The presence of metal with microwave irradiation has always invited controversial arguments as the metal will catch on fire easily. But interestingly, researchers found that arc discharge phenomena provide a promising way for molecule cracking to synthesize nanomaterials. This study developed a single-step yet affordable synthesis approach that combines microwave heating and arcing in transforming crude palm oil into magnetic nanocarbon (MNC), which can be considered a new alternative for the palm oil sectors. It involves synthesizing the medium at a partial inert condition with constant coiled stainless steel metal wire (dielectric media) and ferrocene (catalyst). This approach successfully demonstrates heating at a temperature ranging from 190.9 to 472.0 °C with different synthesis times (10-20 min). The produced MNC shows formations of spheres with average sizes of 20.38-31.04 nm, mesoporous structure (SBET: 14.83-151.95 m2/g), and high content of fixed carbon (52.79-71.24wt%), and the ratio of the D and G bands (ID/IG) is 0.98-0.99. The formation of new peaks in the FTIR spectra (522.29-588.48 cm-1) supports the appearance of the FeO compounds from the ferrocene. The magnetometer shows high magnetization saturation (22.32-26.84 emu/g) in ferromagnetic materials. The application of the MNC in wastewater treatment has been demonstrated by evaluating their adsorbent capability with Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption test at a different concentrations varying between 5 and 20 ppm. The MNC produced at synthesis time (20 min) shows the highest adsorption efficiency (10.36 mg/g) compared to others, with 87.79% removal of MB dye. As a result, the value for Langmuir is not promising compared to Freundlich, with R2 being around 0.80, 0.98, and 0.99 for MNC synthesized at 10 min (MNC10), 15 min (MNC15), and 20 min (MNC20), respectively. Hence, the adsorption system is in a heterogeneous condition. The microwave-assisted arcing thereby presents a promising approach to transforming CPO into MNC that could remove the hazardous dye.
Malaysia is one of the highest starch producers. In this study, sago starch was utilized as a natural coagulant aid to reduce the dosage of aluminum-based coagulant in leachate treatment. The potential of native sago trunk starch (NSTS) and commercial sago starch (CSS) was evaluated as sole coagulant and coagulant aid in the presence of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) in the removal of color, suspended solids (SS), NH3-N, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, organic UV254, Cd, and Ni. Leachate was sampled from Pulau Burung Landfill Site, one of the semi-aerobic landfills in Malaysia. The optimum dosage for PACl in the presence of NSTS or CSS as coagulant aid was reduced from 3100 to 2000 mg/L. In the presence of 2000 mg/L PACl with 6000 mg/L NSTS and 2000 mg/L PACl with 5000 mg/L CSS, the removal performance for color, SS, and turbidity are 94.7, 99.2, and 98.9%, respectively. Similar results were obtained with the use of 3100 mg/L PACl alone. Therefore, CSS and NSTS can be used as coagulant aid.
This work discusses the preparation and characterizations of glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using zeolite-5A as a starting material. Zeolite was formed into a hollow fiber configuration using the phase inversion technique. It was later sintered at high temperatures to burn off organic materials and change the zeolite into glass membrane. A preliminary study, that used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), confirmed that zeolite used in this study changed to glass at temperatures above 1000 °C. The glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using the phase inversion technique has three different microstructures, namely (i) sandwich-like structure that originates from inner layer, (ii) sandwich-like that originates from outer layer, and (iii) symmetric sponge like. These variations were influenced by zeolite weight loading and the flow rate of water used to form the lumen. The separation performances of the glass hollow fiber membrane were studied using the pure water permeability and the rejection test of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The glass hollow fiber membrane prepared from using 48 wt% zeolite loading and bore fluid with 9 mL min(-1) flow rate has the highest BSA rejection of 85% with the water permeability of 0.7 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). The results showed that the separation performance of glass hollow fiber membranes was in the ultrafiltration range, enabled the retention of solutes with molecular sizes larger than 67 kDa such as milk proteins, endotoxin pyrogen, virus, and colloidal silica.
