Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

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  1. Al-Gheethi A, Noman E, Jeremiah David B, Mohamed R, Abdullah AH, Nagapan S, et al.
    J Water Health, 2018 Oct;16(5):667-680.
    PMID: 30285950 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2018.113
    The menace of cholera epidemic occurrence in Yemen was reported in early 2017. Recent reports revealed that an estimated 500,000 people are infected with cholera whereas 2,000 deaths have been reported in Yemen. Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Yemen is the least developed country among the Middle East countries in terms of wastewater and solid waste management. The population of Yemen is about 24.5 million and generates about 70-100 million m3 of sewage. An estimated 7% of the population has sewerage systems. It has been revealed that 31.2 million m3 of untreated sewage is used for irrigation purposes especially for vegetables and Khat trees. In addition, more than 70% of the population in Yemen has no potable water. They depend on water wells as a water source which are located close to sewage disposal sites. The present review focuses on the current status of water, wastewater as well as solid waste management in Yemen and their roles in the outbreak of cholera. Future prospects for waste management have been proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  2. Al-Mansoob MAK, Al-Mazzah MM
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):349-57.
    PMID: 16379191
    The aim of study was to investigate the role of climate on the Malaria Incidence Rates (MIR) in some regions in of Yemen. For such purpose, the monthly (MIR) were calculated from the records of the hospitals' laboratories and centers of the Malaria Rollback centers in the main cities of the governorates Hudeidah, Taiz, Sana'a and Hadramout for the period 1989-1998. The readings of the climatic factors (CF) particularly the average monthly temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), volume of rain fall (RF) and wind speed (WS) for the same period of time were also collected from different weather and climatic information resources. Descriptive statistics, simple linear regression and multiple linear regression techniques were used to analyse the relationship between MIR and CF. The analysis shows highly significant relationship between MIR and the CF in these regions of Yemen (p-value 0.001).
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  3. Bitar AN, Zawiah M, Al-Ashwal FY, Kubas M, Saeed RM, Abduljabbar R, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(10):e0248325.
    PMID: 34714827 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248325
    BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, many pharmaceutical companies have been racing to develop a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine. Simultaneously, rumors and misinformation about COVID-19 are still widely spreading. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 misinformation among the Yemeni population and its association with vaccine acceptance and perceptions.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in four major cities in Yemen. The constructed questionnaire consisted of four main sections (sociodemographic data, misinformation, perceptions (perceived susceptibility, severity, and worry), and vaccination acceptance evaluation). Subject recruitment and data collection were conducted online utilizing social websites and using the snowball sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS version 27.

    RESULTS: The total number of respondents was 484. Over 60% of them were males and had a university education. More than half had less than 100$ monthly income and were khat chewers, while only 18% were smokers. Misinformation prevalence ranged from 8.9% to 38.9%, depending on the statement being asked. Men, university education, higher income, employment, and living in urban areas were associated with a lower misinformation level (p <0.05). Statistically significant association (p <0.05) between university education, living in urban areas, and being employed with perceived susceptibility were observed. The acceptance rate was 61.2% for free vaccines, but it decreased to 43% if they had to purchase it. Females, respondents with lower monthly income, and those who believed that pharmaceutical companies made the virus for financial gains were more likely to reject the vaccination (p <0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the acceptance rate to take a vaccine was suboptimal and significantly affected by gender, misinformation, cost, and income. Furthermore, being female, non-university educated, low-income, and living in rural areas were associated with higher susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19. These findings show a clear link between misinformation susceptibility and willingness to vaccinate. Focused awareness campaigns to decrease misinformation and emphasize the vaccination's safety and efficacy might be fundamental before initiating any mass vaccination in Yemen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  4. Noushad M, Al-Awar MS, Al-Saqqaf IS, Nassani MZ, Alrubaiee GG, Rastam S
    Clin Infect Dis, 2022 Nov 14;75(10):1827-1833.
    PMID: 35134160 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciac088
    BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy and vaccine inequity are 2 major hurdles toward achieving population immunity to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although several studies have been published on vaccine hesitancy among numerous populations, there is inadequate information on any potential correlation between vaccine acceptance and lack of access to vaccines. Our cross-sectional study in a low-income country aimed to fill this gap.

