Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 122 in total

  1. Yusof R, Jumbri K, Ahmad H, Abdulmalek E, Abdul Rahman MB
    PMID: 33636491 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2021.119543
    The binding characteristics of DNA in deep eutectic solvents (DESs), particularly the binding energy and interaction mechanism, are not widely known. In this study, the binding of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) based DES of different hydrogen bond donors (HBD), including ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gly), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and 1,5-pentanediol (1,5-PD), to calf thymus DNA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the shorter the alkyl chain length (2 carbons) and higher EG ratios of TBABr:EG (1:5) increased the binding constant (Kb) between DES and DNA up to 5.75 × 105 kJ mol-1 and decreased the binding of Gibbs energy (ΔGo) to 32.86 kJ mol-1. Through displacement studies, all synthesised DESs have been shown to displace DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and were able to bind on the minor groove of Adenine-Thymine (AT)-rich DNA. A higher number of hydroxyl (OH) groups caused the TBABr:Gly to form more hydrogen bonds with DNA bases and had the highest ability to quench DAPI from DNA, with Stern-Volmer constants (Ksv) of 115.16 M-1. This study demonstrated that the synthesised DESs were strongly bound to DNA through a combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and groove binding. Hence, DES has the potential to solvate and stabilise nucleic acid structures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds*
  2. Shahidan Radiman
    The evolution of microemulsion microstructure formed from didodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide, water and cyclohexane which started from being structureless (fiat scattering profile) to a mean-field Ginsburg-Landau behaviour is shown. The evolution gave the characteristic Lorentzian scattering profile as the system approaches phase separation.
    Evolusi mikrostruktur mikroemulsi yang terbentuk daripada didodesil dimetil ammonium bromida, air dan sildoheksana tiada berstruktur (profil serakan yang malar) kepada medan-min Ginsburg-Landau. Evolusi tersebut memberikan serakan Lorentz apabila komposisinya menghampiri sempadan pemisahan fasa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; Ammonium Compounds
  3. Yusof R, Abdulmalek E, Sirat K, Rahman MB
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 13;19(6):8011-26.
    PMID: 24932572 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068011
    Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry*
  4. Daood U, Yiu CKY
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):206-216.
    PMID: 30509480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transdentinal cytotoxicity and macrophage phenotype response to a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant.

    METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  5. Daood U, Parolia A, Matinlinna J, Yiu C, Ahmed HMA, Fawzy A
    Dent Mater, 2020 12;36(12):e386-e402.
    PMID: 33010944 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.09.008
    OBJECTIVES: Evaluate a new modified quaternary ammonium silane irrigant solution for its antimicrobial, cytotoxic and mechanical properties of dentine substrate.

    METHODS: Root canal preparation was performed using stainless steel K-files™ and F4 size protaper with irrigation protocols of 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX; 3.5% QIS; 2% QIS and sterile saline. Biofilms were prepared using E. faecalis adjusted and allowed to grow for 3 days, treated with irrigants, and allowed to grow for 7 days. AFM was performed and surface free energy calculated. MC3T3 cells were infected with endo irrigant treated E. faecalis biofilms. Raman spectroscopy of biofilms were performed after bacterial re-growth on root dentine and exposed to different irrigation protocols and collagen fibers analysed collagen fibers using TEM. Antimicrobial potency against E. faecalis biofilms and cytoxicity against 3T3 NIH cells were also. Resin penetration and MitoTracker green were also evaluated for sealer penetration and mitochondrial viability. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis and post-hoc Fisher's least-significant difference.