Wide spread documentation of antibiotic pollution is becoming a threat to aquatic environment. Erythromycin (ERY), a macrolide belonging antibiotic is at the top of this list with its concentrations ranging between ng/L to a few μg/L in various global waterbodies giving rise to ERY-resistance genes (ERY-RGs) and ERY- resistance bacteria (ERY-RBs) posing serious threat to the aquatic organisms. ERY seems resistant to various conventional water treatments, remained intact and even increased in terms of mass loads after treatment. Enhanced oxidation potential, wide pH range, elevated selectivity, adaptability and greater efficiency makes advance oxidation processes (AOPs) top priority for degrading pollutants with aromatic rings and unsaturated bonds like ERY. In this manuscript, recent developments in AOPs for ERY degradation are reported along with the factors that affect the degradation mechanism. ERY, marked as a risk prioritized macrolide antibiotic by 2015 released European Union watch list, most probably due to its protein inhibition capability considered third most widely used antibiotic. The current review provides a complete ERY overview including the environmental entry sources, concentration in global waters, ERY status in STPs, as well as factors affecting their functionality. Along with that this study presents complete outlook regarding ERY-RGs and provides an in depth detail regarding ERY's potential threats to aquatic biota. This study helps in figuring out the best possible strategy to tackle antibiotic pollution keeping ERY as a model antibiotic because of extreme toxicity records.
This study tested the technical feasibility of pyrite and/or persulfate oxidation system for arsenic (As) removal from aqueous solutions. The effects of persulfate on As removal by the pyrite in the integrated treatment were also investigated. Prior to the persulfate addition into the reaction system, the physico-chemical interactions between As and the pyrite alone in aqueous solutions were explored in batch studies. The adsorption mechanisms of As by the adsorbent were also presented. At the same As concentration of 5 mg/L, it was found that As(III) attained a longer equilibrium time (8 h) than As(V) (2 h), while the pyrite worked effectively at pH ranging from 6 to 11. At optimum conditions (0.25 g/L of pyrite, pH 8.0 and 5 mg/L of As(III) concentration), the addition of persulfate (0.5 mM) into the reaction promoted a complete removal of arsenic from the solutions. Consequently, this enabled the treated effluents to meet the arsenic maximum contaminant limit (MCL) of <10 μg/L according to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s requirements. The redox mechanisms, which involved electron transfer from the S22- of the pyrite to Fe3+, supply Fe2+ for persulfate decomposition, oxidizing As(III) to As(V). The sulfur species played roles in the redox cycle of the Fe3+/Fe2+ of the pyrite by giving its electrons, while the As(III) oxidation to As(V) was attributed to the pyrite. Overall, this work reveals the applicability of the pyrite as an adsorbent for water treatment and the importance of persulfate addition to promote a complete As removal from aqueous solutions.
This study investigated the feasibility of integrated ammonium stripping and/or coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in treating leachate samples. To valorize unused biomass for water treatment application, the adsorbent originated from coconut shell waste. To enhance its performance for target pollutants, the adsorbent was pretreated with ozone and NaOH. The effects of pH, temperature, and airflow rate on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants were studied during stripping alone. The removal performances of refractory compounds in this study were compared to those of other treatments previously reported. To contribute new knowledge to the field of study, perspectives on nutrients removal and recovery like phosphorus and nitrogen are presented. It was found that the ammonium stripping and adsorption treatment using the ozonated CSWAC attained an almost complete removal (99%) of NH3-N and 90% of COD with initial NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2500 mg/L and 20,000 mg/L, respectively, at optimized conditions. With the COD of treated effluents higher than 200 mg/L, the combined treatments were not satisfactory enough to remove target refractory compounds. Therefore, further biological processes are required to complete their biodegradation to meet the effluent limit set by environmental legislation. As this work has contributed to resource recovery as the driving force of landfill management, it is important to note the investment and operational expenses, engineering applicability of the technologies, and their environmental concerns and benefits. If properly managed, nutrient recovery from waste streams offers environmental and socio-economic benefits that would improve public health and create jobs for the local community.
The water reservoirs are getting polluted due to increasing amounts of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, organic polymers and suspended solids. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been proved to be a promising solution for the purification of water without having harmful impacts on the environment. Parameters such as PAC dosing, wastewater hardness, the effect of coagulant and flocculant were evaluated in a batch scale study. These parameters were further applied on a pilot plant scale for the performance evaluation of PAC based removal of micropollutants concerning the contact time and PAC dosing with main focus on recirculation of PAC sludge. The obtained optimum dose was 10-20 mg/L providing 84.40-91.30% removal efficiency of suspended solid micropollutants (MPs) and this efficiency increased to 88.90-93.00% along with coagulant which further raised by the addition of polymer and recirculation process at batch scale. On pilot plant scale, the concentration in contact reactor and PAC removal effectiveness of dissolved air flotation, lamella separator and sedimentation tank were compared. Constant optimisation resulted in a concentration ranging from 2.70 to 3.40 g/L at dosing of PAC 10 mg/L, coagulant 2.00 mg/L and polymer 0.50 mg/L. PAC doses of 10-20 mg/L with 15-30 min contact time proved best for above 70-80% elimination. The recirculation system has also proved an efficient technique because the PAC's adsorption capacity was practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yielded high micropollutants elimination.
