Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 674 in total

  1. Rak AE, Nasir SNAM, Nor MM, Han DK, Appalasamy S, Abdullah F, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jul;27(20):24772-24785.
    PMID: 32016873 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07923-0
    Corbicula fluminea (C. fluminea) is one of the mollusc species commonly eaten as a popular snack in Kelantan, Malaysia. This species contributes to the local economic activity. However, the handling process of C. fluminea at different processing stages (raw, smoke and selling stages) is believed to have affected the nutritional value in their soft tissue. Hence, this study aims to provide information about the chemical content (moisture, crude fat, ash, crude protein and carbohydrate) of C. fluminea and fatty acid of smoked C. fluminea at different processing stages. Samples were collected from Pasir Mas and Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia. The chemical content analysis was carried out based on the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) standard procedures. The results have indicated that moisture (80.93 ± 0.37%) and crude fat (10.82 ± 0.21%) in C. fluminea were significantly higher (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3*
  2. Khayoon MS, Olutoye MA, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 May;111:175-9.
    PMID: 22405756 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.177
    Methyl esters were synthesized from crude karanj oil (CKO) by single step esterification with methanol using sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) as catalysts in a homogeneous batch process. H(3)PO(4) was less active than H(2)SO(4) during the process as it presented very low ester yields (<20%) for the various molar ratios of fatty acid to alcohol studied. With H(2)SO(4) as catalyst, the yield was as high as 89.8% at 65°C after 5h. The fatty acids profile of the oil (palmitic acid: ≈ 12%; stearic acid: ≈ 8%; oleic acid: ≈ 52% and linolenic acid of 17%) and the different reactivities of the acids were responsible for the observed differences in conversion to methyl esters. The findings attained with this study might contribute to the economic utilization of a non-edible feedstock.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemical synthesis*; Fatty Acids/chemistry
  3. Asmaa, A.A., Zzaman, W., Tajul, A.Y.
    The influence of superheated steam cooking on fat and fatty acid composition of chicken sausage were investigated at various temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) with different time domains (2-6 min). It has been found that the fat content of raw sample was higher than that of all cooked samples. The total fat content of cooked sample, showed a linear decreasing with time at all investigated temperatures. Superheated steam produce changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in which their values were found to decrease in cooked samples. When different cooking conditions (temperature, time) were applied, the fatty acids were decreased as the time and temperature increased. The PUFA and MUFA were less prone to decrease at 150°C, while at this temperature there was a remarkable loss in SFA content. This cooking method considerably reduced the level of fat and SFA which have a positive effect on health. In addition it could imply a great choice for consumers to choose the healthier technique for cooking food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  4. Eshak MB, Omar WMW
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jul;28(2):163-177.
    PMID: 28890768 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.2.12
    The importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in microalgae was widely reported. In this study, six isolated microalgae from Teluk Aling, Penang National Park were screened for PUFA contents. Isochrysis maritima showed the best polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for aquaculture species compared to other microalgal species tested. This species is a good choice as aquaculture feed due to its small size (3-7 μm), which is appropriate size for ingestion. The maximum specific growth rate of this species was also high (0.52-0.82 days(-1)) and comparable with many recognised aquaculture microalgae. On the other hand, this species was also able to be cultivated successfully in big volume (1000 L culture medium) with open hatchery condition, which will optimise the production cost. Low ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) recorded in I. maritima at any growth phases (0.32-0.45) also indicate optimal values for feeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Essential; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  5. Hue, W.L., Nyam, K.L.
    Kenaf seed oil contains high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and bioactive compounds, such as tocopherol and phytosterol. In order to prevent bioactive compounds from oxidation, kenaf seed oil (KSO) was encapsulated by coextrusion technology. KSO and microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) were then subjected to accelerated storage to investigate the effect of microencapsulation on the storage stability of kenaf seed oil. The changes of fatty acids profiles and bioactive compounds in oils were evaluated. Result showed that there was significant decreased (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  6. Nur Airina Muhamad, Jamaludin Mohamad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:81-94.
