Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Uma Deavi Ayyamani, Gan CY, Ooi GS
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Jun;41(2):108-15.
    PMID: 3821605
    A KAP study on dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) was carried out in three areas in the Federal Territory. The three areas were selected based on their ethnic group composition and were Jinjang North (Chinese), Kampung Bahru (Malays) and Sentul (Indians). Houses were selected by a systematic sampling method and house-to-house interviews were carried out with a pre-tested, predesigned questionnaire. 546 (87.62%) of the households responded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  2. Mashlawi AM, Jordan HR, Crippen LT, Tomberlin JK
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Dec 01;37(4):973-985.
    PMID: 33612750 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.4.973
    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a globally recognized, yet largely neglected tropical disease whose etiologic agent is Mycobacterium ulcerans. Although the exact mode of transmission is unclear, epidemiological evidence links BU incidence with slow-moving or stagnant, aquatic habitats, and laboratory-based experiments have shown disease manifestation in animals with dermal punctures. Therefore, hypotheses for transmission include contact with slowmoving aquatic habitats and associated biting aquatic insects, such as mosquitoes. Recent research demonstrated the toxin produced by M. ulcerans, mycolactone, is an attractant for adult mosquitoes seeking a blood-meal as well as oviposition sites. In the study presented here, we examined the impact of mycolactone at different concentrations on immature lifehistory traits of Aedes aegypti, which commonly occurs in the same environment as M. ulcerans. We determined percent egg hatch was not significantly different across treatments. However, concentration impacted the survivorship of larval mosquitoes to the adult stage (p < 0.001). Resulting adults also showed a slight preference, but not significant (p > 0.05), for oviposition in habitats contaminated with mycolactone suggesting a legacy effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  3. Serit MA, Yap HH
    PMID: 6151744
    Comparative laboratory bioassays of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, California strain (Kal) was conducted against third instar larvae of four species of mosquito, viz. Aedes aegypti, Anopheles balabacensis, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis in Malaysia. Of the four mosquito species tested, Ma. uniformis was found to be the most susceptible, followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and Ae. aegypti, in a decreasing order. The LC50 values for Ma. uniformis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and Ae. aegypti after four days of exposure were 1.18 X 10(4), 2.02 X 10(5), 4.76 X 10(5) and 1.84 X 10(7) spores per ml test media, respectively. The high sensitivity of Ma. uniformis and its longer life cycle seems to indicate that T. cylindrosporum Kal has good potential as a biocontrol agent for this species of mosquito. But, for Ae. aegypti, this fungus appears to be less effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
  4. Ahmad NA, Vythilingam I, Lim YAL, Zabari NZAM, Lee HL
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2017 Jan 11;96(1):148-156.
    PMID: 27920393 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0516
    Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus The effects of Wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemination of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was also studied. The prevalence of Wolbachia-infected field-collected Ae. albopictus was estimated to be 98.6% (N = 142) for females and 95.1% (N = 102) for males in the population studied. The Ae. albopictus were naturally infected with both wAlbA and wAlbB strains. We also found that the native Wolbachia has no impact on CHIKV infection and minimal effect on CHIKV dissemination to secondary organs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  5. Lee JM, Yek SH, Wilson RF, Rahman S
    Acta Trop, 2020 Dec;212:105683.
    PMID: 32888935 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105683
    Understanding the diversity and dynamics of the microbiota within the mosquito holobiome is of great importance to apprehend how the microbiota modulates various complex processes and interactions. This study examined the bacterial composition of Aedes albopictus across land use type and mosquito sex in the state of Selangor, Malaysia using 16S rRNA sequencing. The bacterial community structure in mosquitoes was found to be influenced by land use type and mosquito sex, with the environment and mosquito diet respectively identified to be the most likely sources of microbes. We found that approximately 70% of the microbiota samples were dominated by Wolbachia and removing Wolbachia from analyses revealed the relatively even composition of the remaining bacterial microbiota. Furthermore, microbial interaction network analysis highlighted the prevalence of co-exclusionary patterns in all networks regardless of land use and mosquito sex, with Wolbachia exhibiting co-exclusionary interactions with other residential bacteria such as Xanthomonas, Xenophilus and Zymobacter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  6. Noor Afizah A, Roziah A, Nazni WA, Lee HL
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2015 Aug;142(2):205-10.
