Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 695 in total

  1. Rosli NSA, Abd Gani S, Khayat ME, Zaidan UH, Ismail A, Abdul Rahim MBH
    Mol Cell Biochem, 2023 Mar;478(3):517-530.
    PMID: 35943655 DOI: 10.1007/s11010-022-04528-8
    The benefits of gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) towards health and metabolism have been emerging since the past decade. Extensive studies have been carried out to understand the mechanisms responsible in initiating the functionalities of these SCFAs towards body tissues, which greatly involves the SCFA-specific receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3). This review intends to discuss the potential of SCFAs particularly in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells, by explaining the production of SCFAs in the gut, the fate of each SCFAs after their production, involvement of FFAR2 and FFAR3 signalling mechanisms and their impacts on insulin secretion. Increased secretion of insulin after SCFAs treatments were reported in many studies, but contradicting evidence also exist in several other studies. Hence, no clear consensus was achieved in determining the true potential of SCFA in regulating insulin secretion. In this review, we explore how such differences were possible and hopefully be able to shed some perspectives in understanding SCFAs-signalling behaviour and preferences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified*; Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism
  2. Rak AE, Nasir SNAM, Nor MM, Han DK, Appalasamy S, Abdullah F, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jul;27(20):24772-24785.
    PMID: 32016873 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07923-0
    Corbicula fluminea (C. fluminea) is one of the mollusc species commonly eaten as a popular snack in Kelantan, Malaysia. This species contributes to the local economic activity. However, the handling process of C. fluminea at different processing stages (raw, smoke and selling stages) is believed to have affected the nutritional value in their soft tissue. Hence, this study aims to provide information about the chemical content (moisture, crude fat, ash, crude protein and carbohydrate) of C. fluminea and fatty acid of smoked C. fluminea at different processing stages. Samples were collected from Pasir Mas and Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia. The chemical content analysis was carried out based on the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) standard procedures. The results have indicated that moisture (80.93 ± 0.37%) and crude fat (10.82 ± 0.21%) in C. fluminea were significantly higher (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3*
  3. Sarip MSM, Morad NA, Aziz MKTA, Saparin N, Nawi MAHM
    J Oleo Sci, 2023 Jan 07;72(1):33-38.
    PMID: 36504190 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess22248
    Extraction process are one of the critical units in palm oil milling process which dictates its efficiency. In this study, hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is utilized for the crude palm oil (CPO) extraction. With regards to CPO quality, the extracted CPO using HCWE was analysed based on overall composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and fatty acid profile composition. This is to evaluate the possible product degradation during the process. From the results, the CPO extracted using HCWE process contain low FFA of 0.15±0.01% and low DAG of 2.145% which reflect to higher quality of CPO. This CPO also show the equal mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition at 50.63% and 49.93% respectively, within the CPO composition range in the literature. No significant changing of the fatty acid composition is observed between CPO extracted using HCWE and commercial CPO indicated that no possible undesired reaction during the extraction process. HCWE is a promising method for screw press system replacement, but the economic analysis is essential to evaluate its prospective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids*
  4. Zhao J, Ma H, Wu W, Ali Bacar M, Wang Q, Gao M, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2023 Jan;368:128375.
    PMID: 36414142 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2022.128375
    Substrate toxicity would limit the upgrading of waste biomass to medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). In this work, two fermentation modes of electro-fermentation (EF) and traditional fermentation (TF) with different concentration of liquor fermentation waste (20%, 40%, 60%) were used for MCFAs production as well as mechanism investigation. The highest caproate (4.04 g/L) and butyrate (13.96 g/L) concentrations were obtained by EF at 40% substrate concentration. TF experiments showed that the substrate concentration above 40% severely inhibited ethanol oxidation and products formation. Compared with TF mode, the total substrates consumption and product yields under EF mode were significantly increased by 2.6%-43.5% and 54.0%-83.0%, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated that EF effectively alleviated substrate toxicity and enriched chain elongation bacteria, particularly Clostridium_sensu_stricto 12, thereby promoting ethanol oxidation and products formation. Caproiciproducens tolerated high-concentration substrates to ensure normal lactate metabolism. This study provides a new way to produce MCFAs from high concentration wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids*