    METHODS: We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional survey among the general population in Yemen, a low-income conflict country. Participants from all provinces in Yemen were included in the study. We evaluated factors that influence agreement to accept a COVID-19 vaccine and any potential correlation between vaccine hesitancy and lack of access to vaccines.

    RESULTS: Overall, 50.1% of the 5329 respondents agreed to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Only 39.9% of participants agreed that they had access to a COVID-19 vaccine, with females indicating lower access than males. Potential determinants of vaccine acceptance included being male, updating self on the development of vaccines against COVID-19, opinion about severity of COVID-19, anxiety about contracting COVID-19, concerns about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines, and lack of access to vaccines.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the immediate threat in Yemen toward achieving population immunity is the severe shortage and lack of access to vaccines, rather than vaccine hesitancy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  5. Aldhubhani AH, lzham MI, Pazilah I, Anaam MS
    East Mediterr Health J, 2013 Oct;19(10):837-42.
    PMID: 24313146
    Few studies have explored diagnosis delay by tuberculosis (TB) patients and its effects on the rate of infection among their close contacts. A cross-sectional study of the close contacts of 505 newly diagnosed TB patients was conducted in a TB referral centre in Sana'a, Yemen from 2008 to 2010. Only the close contacts of 89 new TB patients agreed to participate and completed the tuberculin skin test (TST). Of the 239 close contacts investigated, 133 (55.6%) had a positive TST result. Index patients were classified as long or short diagnosis delay (above or below the median). There was no significant difference in the number of infected close contacts between long and short delay index patients (Mann-Whitney U-test). A larger sample size, with more incentives for patients to participate and the use of other investigative tools could provide a better picture of the pattern of TB transmission among all contacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  6. Al-Dubai SA, Rampal KG
    J Occup Health, 2010;52(1):58-65.
    PMID: 19907108
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the level and factors contributing to burnout among doctors in Sana'a City, Yemen and to determine the relationship between burnout and psychological morbidity.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 563 working doctors in the four main hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) was used as a measure of psychological morbidity and the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Sources of job stress were determined using a 37-item scale questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information about socio-demographic and work characteristics.

    RESULTS: On the MBI, 356 doctors showed high emotional exhaustion (63.2%), 109 showed high depersonalization (19.4%) and 186 showed low personal accomplishment (33.0%). Sixty six doctors (11.7%) were identified as experiencing a high degree of burnout (high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low personal accomplishment). The prevalence of high degree of burnout was significantly higher in those with duration of work or=40 h/wk (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.25-3.62) and in those who had psychological morbidity (OR=5.3, 95% CI 2.22-12.39). Thirteen out of 37 sources of stress were significantly associated with high degree of burnout. In multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of high burnout were: dealing with patient's psychosocial problems, feeling of isolation, disturbance of home/family life by work, not chewing khat, long working hours and psychological morbidity.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of high degree of burnout as well as emotional exhaustion in Yemeni doctors was higher than those reported internationally and was associated with psychological morbidity and many important sources of job stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  7. Noushad M, Al-Saqqaf IS
    Int J Infect Dis, 2021 May;106:79-82.
    PMID: 33737135 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.030
    The first case of COVID-19 in Yemen was confirmed on 10 April 2020. Having faced with a six-year long conflict that has destroyed half of its healthcare facilities and displaced millions, predictions of infections and mortality in Yemen suggested a looming healthcare catastrophe. Difficulty in implementing coordinated lockdowns and preventive measures due to the daily labor working nature of the majority of the population, provided the perfect breeding ground for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, official figures of infections and mortality are very low and there have not been confirmed reports of excess mortality. This could indicate that Yemen is silently marching towards forced herd immunity. Seroprevalence studies will provide useful insight into the COVID-19 transmission trajectory in Yemen, which can serve as a guide in planning vaccine distribution strategies and allocating the limited funds wisely.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  8. Alharazi TH, Al-Mekhlafi HM
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2021 06 02;115(6):687-698.
    PMID: 33130880 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/traa115
    BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards schistosomiasis among rural schoolchildren in Taiz governorate, southwestern Yemen.