    PMID: 26354218 DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.164259
    Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a mean to augment the existing measures for controlling dengue vector. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia in novel vector control strategies, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. Many studies have only focused on the prevalence of Wolbachia in female Aedes albopictus with lack of attention on Wolbachia infection on the male Ae. albopictus which also affects the effective expression of Wolbachia induced- cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in female and male Ae. albopictus from various habitats including housing areas, islands and seashore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  7. Joanne S, Vythilingam I, Yugavathy N, Leong CS, Wong ML, AbuBakar S
    Acta Trop, 2015 Aug;148:38-45.
    PMID: 25899523 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.04.003
    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria found in most arthropods and nematodes, but little is known about their distribution and reproductive dynamics in the Malaysian dengue vector Aedes albopictus. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of Wolbachia from field collected Ae. albopictus from various parts of the country using wsp specific primers. Ae. albopictus had Wolbachia infection ranging from 60 to 100%. No sequence diversity of wsp gene was found within all wAlbA and wAlbB sequences. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia infection amongst the Malaysian Ae. albopictus were not homogenously distributed in all districts in Malaysia. The presence of Wolbachia in different organs of Ae. albopictus was also determined. Wolbachia were only found in the ovaries and midguts of the mosquitoes, while absent in the salivary glands. The effects of Wolbachia on Ae. albopictus fecundity, longevity and egg viability were studied using infected and uninfected colonies. The removal of Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus resulted in reduced fecundity, longevity and egg viability, thus. Wolbachia seem to play a vital role in Ae. albopictus reproductive system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  8. Morita K, Igarashi A
    J Gen Virol, 1984 Nov;65 ( Pt 11):1899-908.
    PMID: 6094708
    Eighteen strains of Getah virus isolated from mosquitoes, swine and horses in Japan (1956 to 1981), and one strain isolated in Malaysia (1955), were analysed by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. All fingerprints showed a poly(A) tract. The fingerprint pattern of the Malaysian strain was quite different from those of the Japanese strains. Although most of the recent Japanese isolates shared many large oligonucleotide spots in common, the patterns were not identical even among the strains obtained in one locality in the same year. These results suggest that the Getah virus genome undergoes mutation rather frequently. However, there is a tendency for the isolates of the same year to show greater similarity. The fingerprint patterns of certain host-dependent temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants differed from that of the parental strain. Also, there were some differences in large oligonucleotide spots between strain JaNAr12380M isolated in suckling mouse brain (SMB) and strain JaNAr12380A isolated in C6/36 cells, despite the fact that both strains were derived from the same wild mosquito homogenate. In addition, many host-dependent ts mutants were present in strain JaNAr12380A, whereas no such mutants were observed in strain JaNAr12380M. It is concluded that there is considerable variation in the strains of Getah virus infecting mosquitoes in the wild, and also that the variants or mutants present in mosquitoes might be subject to selection during viral multiplication in the mammalian host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
  9. Cheong WH, Loong KP, Mahadevan S, Mak JW, Kan SK
    PMID: 6146203
    A total of 37 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected in six villages in the Bengkoka Peninsula, Sabah State, during two visits in 1981 in connection with studies on malaria and filariasis. Fifty-five per cent of the total mosquitoes collected were Mansonia. An. collessi constituted a new record of the species from Sabah. An. balabacensis was found to be naturally infected with sporozoites. Ma. bonneae was found to be naturally infected with Brugia, probably B. malayi. Parous rates of An. balabacensis and Ma. bonneae were very high with consequent high probability of survival ideally suiting transmission of malaria and filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
  10. Vythilingam I, Singh KI, Mahadevan S, Zaridah MS, Ong KK, Abidin MH
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1993 Dec;9(4):467-9.
    PMID: 8126485
    Mosquito collections were carried out from May to June 1992 and from September to December 1992 in an area where a case of Japanese encephalitis was confirmed. A total of 40,072 mosquitoes belonging to 35 species and 8 genera were collected. The dominant species in that locality were Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex gelidus, Aedes butleri, and Mansonia uniformis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
  11. Bohari R, Jin Hin C, Matusop A, Abdullah MR, Ney TG, Benjamin S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(4):e0230910.
