METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in four major cities in Yemen. The constructed questionnaire consisted of four main sections (sociodemographic data, misinformation, perceptions (perceived susceptibility, severity, and worry), and vaccination acceptance evaluation). Subject recruitment and data collection were conducted online utilizing social websites and using the snowball sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS version 27.
RESULTS: The total number of respondents was 484. Over 60% of them were males and had a university education. More than half had less than 100$ monthly income and were khat chewers, while only 18% were smokers. Misinformation prevalence ranged from 8.9% to 38.9%, depending on the statement being asked. Men, university education, higher income, employment, and living in urban areas were associated with a lower misinformation level (p <0.05). Statistically significant association (p <0.05) between university education, living in urban areas, and being employed with perceived susceptibility were observed. The acceptance rate was 61.2% for free vaccines, but it decreased to 43% if they had to purchase it. Females, respondents with lower monthly income, and those who believed that pharmaceutical companies made the virus for financial gains were more likely to reject the vaccination (p <0.05).
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the acceptance rate to take a vaccine was suboptimal and significantly affected by gender, misinformation, cost, and income. Furthermore, being female, non-university educated, low-income, and living in rural areas were associated with higher susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19. These findings show a clear link between misinformation susceptibility and willingness to vaccinate. Focused awareness campaigns to decrease misinformation and emphasize the vaccination's safety and efficacy might be fundamental before initiating any mass vaccination in Yemen.
METHODS: We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional survey among the general population in Yemen, a low-income conflict country. Participants from all provinces in Yemen were included in the study. We evaluated factors that influence agreement to accept a COVID-19 vaccine and any potential correlation between vaccine hesitancy and lack of access to vaccines.
RESULTS: Overall, 50.1% of the 5329 respondents agreed to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Only 39.9% of participants agreed that they had access to a COVID-19 vaccine, with females indicating lower access than males. Potential determinants of vaccine acceptance included being male, updating self on the development of vaccines against COVID-19, opinion about severity of COVID-19, anxiety about contracting COVID-19, concerns about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines, and lack of access to vaccines.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the immediate threat in Yemen toward achieving population immunity is the severe shortage and lack of access to vaccines, rather than vaccine hesitancy.
METHODS: A total of 406 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the children's demographic and socio-economic information and their KAP towards schistosomiasis.
RESULTS: Overall, 73 children (18%) were found to be infected by Schistosoma mansoni. None of the children were positive for Schistosoma haematobium. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was significantly higher among boys than girls (22.1% vs 12%; p=0.010). Approximately two-thirds (63.3% [257/406]) of the children had heard about schistosomiasis, however, only 38.5%, 53.6%, 28.4% and 38.1% had correct knowledge concerning the causes, symptoms, transmission and prevention, respectively. A significantly higher level of knowledge was observed among boys and Schistosoma-infected children compared with girls and non-infected children (p<0.05). However, a better level of knowledge does not seem to translate directly into the performance of hygienic practices. Multivariate logistic regression showed that sex and infection status were the significant predictors of good knowledge.
CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent among schoolchildren in rural Yemen. The findings reveal that children's knowledge about schistosomiasis is inadequate. Therefore, besides mass drug administration, integrated control programmes should also include health education and the provision of improved drinking water and proper sanitation.
Aims: To assess risk factors related to low birth weight babies in Sana'a, Yemen.
Methods: We conducted an unmatched case-control study of 252 women who came for delivery at Al Thawra Hospital, Sana'a, Yemen, between August and October 2016.
Results: Significant risk factors for low birth weight were: birth interval < 2 years; history of pre-eclampsia during current pregnancy; preterm gestational age < 37 weeks; and khat chewing or smoking during pregnancy. After controlling for all the confounders, only birth interval < 2 years was significantly associated with low birth weight.
Conclusion: Shorter birth interval is an important risk factor for low birth weight; therefore, improving maternal awareness of this should be emphasized during postnatal follow-up.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person-to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.
METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) from major healthcare facilities participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of five main domains (demographics, knowledge, self-preparedness, counselling practice, perceived barriers) was distributed among HCWs after obtaining informed consent. A convenient sampling technique was used. Descriptive and inferential analyses were applied using SPSS software.
RESULTS: A total of 1000 participants were initially targeted to participate in the study with 514 (51.4%) responding, of which 55.3% were female. Physicians and nurses constituted the largest proportion of participants, with 39.5% and 33.3%, respectively. The median scores for knowledge, self-preparedness, and counselling practice were 8 (out of 9), 9 (out of 15), and 25 (out of 30), respectively. The physician group showed a statistically significant association with better knowledge compared to the nurse group only, P<0.001. Males had higher preparedness scores than females, p<0.001. Also, the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency departments presented a statistically significant difference by which the participants from these departments were more prepared compared to the others (e.g. outpatients, paediatrics and surgery) with P < 0.0001. The lack of awareness among the general population about COVID-19 preventive measures was perceived as the most common barrier for the adequate prevention and control of COVID-19 in Yemen (89.1%).
CONCLUSION: The major highlight of this study is that HCWs have, overall, good knowledge, suboptimal preparedness, and adequate counselling practices prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Yemen, despite the high number of perceived barriers. However, urgent action and interventions are needed to improve the preparedness of HCWs to manage COVID-19. The perceived barriers also need to be fully addressed by the local healthcare authorities and international organisations working in Yemen for adequate prevention and control measures to be in place in managing COVID-19.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 346 randomly selected adult males. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select the study location. After completing the structured questionnaire interviews, all the participants underwent clinical exanimation for screening of oral leukoplakia-like lesions Clinical features of oral leukoplakia-like lesion were characterized based on the grades of Axell et al (1976). Univariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the potential associated factors.
RESULTS: Out of 346 male participants aged 18 years and older, 68 (19.7%) reported being current shammah users. The multivariable analysis revealed that age, non-formal or primary level of education, former shammah user, current shammah user, and frequency of shammah use per day were statistically associated with the presence of oral leukoplakia-like lesions [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.01, 1.06; P= 0.006], (AOR= 8.65; 95% CI: 2.81, 26.57; P= 0.001), (AOR= 3.65; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.50; P= 0.008), (AOR= 12.99; 95% CI: 6.34, 26.59; P= 0.001), and (AOR= 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.36; P= 0.026), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed oral leukoplakia-like lesions to be significantly associated with shammah use. Therefore, it is important to develop comprehensive shammah prevention programs in Yemen.