The sustainability performance of the desalination processes has received increasing attention in recent years. In this study, the current progress and future perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of desalination technology in 62 previous studies have been reviewed for the period 2004-2019. It was found that the number of LCA studies related to seawater reverse osmosis has gained popularity compared to other types of desalination technologies. The review emphasized the application of LCA to desalination by means of research objective, scope of study, life stages, and impact assessment. Although previous LCA studies were conducted to assess the environmental performance of the desalination technology, little attention was given to evaluating the impact of other sustainability aspects (i.e., economic and social). The latter part of this study discusses the challenges, feasibility, and recommendations for future LCA studies on desalination technology. The integration of the LCA approach with other approaches allows a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability performance of desalination technology. Thus, the combined approaches should be explored in future studies to gain insight into the sensitivity and uncertainty of the data to make an assessment that can be useful in policy-making.
Water treatment plants generate vast amounts of sludge and its disposal is one of the most expensive and environmentally problematic challenges worldwide. As sludge from water treatment plants contains a considerable amount of titanium, both can create serious environmental concerns. In this study, the potential to recover titanium from drinking water treatment residue was explored through acid leaching technique. Statistical design for the optimization of titanium recovery was proposed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a five-level central composite design (CCD). Three independent variables were investigated, namely the acid concentration (3 M-7 M), temperature (40 °C - 80 °C) and solid/liquid ratio (0.005-0.02 g/mL). According to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the p-value (<0.0001) indicated the designed model was highly significant. Optimization using RSM gave the best fit between validated and predicted data as elucidated by the coefficient of determination with R2 values of 0.9965. However, acid concentration and solid/liquid ratio showed an initial increase in titanium recovery followed by recovery reduction with increasing concentration and ratio. Quadratic RSM predicted the maximum recovery of titanium to be 67.73% at optimal conditions of 5.5 M acid concentration, at a temperature of 62 °C with a solid/liquid ratio of 0.01 g/mL. The verification experiments gave an average of 66.23% recovery of titanium, thus indicating that the successfully developed model to predict the response. This process development has significant importance to reduce the cost of waste disposal, environmental protection, and recovery of economically valuable products.
The water sources contaminated by toxic dyes would pose a serious problem for public health. In view of this, the development of a simple yet effective method for removing dyes from industrial effluent has attracted interest from researchers. In the present work, flat sheet mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with different physiochemical properties were fabricated by blending P84 polyimide with different concentrations of cadmium-based metal organic frameworks (MOF-2(Cd)). The resultant membranes were then used for simultaneous removal of eosin y (EY), sunset yellow (SY) and methylene blue (MB) under various process conditions. The findings indicated that the membranes could achieve high water permeability (117.8-171.4 L/m2.h.bar) and promising rejection for simultaneous dyes removal, recording value of 99.9%, 81.2% and 68.4% for MB, EY and SY, respectively. When 0.2 wt% MOF-2(Cd) was incorporated into the membrane matrix, the membrane separation efficiency was improved by 110.2% and 213.3% for EY and SY removal, respectively when compared with the pristine membrane. In addition, the optimization and modeling of membrane permeate flux and dye rejection was explored using response surface methodology. The actual and model results are in good agreement with R2 of at least 0.9983 for dye rejection and permeate flux. The high flux of the developed MMMs coupled with effective separation of dyes suggests a promising prospect of using P84 polyimide MMMs incorporated with MOF-2(Cd) for water purification.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.