    PMID: 32236146 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230910
    Several sites, Z-7L, Z-5 and Z-14, in Sibu district, Sarawak, Malaysia, experienced intense dengue transmission in 2014 that continued into 2015. A pilot study with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to control Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) was evaluated in Z-7L, a densely populated site of 12 ha. Bti treatments were conducted weekly from epidemiology week (EW) 24/2015 for 4 weeks, followed by fortnight treatments for 2 months, in addition to the routine control activities. Bti was directly introduced into potable containers and the outdoor artificial and natural containers were treated via a wide area spray application method using a backpack mister. Aedes indices significantly reduced during the treatment and post treatment phases, compared to the control site, Z-5 (p<0.05). A 51 fold reduction in the incidence rate per 100,000 population (IR) was observed, with one case in 25 weeks (EW 29-52). In Z-5 and Z-14, control sites, a 6 fold reduction in the IR was observed from EW 29-52. However, almost every week there were dengue cases in Z-14 and until EW 44 in Z-5. In 2016, dengue cases resurfaced in Z-7L from EW 4. Intensive routine control activities were conducted, but the IR continued to escalate. The wide area Bti spray misting of the outdoor containers was then included from EW 27 on fortnight intervals. A 6 fold reduction in IR was observed in the Bti treatment phase (EW 32-52) with no successive weekly cases after EW 37. However, in the control sites, there were dengue cases throughout the year from EW 1-52, particularly in Z-14. We feel that the wide area Bti spray application method is an integral component in the control program, in conjunction with other control measures carried out, to suppress the vector population in outdoor cryptic containers and to interrupt the disease transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
  12. Loke SR, Andy-Tan WA, Benjamin S, Lee HL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):493-503.
    PMID: 21399591 MyJurnal
    The susceptibility status of field-collected Aedes aegypti (L.) from a dengue endemic area to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and temephos was determined. Since August 2007, biweekly ovitrap surveillance (OS) was conducted for 12 mo in 2 sites, A & B, in Shah Alam, Selangor. Site A was treated with a Bti formulation, VectoBac® WG at 500 g/ha, from December 2007 - June 2008 while Site B was subjected to routine dengue vector control activities conducted by the local municipality. Aedes aegypti larvae collected from OS in both sites were bred until F3 and evaluated for their susceptibility. The larvae were pooled according to 3 time periods, which corresponded to Bti treatment phases in site A: August - November 2007 (Bti pre-treatment phase); December 2007 - June 2008 (Bti treatment phase); and July - September 2008 (Bti post-treatment phase). Larvae were bioassayed against Bti or temephos in accordance with WHO standard methods. Larvae collected from Site A was resistant to temephos, while incipient temephos resistant was detected in Site B throughout the study using WHO diagnostic dosage of 0.02 mg/L. The LC50 of temephos ranged between 0.007040 - 0.03799 mg/L throughout the year in both sites. Resistance ratios (LC50) indicated that temephos resistance increased with time, from 1.2 - 6.7 folds. The LC50 of Ae. aegypti larvae to Bti ranged between 0.08890 - 0.1814 mg/L throughout the year in both sites, showing uniform susceptibility of field larvae to Bti, in spite of Site A receiving 18 Bti treatments over a period of 7 mo. No cross-resistance of Ae. aegypti larvae from temephos to Bti was detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  13. Lee HL, Chen CD, Masri SM, Chiang YF, Chooi KH, Benjamin S
    PMID: 19058596
    The field bioefficacy of a wettable granule (WG) formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), VectoBac WG (Bti strain AM65-52) against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus; was evaluated in a suburban residential area (TST) and in a temporary settlement site (KB) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pre-control ovitrap surveillance of the trial sites indicated a high population of both types of Aedes mosquitoes. The populations were monitored continuously by weekly ovitrapping. Bti was sprayed biweekly at a dosage of 500 g/ha by using a mist-blower. The spray application was targeted into outdoor larval habitats. If required, Bti formulation was also applied directly into indoor water-holding containers at 8 g/1,000 l. Based on ovitrap surveillance, a significant reduction in Aedes populations was evident 4 weeks after initiating the first Bti treatment. The ovitrap index (OI) and the larvae density decreased drastically in both trial sites. In TST, the indoor OI was significantly reduced from 57.50 +/- 7.50% to 19.13 +/- 5.49% (p<0.05), while the outdoor OI decreased from 38.89 +/- 11.11% to 15.36 +/- 5.93%. In KB, similarly, the OI was significantly reduced by more than half, from 66.66 +/- 6.67% to 30.26 +/- 2.99% (p< 0.05). In all cases, the reduction in OI was paralleled by reduction in larval density.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  14. Nazni WA, Hoffmann AA, NoorAfizah A, Cheong YL, Mancini MV, Golding N, et al.