  5. Khayoon MS, Olutoye MA, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 May;111:175-9.
    PMID: 22405756 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.177
    Methyl esters were synthesized from crude karanj oil (CKO) by single step esterification with methanol using sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) as catalysts in a homogeneous batch process. H(3)PO(4) was less active than H(2)SO(4) during the process as it presented very low ester yields (<20%) for the various molar ratios of fatty acid to alcohol studied. With H(2)SO(4) as catalyst, the yield was as high as 89.8% at 65°C after 5h. The fatty acids profile of the oil (palmitic acid: ≈ 12%; stearic acid: ≈ 8%; oleic acid: ≈ 52% and linolenic acid of 17%) and the different reactivities of the acids were responsible for the observed differences in conversion to methyl esters. The findings attained with this study might contribute to the economic utilization of a non-edible feedstock.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemical synthesis*; Fatty Acids/chemistry
  6. Hue, W.L., Nyam, K.L.
    Kenaf seed oil contains high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and bioactive compounds, such as tocopherol and phytosterol. In order to prevent bioactive compounds from oxidation, kenaf seed oil (KSO) was encapsulated by coextrusion technology. KSO and microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) were then subjected to accelerated storage to investigate the effect of microencapsulation on the storage stability of kenaf seed oil. The changes of fatty acids profiles and bioactive compounds in oils were evaluated. Result showed that there was significant decreased (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  7. Eshak MB, Omar WMW
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jul;28(2):163-177.
    PMID: 28890768 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.2.12
    The importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in microalgae was widely reported. In this study, six isolated microalgae from Teluk Aling, Penang National Park were screened for PUFA contents. Isochrysis maritima showed the best polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for aquaculture species compared to other microalgal species tested. This species is a good choice as aquaculture feed due to its small size (3-7 μm), which is appropriate size for ingestion. The maximum specific growth rate of this species was also high (0.52-0.82 days(-1)) and comparable with many recognised aquaculture microalgae. On the other hand, this species was also able to be cultivated successfully in big volume (1000 L culture medium) with open hatchery condition, which will optimise the production cost. Low ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) recorded in I. maritima at any growth phases (0.32-0.45) also indicate optimal values for feeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Essential; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  8. Asmaa, A.A., Zzaman, W., Tajul, A.Y.
    The influence of superheated steam cooking on fat and fatty acid composition of chicken sausage were investigated at various temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) with different time domains (2-6 min). It has been found that the fat content of raw sample was higher than that of all cooked samples. The total fat content of cooked sample, showed a linear decreasing with time at all investigated temperatures. Superheated steam produce changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in which their values were found to decrease in cooked samples. When different cooking conditions (temperature, time) were applied, the fatty acids were decreased as the time and temperature increased. The PUFA and MUFA were less prone to decrease at 150°C, while at this temperature there was a remarkable loss in SFA content. This cooking method considerably reduced the level of fat and SFA which have a positive effect on health. In addition it could imply a great choice for consumers to choose the healthier technique for cooking food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  9. Nur Airina Muhamad, Jamaludin Mohamad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:81-94.
    A comparative study on the fatty acids contents of three Malaysian marine fishes Tenualosa toli (Terubok), Rastrelliger kanagurta (Kembong), Stolephorus baganensis (Bilis) and three freshwater fishes Channa striatus (Haruan), Pangasius hypothalamus (Patin), Clarias macrocephalus (Keli) were carried out. Marine fishes showed more unsaturated fatty acids with 3, 4, 5 and 6 double bonds than in freshwater fishes. Two n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA) were found more in marine fishes PUFAs than in freshwater fishes. Based on the fatty acids content of DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA), Stolephorus baganensis provides the best source of it (4.68%,10.5%, 4.68%) followed by Rastrelliger kanagurta (10.62%, 4.85%, 3.17%) and Tenualosa toli (9.93%, 2.50%, 0.16%). However, freshwater fishes showed small range of DHA (0.63% - 1.41%), EPA (0.11% - 0.25%) and AA (1.41% - 4.46%). Saturated fatty acids palmitic was the major fatty acid found in all fishes studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  10. Berry SK
    J Sci Food Agric, 1980 Jul;31(7):657-62.