    RESULTS: Elastic moduli were maintained amongst control (5.5 ± 0.9) and 3.5% QIS (4.4 ± 1.1) specimens with surface free energy higher in QIS specimens. MC3T3 cells showed reduced viability in 6%NaOCl+2%CHX specimens compared to QIS specimens. DNA/purine were expressed in increased intensities in control and 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX specimens with bands around 480-490 cm-1 reduced in QIS specimens. 3.5% QIS specimens showed intact collagen fibrillar network and predominantly dead bacterial cells in confocal microscopy. 3.5% QIS irrigant formed a thin crust-type surface layer with cytoplasmic extensions of 3T3NIH spread over root dentine. Experiments confirmed MitoTracker accumulation in 3.5% treated cells.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Novel QIS root canal irrigant achieved optimum antimicrobial protection inside the root canals facilitating a toxic effect against the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Root dentine substrates exhibited optimum mechanical properties and there was viability of fibroblastic mitochondria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  6. Mak CY, Lin JG, Chen WH, Ng CA, Bashir MJK
    Water Sci Technol, 2019 May;79(10):1860-1867.
    PMID: 31294702 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2019.188
    The application of the anammox process has great potential in treating nitrogen-rich wastewater. The presence of Fe (II) is expected to affect the growth and activity of anammox bacteria. Short-term (acute) and long-term effects (chronic) of Fe (II) on anammox activity were investigated. In the short-term study, results demonstrated that the optimum concentration of Fe (II) that could be added to anammox is 0.08 mM, at which specific anammox activity (SAA) improved by 60% compared to the control assay, 0.00 mM. The inhibition concentration, IC50, of Fe (II) was found to be 0.192 mM. Kinetics of anammox specific growth rate were estimated based on results of the batch test and evaluated with Han-Levenspiel's substrate inhibition kinetics model. The optimum concentration and IC50 of Fe (II) predicted by the Han-Levenspiel model was similar to the batch test, with values of 0.07 mM and 0.20 mM, respectively. The long-term effect of Fe (II) on the performance of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was evaluated. Results showed that an appropriate Fe (II) addition enhanced anammox activity, achieving 85% NH4+-N and 96% NO2--N removal efficiency when 0.08 mM of Fe (II) was added. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was adopted to detect and identify the anammox bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  7. Ganesan S, Vadivelu VM
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jan;296:122341.
    PMID: 31711905 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122341
    Anammox bacteria can easily undergo starvation due to fluctuations in feed flowrate and concentration in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different types of storage conditions (presence of ammonium (Ra), nitrite (Rn), hydrazine (Rh), and no substrate (Rc)) in aiding the viability of anammox bacteria during starvation and recovery. After starvation, the bacteria were subjected to a 15-week recovery period. Anammox bacteria showed better results during starvation and recovery in Rh as compared to other conditions. Decay rate values obtained after starvation in Ra, Rn, Rh, and Rc were 0.032/day, 0.042/day, 0.019/day, and 0.037/day, respectively. Meanwhile, µmax values obtained in Rh, Ra, Rn, and Rc on the 15th week of recovery were 0.092, 0.075, 0.011, and 0.067 d-1, respectively. This indicated that the availability of hydrazine helps to reduce the mortality rate of anammox bacteria during starvation and enhances the recovery of anammox process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  8. Daood U, Parolia A, Elkezza A, Yiu CK, Abbott P, Matinlinna JP, et al.
    Dent Mater, 2019 09;35(9):1264-1278.
    PMID: 31201019 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.05.020
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze effect of NaOCl+2% quaternary ammonium silane (QAS)-containing novel irrigant against bacteria impregnated inside the root canal system, and to evaluate its antimicrobial and mechanical potential of dentine substrate.

    METHODS: Root canal was prepared using stainless steel K-files™ and ProTaper™ and subjected to manual and ultrasonic irrigation using 6% NaOCl+2% CHX, 6% NaOCl+2% QAS and saline as control. For confocal-microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis before and after treatment, Enterococcus faecalis cultured for 7 days. Raman spectroscopy analysis was done across cut section of gutta percha/sealer-dentine to detect resin infiltration. Indentation of mechanical properties was evaluated using a Berkovich indenter. The contact angle of irrigants and surface free energy were evaluated. Mineralization nodules were detected through Alazarin red after 14 days.