    A comparative study on the fatty acids contents of three Malaysian marine fishes Tenualosa toli (Terubok), Rastrelliger kanagurta (Kembong), Stolephorus baganensis (Bilis) and three freshwater fishes Channa striatus (Haruan), Pangasius hypothalamus (Patin), Clarias macrocephalus (Keli) were carried out. Marine fishes showed more unsaturated fatty acids with 3, 4, 5 and 6 double bonds than in freshwater fishes. Two n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA) were found more in marine fishes PUFAs than in freshwater fishes. Based on the fatty acids content of DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA), Stolephorus baganensis provides the best source of it (4.68%,10.5%, 4.68%) followed by Rastrelliger kanagurta (10.62%, 4.85%, 3.17%) and Tenualosa toli (9.93%, 2.50%, 0.16%). However, freshwater fishes showed small range of DHA (0.63% - 1.41%), EPA (0.11% - 0.25%) and AA (1.41% - 4.46%). Saturated fatty acids palmitic was the major fatty acid found in all fishes studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  7. Hisham MDB, Aziz Z, Huin WK, Teoh CH, Jamil AHA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2020;29(3):523-536.
    PMID: 32990612 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.202009_29(3).0011
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines recommend reducing intake of diets rich in saturated fats and replacing it with diets rich in unsaturated fats. Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fatty acids, but its effect on serum lipid levels is unclear. The study aimed to compare the effects of palm oil consumption with other edible oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on serum lipid profiles.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and CINAHL. Clinical trials were eligible if they compared palm oil-rich diets with diets rich in MUFAs or PUFAs. We pooled results of included studies using a random effects model and assessed the quality of the evidence and certainty of conclusions using the GRADE approach.

    RESULTS: Intake of palm oil intake compared to oils rich in MUFA was associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (TC) [mean difference (MD)=0.27 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45], LDL-C (MD=0.20 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.37) and HDL-C (MD=0.06 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.10). Similarly, for comparison with oils rich in PUFAs, palm oil showed increased in TC (MD=0.38 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.62), LDL-C (MD= 0.44 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.88) and HDL-C (MD=0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.13). For both comparisons, there were no significant effects on triglycerides.

    CONCLUSIONS: Even though palm oil increases marginally the level of serum lipids, the evidence is mostly of low to moderate quality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  8. Salimon J, Omar TA, Salih N
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:906407.
    PMID: 24719581 DOI: 10.1155/2014/906407
    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS-DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemistry*; Trans Fatty Acids/chemistry*
  9. Berry SK
    J Sci Food Agric, 1980 Jul;31(7):657-62.
    PMID: 6779057
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis*
  10. Ng TK, Chong YH
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Jun;33(4):331-3.
    PMID: 522745
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis
  11. Bahurmiz, O.M., Adzitey, F., Ng, W.K.
    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional characteristics (moisture, protein, lipids, ash and fatty acid composition) of the flesh of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught from Hadhramout coast of the Arabian Sea. The protein content was 21.6% and 18.1% (wet weight basis) for mackerel and sardine, respectively. The lipid content was much higher in sardine (10.1%) compared with mackerel (1.7%). The fatty acid composition showed that total saturated fatty acids had the highest relative value (37.5%) among other fatty acid groups in the flesh lipids of sardine, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (29.9%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (23.4%). In mackerel, polyunsaturated fatty acids was present at 37.4%, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.7%) and then monounsaturated fatty acids (14.3%). The majority of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both fish were deposited as omega-3 (89.8% in sardine and 87.9% in mackerel), of which docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were the most abundant. In conclusion, oil sardine and Indian mackerel which are locally available and affordable fish in Yemen can be considered valuable sources of nutrients particularly protein and health-beneficial omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  12. Yazdan. M,, Jamilah, B., Yaakob C.M., Sharifah, K.
    Effects of breading materials and deep-fat frying on fat uptake, moisture content and fatty acid composition of the black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) fillets. Black pomfret fillets both breaded and non-breaded were deep-fat fried in sunflower oil and palm olein. Fat uptake, moisture content and fatty acid composition in the fillets were determined. Total fat content in the fillets of both breaded and un-breaded fillets increased significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids
  13. Ali MA, Islam MA, Othman NH, Noor AM, Ibrahim M
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2020 1 14;18(4):427-438.
    PMID: 31930793 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0694
    BACKGROUND: Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of micronutrients (oryzanol, tocotrienol, tocopherol, phytosterols etc.) that impart a high resistance to thermal oxidation of the oil. The high oxidative stability of RBO can make it a preferred oil to improve the oxidative and flavor stabilities of other oils rich in PUFAs. In this study, the changes in the oxidative status and fatty acid composition in soybean oil (SO) blended with RBO under extreme thermal conditions were evaluated.