    PMID: 6779057
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis*
  11. Ng TK, Chong YH
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Jun;33(4):331-3.
    PMID: 522745
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis
  12. Bahurmiz, O.M., Adzitey, F., Ng, W.K.
    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional characteristics (moisture, protein, lipids, ash and fatty acid composition) of the flesh of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught from Hadhramout coast of the Arabian Sea. The protein content was 21.6% and 18.1% (wet weight basis) for mackerel and sardine, respectively. The lipid content was much higher in sardine (10.1%) compared with mackerel (1.7%). The fatty acid composition showed that total saturated fatty acids had the highest relative value (37.5%) among other fatty acid groups in the flesh lipids of sardine, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (29.9%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (23.4%). In mackerel, polyunsaturated fatty acids was present at 37.4%, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.7%) and then monounsaturated fatty acids (14.3%). The majority of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both fish were deposited as omega-3 (89.8% in sardine and 87.9% in mackerel), of which docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were the most abundant. In conclusion, oil sardine and Indian mackerel which are locally available and affordable fish in Yemen can be considered valuable sources of nutrients particularly protein and health-beneficial omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  13. Yazdan. M,, Jamilah, B., Yaakob C.M., Sharifah, K.
    Effects of breading materials and deep-fat frying on fat uptake, moisture content and fatty acid composition of the black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) fillets. Black pomfret fillets both breaded and non-breaded were deep-fat fried in sunflower oil and palm olein. Fat uptake, moisture content and fatty acid composition in the fillets were determined. Total fat content in the fillets of both breaded and un-breaded fillets increased significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids
  14. Ali MA, Islam MA, Othman NH, Noor AM, Ibrahim M
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2020 1 14;18(4):427-438.
    PMID: 31930793 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0694
    BACKGROUND: Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of micronutrients (oryzanol, tocotrienol, tocopherol, phytosterols etc.) that impart a high resistance to thermal oxidation of the oil. The high oxidative stability of RBO can make it a preferred oil to improve the oxidative and flavor stabilities of other oils rich in PUFAs. In this study, the changes in the oxidative status and fatty acid composition in soybean oil (SO) blended with RBO under extreme thermal conditions were evaluated.

    METHODS: The blends were prepared in a volume ratio of 10:90, 20:80, 40:60, and 60:40 (RBO:SO). The changes in the oxidative parameters and fatty acid composition of the samples during heating at frying temperature (170°C) were determined using analytical and instrumental methods. Oxidative alteration was also monitored by recording FTIR spectra of oil samples.

    RESULTS: The increase in oxidative parameters (free fatty acid, color, specific extinctions, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid value) was greater in pure SO as compared to RBO or blend oils during heating. This indicates that the SO samples incorporated with RBO have the least degradation, while pure SO has the highest. Blending resulted in a lower level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)  with       a higher level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). During heating, the relative content of PUFA decreased and that of SFA increased. However, the presence of RBO in SO slowed down the oxidative deterioration of PUFA. In FTIR, the peak intensities in SO were markedly changed in comparison with blend oils during heating. The reduction in the formation of oxidative products in SO during thermal treatment increased as the concentration of the RBO in SO increased; however, the levels of the protective effect of RBO did not increase steadily with an increase in its concentration.

    CONCLUSIONS: During thermal treatment, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and formation of secondary oxidative products as evaluated by oxidative indices, fatty acids and IR absorbances were lower in blend oils compared to pure SO. In conclusion, RBO can significantly retard the process of lipid peroxidation in SO during heating at frying temperature.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis
  15. Salimon J, Omar TA, Salih N
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:906407.