    Curr Biol, 2019 12 16;29(24):4241-4248.e5.
    PMID: 31761702 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.007
    Dengue has enormous health impacts globally. A novel approach to decrease dengue incidence involves the introduction of Wolbachia endosymbionts that block dengue virus transmission into populations of the primary vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The wMel Wolbachia strain has previously been trialed in open releases of Ae. aegypti; however, the wAlbB strain has been shown to maintain higher density than wMel at high larval rearing temperatures. Releases of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes carrying wAlbB were carried out in 6 diverse sites in greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with high endemic dengue transmission. The strain was successfully established and maintained at very high population frequency at some sites or persisted with additional releases following fluctuations at other sites. Based on passive case monitoring, reduced human dengue incidence was observed in the release sites when compared to control sites. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia provides a promising option as a tool for dengue control, particularly in very hot climates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  15. Wong ML, Liew JWK, Wong WK, Pramasivan S, Mohamed Hassan N, Wan Sulaiman WY, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2020 Aug 12;13(1):414.
    PMID: 32787974 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-020-04277-x
    BACKGROUND: The endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia is maternally inherited and naturally infects some filarial nematodes and a diverse range of arthropods, including mosquito vectors responsible for disease transmission in humans. Previously, it has been found infecting most mosquito species but absent in Anopheles and Aedes aegypti. However, recently these two mosquito species were found to be naturally infected with Wolbachia. We report here the extent of Wolbachia infections in field-collected mosquitoes from Malaysia based on PCR amplification of the Wolbachia wsp and 16S rRNA genes.

    METHODS: The prevalence of Wolbachia in Culicinae mosquitoes was assessed via PCR with wsp primers. For some of the mosquitoes, in which the wsp primers failed to amplify a product, Wolbachia screening was performed using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Wolbachia sequences were aligned using Geneious 9.1.6 software, analyzed with BLAST, and the most similar sequences were downloaded. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out with MEGA 7.0 software. Graphs were drawn with GraphPad Prism 8.0 software.

    RESULTS: A total of 217 adult mosquitoes representing 26 mosquito species were screened. Of these, infections with Wolbachia were detected in 4 and 15 mosquito species using wsp and 16S rRNA primers, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time Wolbachia was detected using 16S rRNA gene amplification, in some Anopheles species (some infected with Plasmodium), Culex sinensis, Culex vishnui, Culex pseudovishnui, Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia annulifera. Phylogenetic analysis based on wsp revealed Wolbachia from most of the mosquitoes belonged to Wolbachia Supergroup B. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, the Wolbachia strain from Anopheles mosquitoes were more closely related to Wolbachia infecting Anopheles from Africa than from Myanmar.

    CONCLUSIONS: Wolbachia was found infecting Anopheles and other important disease vectors such as Mansonia. Since Wolbachia can affect its host by reducing the life span and provide resistance to pathogen infection, several studies have suggested it as a potential innovative tool for vector/vector-borne disease control. Therefore, it is important to carry out further studies on natural Wolbachia infection in vector mosquitoes' populations as well as their long-term effects in new hosts and pathogen suppression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
  16. Mancini MV, Herd CS, Ant TH, Murdochy SM, Sinkins SP
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 03;14(3):e0007926.
    PMID: 32155143 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007926
    The global incidence of arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, has increased dramatically in recent decades. The release of Aedes aegypti carrying the maternally inherited symbiont Wolbachia as an intervention to control arboviruses is being trialled in several countries. However, these efforts are compromised in many endemic regions due to the co-localization of the secondary vector Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Ae. albopictus has an expanding global distribution following incursions into a number of new territories. To date, only the wMel and wPip strains of Wolbachia have been reported to be transferred into and characterized in this vector. A Wolbachia strain naturally infecting Drosophila simulans, wAu, was selected for transfer into a Malaysian Ae. albopictus line to create a novel triple-strain infection. The newly generated line showed self-compatibility, moderate fitness cost and complete resistance to Zika and dengue infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology*
  17. Simpson DI, Bowen ET, Way HJ, Platt GS, Hill MN, Kamath S, et al.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1974 Dec;68(4):393-404.
    PMID: 4155608
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/microbiology
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