    METHODS: The blends were prepared in a volume ratio of 10:90, 20:80, 40:60, and 60:40 (RBO:SO). The changes in the oxidative parameters and fatty acid composition of the samples during heating at frying temperature (170°C) were determined using analytical and instrumental methods. Oxidative alteration was also monitored by recording FTIR spectra of oil samples.

    RESULTS: The increase in oxidative parameters (free fatty acid, color, specific extinctions, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid value) was greater in pure SO as compared to RBO or blend oils during heating. This indicates that the SO samples incorporated with RBO have the least degradation, while pure SO has the highest. Blending resulted in a lower level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)  with       a higher level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). During heating, the relative content of PUFA decreased and that of SFA increased. However, the presence of RBO in SO slowed down the oxidative deterioration of PUFA. In FTIR, the peak intensities in SO were markedly changed in comparison with blend oils during heating. The reduction in the formation of oxidative products in SO during thermal treatment increased as the concentration of the RBO in SO increased; however, the levels of the protective effect of RBO did not increase steadily with an increase in its concentration.

    CONCLUSIONS: During thermal treatment, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and formation of secondary oxidative products as evaluated by oxidative indices, fatty acids and IR absorbances were lower in blend oils compared to pure SO. In conclusion, RBO can significantly retard the process of lipid peroxidation in SO during heating at frying temperature.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis
  14. MyJurnal
    The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid (TFA) contents of biscuits products were determined by gas chromatography, using a highly polar 100m capillary column (HP-88) and flame ionization detection. Total TFA ranged from 0.00 – 0.52 g/100 g total fatty acids and 0.12 – 0.68 g/100 g total fatty acids for local packed and unpacked biscuits, respectively. In imported biscuits, total TFA was higher ranging from 0.03 – 3.09 g/100 g of total fatty acids. Trans 16:1 was the most abundant, with values ranging from 0.01% to 38% followed by trans 18:1 Δ11 (0.01% - 13.11%), trans 18:1 Δ9 (0.01% - 4.68%), trans 18:2 (0.23% - 2.77%) and small quantities of trans 18:1 Δ6. CLA, the natural TFA constituted from 0.1% to
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids; Trans Fatty Acids
  15. Gew LT, Misran M
    J Biol Phys, 2017 Sep;43(3):397-414.
    PMID: 28752254 DOI: 10.1007/s10867-017-9459-2
    In this study, we address the effect of the cis-double bond in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamide-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000, DOPE PEG2000 (DP), on the Langmuir monolayer of C18 fatty acids-namely, stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (L1), linoleic acid (L2), and linolenic acid (L3)-with the same head group but different degrees of saturation on their hydrocarbon chains. Negative values of Gibbs free energy of mixing (ΔG mix) were obtained throughout the investigated ranges of the unsaturated C18 fatty-acid (L1, L2 and L3) mixed systems, indicating that very strong attractions occurred between molecules in the monolayers. The bend and kink effects from the cis-double bond(s) in the hydrocarbon chain affected the membrane fluidity and molecular packing in the monolayers, which resulted in a greater interaction between unsaturated C18 fatty acids and DP. The most thermodynamically stable mole composition of unsaturated C18 fatty acids to DP was observed at 50:1; this ratio is suggested to be the best mole ratio and will be subsequently used to prepare DP-C18 fatty-acid nanoliposomes. The presence of cis-double bonds in both hydrocarbon chains of DOPE in DP also created an imperfection in the membrane structure of lipid-drug delivery systems, which is expected to enhance lipid-based systems for antibody conjugation and drug encapsulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/chemistry*
  16. Abd Aziz N, Azlan A, Ismail A, Mohd Alinafiah S, Razman MR
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:284329.
    PMID: 23509703 DOI: 10.1155/2013/284329
    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis
  17. Jahangirian H, Haron MJ, Silong S, Yusof NA
    J Oleo Sci, 2011;60(6):281-6.
