RESULTS: Three acylated analogues were produced: quercetin 4'-oleate (C33H42O8), quercetin 3',4'-dioleate (C51H74O9) and quercetin 7,3',4'-trioleate (C69H106O10). Their identities were confirmed with UPLC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR analyses. The effects of temperature, duration and molar ratio of substrates on the bioconversion yields varied across conditions. The regioselectivity of the acylated quercetin analogues was affected by the molar ratio of substrates. TLC showed the acylated analogues had higher lipophilicity (152% increase) compared to quercetin. Partition coefficient (log P) of quercetin 4'-oleate was higher than those of quercetin and oleic acid. Quercetin 4'-oleate was also stable over 28 days of storage.
CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin oleate esters with enhanced lipophilicity can be produced via lipase-catalyzed reaction using C. antarctica lipase B to be used in topical applications.
EXPERIMENTS: The solubility and electrolytic conductivity for a binary surfactant mixture of anionic methyl ester sulfonates (MES) with nonionic alkyl polyglucoside and alkyl polyoxyethylene ether at 5 °C during long-term storage were measured. Phase diagrams were established; a general theoretical model for their explanation was developed and checked experimentally.
FINDINGS: The binary and ternary phase diagrams for studied surfactant mixtures include phase domains: mixed micelles; micelles + crystallites; crystallites, and molecular solution. The proposed general methodology, which utilizes the equations of molecular thermodynamics at minimum number of experimental measurements, is convenient for construction of such phase diagrams. The results could increase the range of applicability of MES-surfactants with relatively high Krafft temperature, but with various useful properties such as excellent biodegradability and skin compatibility; stability in hard water; good wetting and cleaning performance.
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