    METHODS: A total of 406 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the children's demographic and socio-economic information and their KAP towards schistosomiasis.

    RESULTS: Overall, 73 children (18%) were found to be infected by Schistosoma mansoni. None of the children were positive for Schistosoma haematobium. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was significantly higher among boys than girls (22.1% vs 12%; p=0.010). Approximately two-thirds (63.3% [257/406]) of the children had heard about schistosomiasis, however, only 38.5%, 53.6%, 28.4% and 38.1% had correct knowledge concerning the causes, symptoms, transmission and prevention, respectively. A significantly higher level of knowledge was observed among boys and Schistosoma-infected children compared with girls and non-infected children (p<0.05). However, a better level of knowledge does not seem to translate directly into the performance of hygienic practices. Multivariate logistic regression showed that sex and infection status were the significant predictors of good knowledge.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent among schoolchildren in rural Yemen. The findings reveal that children's knowledge about schistosomiasis is inadequate. Therefore, besides mass drug administration, integrated control programmes should also include health education and the provision of improved drinking water and proper sanitation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  9. Idris I, Sheryan M, Ghazali Q, Nawi A
    East Mediterr Health J, 2020 Nov 11;26(11):1415-1419.
    PMID: 33226110 DOI: 10.26719/emhj.20.061
    Background: Low birth weight can lead to infant death, especially during the first year of life.

    Aims: To assess risk factors related to low birth weight babies in Sana'a, Yemen.

    Methods: We conducted an unmatched case-control study of 252 women who came for delivery at Al Thawra Hospital, Sana'a, Yemen, between August and October 2016.

    Results: Significant risk factors for low birth weight were: birth interval < 2 years; history of pre-eclampsia during current pregnancy; preterm gestational age < 37 weeks; and khat chewing or smoking during pregnancy. After controlling for all the confounders, only birth interval < 2 years was significantly associated with low birth weight.

    Conclusion: Shorter birth interval is an important risk factor for low birth weight; therefore, improving maternal awareness of this should be emphasized during postnatal follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  10. Bamaga OA, Mahdy MA, Mahmud R, Lim YA
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:351.
    PMID: 25074325 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-351
    Yemen is a Mediterranean country where 65% of its population is at risk of malaria, with 43% at high risk. Yemen is still in the control phase without sustainable reduction in the proportion of malaria cases. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in different districts in the southeast of the country to determine malaria prevalence and identify factors that impede progress of the elimination phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  11. Al-Mekhlafi AM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, Azazy AA, Fong MY
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2011 Apr;105(3):187-95.
    PMID: 21801497 DOI: 10.1179/136485911X12987676649421
    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country's highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country's coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ(2)=10·102; P=0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR)=13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2·62-69·67; P=0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR=4·18; CI=1·60-10·96; P=0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR=4·43; CI=1·35-14·56; P=0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI=1·80-37·45; P=0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious concern that should be addressed in the national strategy to control malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  12. Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Lim YA, Bin Shuaib NO, Azazy AA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2010 Sep 20;5(9).
    PMID: 20862227 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012879
    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person-to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  13. Kadir RA, Al-Maqtari RA
    Int Dent J, 2010 Dec;60(6):407-10.
    PMID: 21302739
    To assess the extent of fluorosis in a representative sample of 14-year-old Yemeni adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  14. Al-Ashwal FY, Kubas M, Zawiah M, Bitar AN, Mukred Saeed R, Sulaiman SAS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(12):e0243962.
    PMID: 33306750 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243962
    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) represents a difficult challenge and could have devastating consequences for the healthcare system and healthcare workers in war-torn countries with poor healthcare facilities such as Yemen. Our study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, preparedness, counselling practices of healthcare workers regarding COVID-19, and the perceived barriers to adequately prevent and control COVID-19 in Yemen.

    METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) from major healthcare facilities participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of five main domains (demographics, knowledge, self-preparedness, counselling practice, perceived barriers) was distributed among HCWs after obtaining informed consent. A convenient sampling technique was used. Descriptive and inferential analyses were applied using SPSS software.

    RESULTS: A total of 1000 participants were initially targeted to participate in the study with 514 (51.4%) responding, of which 55.3% were female. Physicians and nurses constituted the largest proportion of participants, with 39.5% and 33.3%, respectively. The median scores for knowledge, self-preparedness, and counselling practice were 8 (out of 9), 9 (out of 15), and 25 (out of 30), respectively. The physician group showed a statistically significant association with better knowledge compared to the nurse group only, P<0.001. Males had higher preparedness scores than females, p<0.001. Also, the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency departments presented a statistically significant difference by which the participants from these departments were more prepared compared to the others (e.g. outpatients, paediatrics and surgery) with P < 0.0001. The lack of awareness among the general population about COVID-19 preventive measures was perceived as the most common barrier for the adequate prevention and control of COVID-19 in Yemen (89.1%).

    CONCLUSION: The major highlight of this study is that HCWs have, overall, good knowledge, suboptimal preparedness, and adequate counselling practices prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Yemen, despite the high number of perceived barriers. However, urgent action and interventions are needed to improve the preparedness of HCWs to manage COVID-19. The perceived barriers also need to be fully addressed by the local healthcare authorities and international organisations working in Yemen for adequate prevention and control measures to be in place in managing COVID-19.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  15. Zawiah M, Al-Ashwal FY, Saeed RM, Kubas M, Saeed S, Khan AH, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:419.
    PMID: 32850608 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00419
    Background: In the past decade, Yemen has witnessed several disasters that resulted in a crumbled healthcare system. With the declaration of COVID-19 a global pandemic, and later the appearance of first confirmed cases in Yemen, there is an urgent need to assess the preparedness of healthcare facilities (HCFs) and their capacities to tackle a looming COVID-19 outbreak. Herein, we present an assessment of the current state of preparedness and capabilities of HCFs in Yemen to prevent and manage the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: An online survey for HCFs was developed, validated, and distributed. The questionnaire is divided into five main sections: (1) Demographic variables for participants. (2) HCFs capabilities for COVID-19 outbreak. (3) Support received to face the emergence and spread of COVID-19. (4). Current practices of infection prevention and control measures in the HCFs. The last section focused on the recommendations to ensure effective and timely response to this outbreak in Yemen. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze data using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 23. Results: Responses were received from healthcare workers (HCWs) from 18 out of 22 governorates in Yemen. Out of the 296 HCWs who participated in the study, the vast majority (93.9%) believed that the healthcare system in Yemen does not have the resources and capabilities to face and manage a COVID-19 outbreak. Approximately 82.4% of participants rated the general preparedness level of their HCFs as very poor or poor. More specifically, the majority of HCWs rated their HCFs as very poor or poor in term of availability of the following: an adequate number of mechanical ventilators (88.8%), diagnostic devices (88.2%), ICU rooms and beds (81.4%), and isolation rooms (79.7%). Conclusions: The healthcare facilities in Yemen are unprepared and lack the most basic resources and capabilities to cope with or tackle a COVID-19 outbreak. With the current state of a fragile healthcare system, a widespread outbreak of COVID-19 in Yemen could result in devastating consequences. There is an urgent need to provide support to the healthcare workers and HCFs that are on the frontline against COVID-19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  16. Kubas MA, Halboup AM
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2020 Feb;42(1):51-56.
    PMID: 31713107 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-019-00936-x
    Background Studies have revealed that the inclusion of a clinical pharmacist as a member in multidisciplinary medical team has been associated with improved medication use, reduced adverse drug reaction, reduced cost of treatment, and improved health outcomes. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the implementation of clinical pharmacy recommendations and services, the acceptance rate by the physicians, and the anticipated outcomes of the recommendations at a hospital in Yemen. Methods Different units of the University of Science and Technology Hospital, Sana'a were included in this study. All the recommendations and services provided by the clinical pharmacist during daily activities were documented between June 2013 and November 2015. The provided recommendations were classified based on the type, acceptance rate, and the anticipated outcomes. Main outcome measure Type and quality of clinical pharmacists' recommendations, anticipated impact of the recommendations on health outcomes, and their acceptance rate. Results Throughout the study period, a total of 957 patients in different hospital units were visited and provided with a total of 3307 interventions and services. The most frequent types of clinical pharmacist's interventions were drug discontinuation (23.6%, n = 782), inappropriate dose interval or time (n = 735, 22.2%), and add medication (18.9%, n = 626). Overall, 61.8% (n = 2044) of the provided recommendations were accepted by the physicians. The most anticipated outcomes were improved the effectiveness of therapy (45.1%, n = 1909), avoid adverse drug reactions (29%, n = 1228), and decrease the cost of medications (18.8%, n = 797). Conclusion Clinical pharmacist's recommendations resulted in improving drug therapy and decreasing adverse effects for inpatients at the University of Science and Technology Hospital. This suggests that the implementation of clinical pharmacy services is essential and has a positive outcome on patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  17. Alareqi LM, Mahdy MA, Lau YL, Fong MY, Abdul-Ghani R, Ali AA, et al.
    Malar J, 2016 Jan 28;15:49.
    PMID: 26821911 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1103-2
    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  18. Al-Tayar BA, Tin-Oo MM, Sinor MZ, Alakhali MS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(18):8365-70.
    PMID: 26745086
    BACKGROUND: Shammah is a traditional form of snuff dipping tobacco (a smokeless tobacco form) that is commonly used in Yemen. Oral mucosal changes due to the use of shammah can usually be observed in the mucosal surfaces that the product touches. The aim of this study was to determine the association between shammah use and oral leukoplakia-like lesions. Other associated factors were also determined.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 346 randomly selected adult males. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select the study location. After completing the structured questionnaire interviews, all the participants underwent clinical exanimation for screening of oral leukoplakia-like lesions Clinical features of oral leukoplakia-like lesion were characterized based on the grades of Axell et al (1976). Univariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the potential associated factors.