    RESULTS: Control biofilms showed dense green colonies. Majority of E. faecalis bacteria were present in biofilm fluoresced red in NaOCl+2% QAS group. There was reduction of 484cm-1 Raman band and its intensity reached lowest with NaOCl+2% QAS. There was an increase in 1350-1420cm-1 intensity in the NaOCl+2% CHX groups. Gradual decrease in 1639cm-1 and 1609cm-1 Raman signal ratios were seen in the resin-depth region of 17μm>, 14.1μm> and 13.2μm for NaOCl+2% QAS, NaOCl+2% CHX and control groups respectively. All obturated groups showed an intact sealer/dentine interface with a few notable differences. 0.771 and 83.5% creep indentation distance for NaOCl+2% QAS ultrasonic groups were observed. Highest proportion of polar component was significantly found in the NaOCl+2% QAS groups which was significantly higher as compared to other groups. Mineralized nodules were increased in NaOCl+2% QAS.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Favorable antimicrobial and endodontic profile of the NaOCl+2% QAS solution might suggest clinical use for it for more predictable reduction of intracanal bacteria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  9. Mohtar SS, Sharuddin SSN, Saman N, Lye JWP, Othman NS, Mat H
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):20173-20186.
    PMID: 32236809 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06507-x
    The utilization of natural zeolite (NZ) as an adsorbent for NH4+ removal was investigated. Three types of NZ (i.e., NZ01, NZ02, and NZ03) were characterized, and their NH4+ adsorption process in aqueous solution was evaluated. The effect of pH towards NH4+ adsorption showed that the NZ01 has the highest NH4+ adsorption capacity compared with other natural zeolites used. The application of NZ01 for a simultaneous removal of NH4+ and turbidity in synthetic NH4+-kaolin suspension by adsorptive coagulation process for treating drinking water was studied. The addition of NZ01 into the system increased the NH4+ removal efficiency (ηNH4+) from 11.64% without NZ01 to 41.86% with the addition of 0.2 g L-1 of NZ01. The turbidity removal (ηT), however, was insignificantly affected since the ηT was already higher than 98.0% over all studied parameter's ranges. The thermodynamic and kinetic data analyses suggested that the removal of NH4+ obeyed the Temkin isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. Generally, the turbidity removal was due to the flocculation of destabilized solid particles by alum in the suspension system. The ηNH4+ in surface water was 29.31%, which is lower compared with the removal in the synthetic NH4+-kaolin suspension, but a high ηT (98.65%) was observed. It was found that the addition of the NZ01 could enhance the removal of NH4+ as well as other pollutants in the surface water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  10. Kashi E, Surip SN, Khadiran T, Nawawi WI, De Luna Y, Yaseen ZM, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Feb;259(Pt 1):129147.
    PMID: 38181921 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.129147
    A composite of chitosan biopolymer with microalgae and commercial carbon-doped titanium dioxide (kronos) was modified by grafting an aromatic aldehyde (salicylaldehyde) in a hydrothermal process for the removal of brilliant green (BG) dye. The resulting Schiff's base Chitosan-Microalgae-TiO2 kronos/Salicylaldehyde (CsMaTk/S) material was characterised using various analytical methods (conclusive of physical properties using BET surface analysis method, elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS and point of zero charge). Box Behnken Design was utilised for the optimisation of the three input variables, i.e., adsorbent dose, pH of the media and contact time. The optimum conditions appointed by the optimisation process were further affirmed by the desirability test and employed in the equilibrium studies in batch mode and the results exhibited a better fit towards the pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 957.0 mg/g. Furthermore, the reusability study displayed the adsorptive performance of CsMaTk/S remains effective throughout five adsorption cycles. The possible interactions between the dye molecules and the surface of the adsorbent were derived based on the analyses performed and the electrostatic attractions, H-bonding, Yoshida-H bonding, π-π and n-π interactions are concluded to be the responsible forces in this adsorption process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds*
  11. Leong CC, Shen TC
    Plant Physiol., 1982 Dec;70(6):1762-3.
    PMID: 16662758
    Nitrate reductase inhibitor is usually found in the roots of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv MR7), but it was also produced in the shoots of aging plants. The inhibitor was inducible in the shoot of rice seedlings by dark, minus-nitrate or plus-ammonium treatments. There appears to be a general involvement of the inhibitor in the control of nitrate assimilation in the plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds
  12. Bagabas AA, Alhoshan SB, Ghabbour HA, Chidan Kumar CS, Fun HK
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Jan 1;71(Pt 1):o62-3.
    PMID: 25705511 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989014027297
    In the title salt, C6H11NH3 (+)·SCN(-), the cyclo-hexyl-ammonium ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The ammonium group occupies an equatorial position to minimize 1,3 and 1,5 diaxial inter-actions. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯N and N-H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds
  13. Riaz N, Bustam MA, Chong FK, Man ZB, Khan MS, Shariff AM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:342020.
    PMID: 25105158 DOI: 10.1155/2014/342020
    Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI) method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25) as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C) for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (86.82%). According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry*
  14. Lim JK, Chieh DC, Jalak SA, Toh PY, Yasin NH, Ng BW, et al.
    Small, 2012 Jun 11;8(11):1683-92.
    PMID: 22438107 DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102400
    Magnetic collection of the microalgae Chlorella sp. from culture media facilitated by low-gradient magnetophoretic separation is achieved in real time. A removal efficiency as high as 99% is accomplished by binding of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to microalgal cells in the presence of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as a binder and subsequently subjecting the mixture to a NdFeB permanent magnet with surface magnetic field ≈6000 G and magnetic field gradient <80 T m(-1) . Surface functionalization of magnetic NPs with PDDA before exposure to Chlorella sp. is proven to be more effective in promoting higher magnetophoretic removal efficiency than the conventional procedure, in which premixing of microalgal cells with binder is carried out before the addition of NPs. Rodlike NPs are a superior candidate for enhancing the magnetophoretic separation compared to spherical NPs due to their stable magnetic moment that originates from shape anisotropy and the tendency to form large NP aggregates. Cell chaining is observed for nanorod-tagged Chlorella sp. which eventually fosters the formation of elongated cell clusters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry
  15. Cheah WY, Show PL, Ng IS, Lin GY, Chiu CY, Chang YK
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Apr 01;126:569-577.
    PMID: 30584947 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.193
    The electrospinning PAN nanofiber membrane (P-CN) was hydrolysed to convert carboxylic groups as reaction sites and covalently graft chitosan molecule. The chitosan derivatives with quaternary ammonium groups exerted greater efficiency against bacteria as compared to pure chitosan. Hence, the chitosan modified membrane (P-CS), can be functionalized with quaternary amine (i.e., glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, GTMAC) to form quaternized chitosan nanofiber membrane (designated as P-HTCC) under various conditions (acidic, neutral, and alkaline). N-quaternized derivatives of chitosan modified membrane (N-HTCC) showed 72% and 60% degree of quaternization (DQ) under acidic and neutral conditions, respectively. Under alkaline condition, additional quaternization of N, O-HTCC via its amino and hydroxyl groups, has improved up to 90% DQ of the chitosan. The antibacterial activity of the quaternized chitosan modified membrane prepared from acetic acid medium is stronger than that prepared from water and alkaline media. Also, antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan is stronger than chitosan modified membrane against E. coli. The microbiological assessments showed that the water-stable P-HTCC nanofiber membrane under modification in acidic medium exerted antibacterial activity up to 99.95% against E. coli. Therefore, the P-HTCC membrane exhibited high potential to be integrated into microfiltration membrane to effectively disinfect E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; Ammonium Compounds
  16. Chua SC, Chong FK, Ul Mustafa MR, Mohamed Kutty SR, Sujarwo W, Abdul Malek M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 03 03;10(1):3959.
    PMID: 32127558 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60119-x
    The importance of graft copolymerization in the field of polymer science is analogous to the importance of alloying in the field of metals. This is attribute to the ability of the grafting method to regulate the properties of polymer 'tailor-made' according to specific needs. This paper described a novel plant-based coagulant, LE-g-DMC that synthesized through grafting of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) onto the backbone of the lentil extract. The grafting process was optimized through the response surface methodology (RSM) using three-level Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimum conditions, a promising grafting percentage of 120% was achieved. Besides, characterization study including SEM, zeta potential, TGA, FTIR and EDX were used to confirm the grafting of the DMC monomer chain onto the backbone of lentil extract. The grafted coagulant, LE-g-DMC outperformed lentil extract and alum in turbidity reduction and effective across a wide range of pH from pH 4 to pH 10. Besides, the use of LE-g-DMC as coagulant produced flocs with excellent settling ability (5.09 mL/g) and produced the least amount of sludge. Therefore, from an application and economic point of views, LE-g-DMC was superior to native lentil extract coagulant and commercial chemical coagulant, alum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethyl Ammonium Compounds/chemistry*
  17. Kok ESK, Lim XJ, Chew SX, Ong SF, See LY, Lim SH, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 03 12;21(1):116.
    PMID: 33711992 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01470-x
    BACKGROUND: Compare antimicrobial efficacy of a quarternary ammonium silane (QAS)/k21 as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis and C. albicans biofilms formed on root dentin.

