farina Y, Munawar N, Abdullah MP, Yaqoob M, Nabi A
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Jun 09;190(7):386.
    PMID: 29884954 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6762-8
    Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) residues in the leafy vegetables were analyzed together with the soil samples using gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Edible tissues of vegetables showed detectable residues of these compounds indicating the influence of the conventional farms and nearby organic farms. In the vegetables, the OCPs concentrations were recorded as nd-133.3 ng/g, OPPs as nd-200 ng/g, and PYRs as nd-33.3 ng/g. In the soil, the OCPs concentrations were recorded as nd-30.6 ng/g, OPPs as nd-26.6 ng/g, and for PYRs as nd-6.7 ng/g. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) was higher for the OPPs (0.3) than the OCPs and PYRs (1.1). The OCPs concentration in the vegetables decreased in the following order: spinach > celery > broccoli > cauliflower > cabbage > lettuce > mustard. For OPPs, the concentration decreased in the following order: cauliflower > spinach > celery > cabbage > broccoli > lettuce > mustard and for PYRs as spinach > celery > lettuce > cabbage > broccoli. Principal component analysis indicates that the sources of these pesticides are not the same, and the pesticide application on the vegetables depends on the type of crop. There is a significant positive correlation between OPPs and the soil (r = 0.65) as compared to OCPs and PYRs (r = 0.1) as the vegetables accumulated OPPs more efficiently than OCPs and PYRs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/chemistry
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