    RESULTS: Out of 346 male participants aged 18 years and older, 68 (19.7%) reported being current shammah users. The multivariable analysis revealed that age, non-formal or primary level of education, former shammah user, current shammah user, and frequency of shammah use per day were statistically associated with the presence of oral leukoplakia-like lesions [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.01, 1.06; P= 0.006], (AOR= 8.65; 95% CI: 2.81, 26.57; P= 0.001), (AOR= 3.65; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.50; P= 0.008), (AOR= 12.99; 95% CI: 6.34, 26.59; P= 0.001), and (AOR= 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.36; P= 0.026), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed oral leukoplakia-like lesions to be significantly associated with shammah use. Therefore, it is important to develop comprehensive shammah prevention programs in Yemen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
  19. Al-abd NM, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Snounou G, Abdul-Majid NB, Al-Mekhlafi HM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(7):e67853.
    PMID: 23861823 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067853
    The accuracy of the conclusions from in vivo efficacy anti-malarial drug trials depends on distinguishing between recrudescences and re-infections which is accomplished by genotyping genes coding P. falciparum merozoite surface 1 (MSP1) and MSP2. However, the reliability of the PCR analysis depends on the genetic markers' allelic diversity and variant frequency. In this study the genetic diversity of the genes coding for MSP1 and MSP2 was obtained for P. falciparum parasites circulating in Yemen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Yemen/epidemiology
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