Macrophytes have been widely used as agents in wastewater treatment. The involvement of plants in wastewater treatment cannot be separated from wetland utilization. As one of the green technologies in wastewater treatment plants, wetland exhibits a great performance, especially in removing nutrients from wastewater before the final discharge. It involves the use of plants and consequently produces plant biomasses as treatment byproducts. The produced plant biomasses can be utilized or converted into several valuable compounds, but related information is still limited and scattered. This review summarizes wastewater's nutrient content (macro and micronutrient) that can support plant growth and the performance of constructed wetland (CW) in performing nutrient uptake by using macrophytes as treatment agents. This paper further discusses the potential of the utilization of the produced plant biomasses as bioenergy production materials, including bioethanol, biohydrogen, biogas, and biodiesel. This paper also highlights the conversion of plant biomasses into animal feed, biochar, adsorbent, and fertilizer, which may support clean production and circular economy efforts. The presented review aims to emphasize and explore the utilization of plant biomasses and their conversion into valuable products, which may solve problems related to plant biomass handling during the adoption of CW in wastewater treatment plants.
Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. The membrane development using biomaterials and nanomaterials provides a remarkable opportunity in the water application. This review focuses on the membrane characteristics of biomaterials and nanomaterials based nanofiltration. In this review, recent researches based on biomaterials and nanomaterials loaded membrane for salt rejection have been analyzed. Membrane fouling depends on the membrane characteristics and this review defined fouling as a ubiquitous bottleneck challenge that hampers the NF blooming applications. Fouling mitigation strategies via membrane modification using biomaterial (chitosan, curcumin and vanillin) and various other nanomaterials are critically reviewed. This review also highlights the membrane cleaning and focuses on concentrates disposal methods with zero liquid discharge system for resource recovery. Finally, the conclusion and future prospects of membrane technology are discussed. From this current review, it is apparent that the biomaterial and various other nanomaterials acquire exclusive properties that facilitate membrane advancement with improved capability for water treatment. Regardless of membrane material developments, still exist considerable difficulties in membrane commercialization. Thus, additional studies related to this field are needed to produce membranes with better performance for large‒scale applications.
Mariculture wastewater has drawn growing attention due to associated threats for coastal environment. However, most biological techniques exhibit unfavorable performance due to saline inhibition. Furthermore, only NaCl was used in most studies causing clumsy evaluation, undermining the potential of microalgal mariculture wastewater treatment. Herein, various concentrations of NaCl and sea salt are comprehensively examined and compared for their efficiencies of mariculture wastewater treatment and biodiesel conversion. The results indicate sea salt is a better trigger for treating wastewater (nearly 100% total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal) and producing high-quality biodiesel (330 mg/L•d). Structure equation model (SEM) further demonstrates the correlation of wastewater treatment performance and microalgal status is gradually weakened with increment of sea salt concentrations. Furthermore, metabolic analysis reveals enhanced photosynthesis might be the pivotal motivator for preferable outcomes under sea salt stimulation. This study provides new insights into microalgae-based approach integrating mariculture wastewater treatment and biodiesel production.
Water is a supreme requirement for the existence of life, the contamination from the point and non-point sources are creating a great threat to the water ecosystem. Advance tools and techniques are required to restore the water quality and metal-organic framework (MOFs) with a tunable porous structure, striking physical and chemical properties are an excellent candidate for it. Fe-based MOFs, which developed rapidly in recent years, are foreseen as most promising to overcome the disadvantages of traditional water depolluting practices. Fe-MOFs with low toxicity and preferable stability possess excellent performance potential for almost all water remedying techniques in contrast to other MOF structures, especially visible light photocatalysis, Fenton, and Fenton-like heterogeneous catalysis. Fe-MOFs become essential tool for water treatment due to their high catalytic activity, abundant active site and pollutant-specific adsorption. However, the structural degradation under external chemical, photolytic, mechanical, and thermal stimuli is impeding Fe-MOFs from further improvement in activity and their commercialization. Understanding the shortcomings of structural integrity is crucial for large-scale synthesis and commercial implementation of Fe-MOFs-based water treatment techniques. Herein we summarize the synthesis, structure and recent advancements in water remediation methods using Fe-MOFs in particular more attention is paid for adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis with clear insight into the mechanisms involved. For ease of analysis, the pollutants have been classified into two major classes; inorganic pollutants and organic pollutants. In this review, we present for the first time a detailed insight into the challenges in employing Fe-MOFs for water remediation due to structural instability.