    PMID: 21606615
    Phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs) were synthesized from canola or palm oils and phenyl hydroxylamine (FHA) catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM or RM IM. The reaction was carried out by shaking the reaction mixture at 120 rpm. The optimization was carried out by changing the reaction parameters, namely; temperature, organic solvent, amount and kind of enzyme, period of reaction and the mol ratio of reactants. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 39°C; solvent, petroleum ether; kind and amount of lipase, 80 mg Lipozyme TL IM/mmol oil; reaction period, 72 h and FHA-oil ratio, 7.3 mmol FHA/ mmol oil. The highest conversion percentage of phenyl hydroxylaminolysis of the Ladan and Kristal brands commercial canola oils, palm stearin and palm kernel oils were 55.6, 52.2, 51.4 and 49.7 %, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*; Fatty Acids/chemistry; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism*; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry
  18. Babji AS, Alina AR, Seri Chempaka MY, Sharmini T, Basker R, Yap SL
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 1998 Sep;49(5):327-32.
    PMID: 10367001
    Four formulations of burgers, prepared with 65% lean meat and 15% fat consisting of RBD palm stearin (PS), Socfat 4000P and Socfat 4100P and beef fat (BF) as control were evaluated for solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), cooking loss, proximate analysis (moisture, fat and protein), colour, i.e. lightness ('L'), redness ('a') and yellowness ('b'), free fatty acid (FFA), iodine value (IV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and texture profile analysis (TPA). Sensory evaluation was carried out for texture, juiciness, aroma, oiliness and overall acceptance. SFC and SMP for raw and cooked SF4000P beef burgers were closest to BF control burgers, falling into the range of 35-40 degrees C. Cooking loss was highest for PS burgers, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) amongst BF, SF4000P and SF4100P burgers. Proximate analysis on raw burgers showed SF4000P to contain high fat and lowest moisture contents. Objective textural measurements using texture profile analysis (TPA) for all cooked burgers showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) for springiness and cohesiveness. Variation of values among the formulations for hardness, gumminess and chewiness are explained by the differences of SFC for beef burgers with various types of fats. Raw and cooked PS burgers have the lightest 'L' values compared with other fat-substituted burgers while BF, SF4000P and SF4100P indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05) for 'L', 'a' and 'b' values. Beef fat showed the highest amount of free fatty acids (FFA) compared to palm oil samples. For the iodine value (IV), SF4000P showed the highest value which means that it contained the highest level of unsaturated fatty acids followed by PS, BF and SF4100P successively. SF4000P had the highest TBA values followed successively by BF, PS and SF4100P. For sensory evaluation, PS burgers had the least oily taste. This may be due to its high cooking loss. Taste panelists could not differentiate burgers with substituted vegetable fats against the control burgers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis; Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/analysis; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis
  19. Hashim RB, Jamil EF, Zulkipli FH, Daud JM
    J Oleo Sci, 2015;64(2):205-9.
    PMID: 25748380 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess14191
    Pangasius micronemus (Black Pangasius sp.) and Pangasius nasutus (Fruit Pangasius sp.) are two species of silver catfish widely consumed in Malaysia. The present study evaluated fatty acid profiles of fish muscles in these two Pangasius sp. from different farms and locations to determine which species or location is better in term of lipid quality. The results showed MUFAs (Monounsaturated fatty acid) content was highest (35.0-44.4%) followed by SFA (Saturated fatty acid) [32.0-41.5%] and PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) [9.3-19.3%]. P. micronemus of Sg. Kanchong displayed higher palmitic acid (SFA; 29.0%) than P. nasutus from Peramu (23.5%). In contrast, oleic acid (MUFA) revealed highest in P. nasutus (38.1%) while lowest in P. micronemus of Sg. Kanchong (29.7%). Additionally, utmost PUFAs belonged to P. micronemus of Sg. Kanchong (19.3%) and lower most in P. nasutus from Peramu (9.3%). P. micronemus presented with a higher EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) [1.0-1.4%], DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) [1.7-2.8%] and LA (Linoleic acid) [11.8-12.0%] than P. nasutus (EPA; 0.3%, DHA; 1.0%, LA; 4.8%). However, P. nasutus established higher GLA (gamma-linolenic acid) [0.4%] than P. micronemus (0.04-0.06%). Both Pangasius sp. can be regarded as good supplies of omega-3 and omega-6. Overall, P. micronemus from Sg. Kanchong is the best choice among all for reason high in EPA and DHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis; Fatty Acids, Omega-6/analysis
  20. Lam MK, Lee KT, Mohamed AR
    Biotechnol Adv, 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):500-18.
    PMID: 20362044 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.03.002
    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism; Fatty Acids/chemistry*; Trans Fatty Acids/chemical synthesis; Trans Fatty Acids/metabolism; Trans Fatty Acids/chemistry*
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