• 1 Sime Darby Technology Centre Sdn. Bhd. , 1st Floor, Block B, UPM-MTDC Technology Centre III, Lebuh Silikon, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Sime Darby Research Sdn. Bhd. , Lot 2664, Jalan Pulau Carey, 42960 Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 3 Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia , 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 4 Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia , 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
J Agric Food Chem, 2018 Jan 31;66(4):999-1007.
PMID: 29260544 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04995


During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chlorine source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut, and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. Analysis of thermal decomposition and changes during refining suggested that these naturally present organochlorine compounds in palm oils and perhaps in other vegetable oils are precursors of 3-MCPD esters. Enrichment and dose-response showed a linear relationship to 3-MCPD ester formation and indicated that the sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are the most active precursors of 3-MCPD esters.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.