    PMID: 24719581 DOI: 10.1155/2014/906407
    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS-DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemistry*; Trans Fatty Acids/chemistry*
  16. MyJurnal
    The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid (TFA) contents of biscuits products were determined by gas chromatography, using a highly polar 100m capillary column (HP-88) and flame ionization detection. Total TFA ranged from 0.00 – 0.52 g/100 g total fatty acids and 0.12 – 0.68 g/100 g total fatty acids for local packed and unpacked biscuits, respectively. In imported biscuits, total TFA was higher ranging from 0.03 – 3.09 g/100 g of total fatty acids. Trans 16:1 was the most abundant, with values ranging from 0.01% to 38% followed by trans 18:1 Δ11 (0.01% - 13.11%), trans 18:1 Δ9 (0.01% - 4.68%), trans 18:2 (0.23% - 2.77%) and small quantities of trans 18:1 Δ6. CLA, the natural TFA constituted from 0.1% to
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Trans Fatty Acids
  17. Gew LT, Misran M
    J Biol Phys, 2017 Sep;43(3):397-414.
    PMID: 28752254 DOI: 10.1007/s10867-017-9459-2
    In this study, we address the effect of the cis-double bond in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamide-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000, DOPE PEG2000 (DP), on the Langmuir monolayer of C18 fatty acids-namely, stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (L1), linoleic acid (L2), and linolenic acid (L3)-with the same head group but different degrees of saturation on their hydrocarbon chains. Negative values of Gibbs free energy of mixing (ΔG mix) were obtained throughout the investigated ranges of the unsaturated C18 fatty-acid (L1, L2 and L3) mixed systems, indicating that very strong attractions occurred between molecules in the monolayers. The bend and kink effects from the cis-double bond(s) in the hydrocarbon chain affected the membrane fluidity and molecular packing in the monolayers, which resulted in a greater interaction between unsaturated C18 fatty acids and DP. The most thermodynamically stable mole composition of unsaturated C18 fatty acids to DP was observed at 50:1; this ratio is suggested to be the best mole ratio and will be subsequently used to prepare DP-C18 fatty-acid nanoliposomes. The presence of cis-double bonds in both hydrocarbon chains of DOPE in DP also created an imperfection in the membrane structure of lipid-drug delivery systems, which is expected to enhance lipid-based systems for antibody conjugation and drug encapsulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemistry*
  18. Ai H, Lee YY, Xie X, Tan CP, Ming Lai O, Li A, et al.
    Food Chem, 2023 Jun 30;412:135558.
    PMID: 36716631 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.135558
    Palm olein (POL) was modified by enzymatic interesterification with different degrees of acyl migration in a solvent-free packed bed reactor. The fatty acid and acylglycerol composition, isomer content, thermodynamic behavior, and relationship between crystal polymorphism, solid fat content (SFC), crystal microstructure, and texture before and after modification were studied. We found that the increase in sn-2 saturation interesterification was not only due to the generated tripalmitin (PPP) but also caused by acyl migration, and the SFC profiles were changed accordingly. The emergence of high melting point acylglycerols was an important factor accelerating the crystallization rate, further shortening the crystallization induction time, leading to the formation of large crystal spherulites, thereby reducing the hardness. The transformation from the β' to the β form occurred during post-hardening during storage. The isomer content also affected the physicochemical properties of the modified POL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemistry
  19. Abd Aziz N, Azlan A, Ismail A, Mohd Alinafiah S, Razman MR
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:284329.
    PMID: 23509703 DOI: 10.1155/2013/284329
    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis
  20. Jahangirian H, Haron MJ, Silong S, Yusof NA
    J Oleo Sci, 2011;60(6):281-6.
    PMID: 21606615
    Phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs) were synthesized from canola or palm oils and phenyl hydroxylamine (FHA) catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM or RM IM. The reaction was carried out by shaking the reaction mixture at 120 rpm. The optimization was carried out by changing the reaction parameters, namely; temperature, organic solvent, amount and kind of enzyme, period of reaction and the mol ratio of reactants. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 39°C; solvent, petroleum ether; kind and amount of lipase, 80 mg Lipozyme TL IM/mmol oil; reaction period, 72 h and FHA-oil ratio, 7.3 mmol FHA/ mmol oil. The highest conversion percentage of phenyl hydroxylaminolysis of the Ladan and Kristal brands commercial canola oils, palm stearin and palm kernel oils were 55.6, 52.2, 51.4 and 49.7 %, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*; Fatty Acids/chemistry; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism*; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry
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