Global production of shellfish aquaculture is steadily increasing owing to the growing market demands for shellfish. The intensification of shellfish aquaculture to maximize production rate has led to increased generation of aquaculture waste streams, particularly the effluents and shellfish wastes. If not effectively managed, these wastes could pose serious threats to human health and the ecosystem while compromising the overall sustainability of the industry. The present work comprehensively reviews the source, composition, and environmental implications of shellfish wastes and aquaculture wastewater. Moreover, recent advancements in the valorization of shellfish wastes into value-added biochar via emerging thermochemical and modification techniques are scrutinized. The utilization of the produced biochar in removing emerging pollutants from aquaculture wastewater is also discussed. It was revealed that shellfish waste-derived biochar exhibits relatively higher adsorption capacities (300-1500 mg/g) compared to lignocellulose biochar (<200 mg/g). The shellfish waste-derived biochar can be effectively employed for the removal of various contaminants such as antibiotics, heavy metals, and excessive nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. Finally, future research priorities and challenges faced to improve the sustainability of the shellfish aquaculture industry to effectively support global food security are elaborated. This review envisages that future studies should focus on the biorefinery concept to extract more useful compounds (e.g., carotenoid, chitin) from shellfish wastes for promoting environmental-friendly aquaculture.
The evaluation of complex organic and inorganic coagulant's performances and their relationships could compromise the surface water treatment process time and its efficiency. In this work, process optimization was investigated by comparing an eco-friendly chitosan with the industrially used coagulants namely aluminum sulfate (alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) in compliance with national drinking water standards. To treat various water samples from different treatment plants with turbidity and pH ranges from 20-826.3 NTU and 5.21-6.80, respectively, 5-20 mg/L coagulant dosages were varied in the presence of aluminum, ferum, and manganese. Among all, 10 mg/L of the respective ACH and chitosan demonstrated 97% and 99% turbidity removal in addition to the removal of the metals that complies with the referred standard. However, chitosan owes fewer sensitive responses (turbidity and residual metal) with the change in its input factors (dosage and pH), especially in acidic conditions. This finding suggested its beneficial role to be used under the non-critical dosage monitoring. Meanwhile, ACH was found to perform better than chitosan only at pH > 7.4 with half dosage required. In summary, chitosan and ACH could perform equally at a different set of optimum conditions. This optimization study offers precise selections of coagulants for a practical water treatment operation.
Persistent endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in bodies of water are a concern for human health and constitute an environmental issue, even if present in trace amounts. Conventional treatment systems do not entirely remove EDCs from discharge effluent. Due to the ultra-trace level of EDCs which affect human health and pose an environmental issue, developing new approaches and techniques to remove these micropollutants from the discharged effluent is vital. This review discusses the most common methods of eliminating EDCs through preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary treatments. The adsorption process is favoured for EDC removal, as it is an economical and straightforward option. The NABC aspects, which are the need, approach, benefits and challenges, were analysed based on existing circumstances, highlighting biochar as a green and renewable adsorbent for the removal of organic contaminants. From the environmental point of view, the effectiveness of this method, which uses natural fibre from the kenaf plant as a porous and economical biochar material with a selected lignocellulosic biomass, provides insights into the advantages of biochar-derived adsorbents. Essentially, the improvement of the natural fibre as an adsorbent is a focus, using carbonisation, activation, and the physiochemical process to enhance the adsorption ability of the material for pollutants in bodies of water. This output will complement sustainable water management approaches presented in previous studies for combating the emerging pollutant crisis via novel green and environmentally safe options.
Catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS) (or collectively known as persulfate, PS) using carbocatalyst is increasingly gaining attention as a promising technology for sustainable recalcitrant pollutant removal in water. Single heteroatom doping using either N, S, B or P is widely used to enhance the performance of the carbocatalyst for PS activation. However, the performance enhancement from single heteroatom doping is limited by the type of heteroatom used. To further enhance the performance of the carbocatalyst beyond the limit of single heteroatom doping, multi-heteroatom doping can be conducted. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview on the development of multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst for PS activation. The potential synergistic and antagonistic interactions of various heteroatoms including N and B, N and S, N and P, and N and halogen for PS activation are evaluated. Thereafter, the preparation strategies to develop multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst including one-step and multi-step preparation approaches along with the characterization techniques are discussed. Evidence and summary of the performance of multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst for various recalcitrant pollutants removal via PS activation are also provided. Finally, the prospects of employing multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst including the need to study the correlation between different heteroatom combination, surface moiety type, and amount of dopant with the PS activation mechanism, identifying the best heteroatom combination, improving the durability of the carbocatalyst, evaluating the feasibility for full-scale application, developing low-cost multi-heteroatom-doped carbocatalyst, and assessing the environmental impact are also briefly discussed.