    METHODOLOGY: Dentin blocks were sterilized and E. faecalis and C. albicans microbial colonies were counted for colony-forming-units against 2%k21, 2%CHX and Ca(OH)2 medicaments. Biofilm colonies after 7 days on dentin were analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy with live/dead bacterial viability staining. TEM was done to study dentin collagen matrix. Dentin discs from 3rd day and 7th day well plate was used for Raman spectra and observed under fluorescent-microscope. Docking studies were carried out on MMP-2 S1 binding-domain with k21.

    RESULTS: There was reduction of E. faecalis/C. albicans when k21, chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were used with highest percentage in 2%k21 treated specimens. 2%k21 showed dense and regular collagen network with intact cross-banding and decreased Raman intensity for 2%k21 on 3rd day. NaOCl + k21 showed least adherence, whereas saline groups showed highest adherence of E. faecalis and C. albicans to root-canal dentin. Alizarin red staining of hDPSCs revealed calcium deposition in all groups with significant difference seen amongst 2%k21 groups. MMP-2 ligand binding was seen accurately indicating possible target sites for k21 intervention.

    CONCLUSION: 2%k21 can be considered as alternative intracanal medicament.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds*
  18. Heo CC, Tomberlin JK, Aitkenhead-Peterson JA
    J Forensic Sci, 2021 May;66(3):947-959.
    PMID: 33290606 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14645
    Under normal circumstances, insects such as blow flies will oviposit and larvae will colonize a carcass as soon as possible. However, insect colonization on a carcass may be delayed due to the effects of wrapping, shallow burial, addition of lime derivatives to mitigate scavenging and odor, or extreme weather. The impacts of delayed insect colonization on carcass decomposition and its subsequent effect on soil chemistry profiles have not been examined to date. The objectives of this study were to determine soil chemistry dynamics associated with porcine carcasses experiencing delayed insect colonization for 7-day or 14-day. Soil chemistry profiles such as ammonium-N (NH4 -N), orthophosphate-P (PO4 -P), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly different among treatments: insect inclusion (immediate access of blow fly colonization on porcine carcasses), 7-day insect exclusion and 14-day insect exclusion (blow fly access was delayed up to 7-day and 14-day). Furthermore, significant differences of soil chemical profiles were detected between days of decomposition and soil regions. Soil moisture, NH4 -N, PO4 -P, and DOC were significantly higher when insects were excluded from the porcine carcass suggesting loss of tissue from larval feeding reduced the mass of nutrients entering the soil. This study provides useful information for forensic science in cases where insect colonization is delayed for a period of time postmortem and soil chemistry in the cadaver decomposition island is considered for estimating postmortem interval.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds/analysis
  19. Ramlli MA, Isa MI
    J Phys Chem B, 2016 11 10;120(44):11567-11573.
    PMID: 27723333
    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transference number measurement (TNM) techniques were applied to investigate the complexation, structural, and ionic transport properties of and the dominant charge-carrier species in a solid biopolymer electrolyte (SBE) system based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with ammonium fluoride (NH4F), which was prepared via a solution casting technique. The SBEs were partially opaque in appearance, with no phase separation. The presence of interactions between the host polymer (CMC) and the ionic dopant (NH4F) was proven by FT-IR analysis at the C-O band. XRD spectra analyzed using Origin 8 software disclose that the degree of crystallinity (χc%) of the SBEs decreased with the addition of NH4F, indicating an increase in the amorphous nature of the SBEs. Analysis of the ionic transport properties reveals that the ionic conductivity of the SBEs is dependent on the ionic mobility (μ) and diffusion of ions (D). TNM analysis confirms that the SBEs are proton conductors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry*
  20. Asghar M, Yahya R, Yap AUJ, Azzahari AD, Omar RA
    Caries Res, 2022;56(3):149-160.
    PMID: 35871511 DOI: 10.1159/000525505
    Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) is known as a noninvasive, cost-effective, safe, and simple method of dental caries treatment. However, staining and discoloration seem inseparable with SDF and continue as a cosmetic concern. Research is ongoing to overcome these issues, for example, by using glutathione (G) or potassium iodide among others. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the effects of incorporating different concentrations of capping agents on SDF chemistry and SDF-mediated tooth staining at different time points. Tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA), carboxymethyl chitosan (CM), and G at different concentrations (5, 10, and 15% w/v) were incorporated in 30% SDF. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopies of the prepared solutions was performed to evaluate chemical changes. Time-dependent color changes (ΔE) in bovine dentine specimens (6 × 6 × 1 ± 0.25 mm3) were measured spectrophotometrically at application/washup, 1 and 3 h, after 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days. Results showed suppression of FTIR peaks at 3,358 cm-1 and 1,215 cm-1 in capping agent-modified SDF indicative of a successful capping effect of the silver ions, which was corroborated by UV-Vis blueshift of ∼∆32 nm. The capping effect on SDF increased proportionally with the concentrations of TA, GA, CM, and G used. A more pronounced tooth staining reduction however was shown more in TA- and G- rather than in GA- and CM-modified SDF. At day 14, SDF showed the highest mean ΔE(50.14 ± 2.14), while 15% TA showed the lowest ΔE(30.14 ± 0.81). In conclusion, capping agent incorporation significantly reduced SDF-mediated tooth staining. This reduction in staining is more dependent on the respective capping agent functional groups than concentrations per se. The potential of capping agents to minimize tooth staining of SDF was TA>G>CM>GA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
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