Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 390 in total

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  1. Global Retinoblastoma Study Group, Fabian ID, Abdallah E, Abdullahi SU, Abdulqader RA, Adamou Boubacar S, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2020 Feb 27.
    PMID: 32105305 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6716
    Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale.

    Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis.

    Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]).

    Conclusions and Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.

  2. Ahmad A, Riaz Z, Sattar MA, Khan SA, John EJ, Rashid S, et al.
    Gene, 2020 Feb 14;737:144479.
    PMID: 32068124 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2020.144479
    BACKGROUND: Cardiac and renal dysfunction are often co-morbid pathologies leading to worsening prognosis resulting in difficulty in therapy of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The aim of the current study was to determine the changes in expression of human ortholog genes of hypertension, vascular and cardiac remodeling and hypertensive nephropathy phenotypes under normal, disease and upon treatment with gasotransmitter including H2S (hydrogen sulphide), NO (nitric oxide) and combined (H2S + NO).

    METHODS: A total of 72 Wistar Kyoto rats (with equivalent male and female animals) were recruited in the present study where LVH rat models were treated with H2S and NO individually as well as with both combined. Cardiac and renal physical indices were recorded and relative gene expression were quantified.

    RESULTS: Both cardiac and renal physical indices were significantly modified with individual as well as combined H2S + NO treatment in control and LVH rats. Expression analysis revealed, hypertension, vascular remodeling genes ACE, TNFα and IGF1, mRNAs to be significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the myocardia and renal tissues of LVH rats, while individual and combined H2S + NO treatment resulted in lowering the gene expression to normal/near to normal levels. The cardiac remodeling genes MYH7, TGFβ, SMAD4 and BRG1 expression were significantly up-regulated (P ≤ 0.05) in the myocardia of LVH where the combined H2S + NO treatment resulted in normal/near to normal expression more effectively as compared to individual treatments. In addition individual as well as combined H2S and NO treatment significantly decreased PKD1 expression in renal tissue, which was up-regulated in LVH rats (P ≤ 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in hemodynamic parameters and cardiac indices as well as alteration in gene expression on treatment of LVH rat model indicates important therapeutic potential of combined treatment with H2S + NO gasotransmitters in hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy when present as co-morbidity with renal complications.

  3. Akbar MA, Mohd Yusof NY, Tahir NI, Ahmad A, Usup G, Sahrani FK, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2020 Feb 05;18(2).
    PMID: 32033403 DOI: 10.3390/md18020103
    Saxitoxin is an alkaloid neurotoxin originally isolated from the clam Saxidomus giganteus in 1957. This group of neurotoxins is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. The saxitoxin biosynthesis pathway was described for the first time in the 1980s and, since then, it was studied in more than seven cyanobacterial genera, comprising 26 genes that form a cluster ranging from 25.7 kb to 35 kb in sequence length. Due to the complexity of the genomic landscape, saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates remains unknown. In order to reveal and understand the dynamics of the activity in such impressive unicellular organisms with a complex genome, a strategy that can carefully engage them in a systems view is necessary. Advances in omics technology (the collective tools of biological sciences) facilitated high-throughput studies of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of dinoflagellates. The omics approach was utilized to address saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in response to environmental stresses to improve understanding of dinoflagellates gene-environment interactions. Therefore, in this review, the progress in understanding dinoflagellate saxitoxin biosynthesis using an omics approach is emphasized. Further potential applications of metabolomics and genomics to unravel novel insights into saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates are also reviewed.
  4. Mat Yudin Z, Ali K, Wan Ahmad WMA, Ahmad A, Khamis MF, Brian Graville Monteiro N', et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2020 Feb;24(1):163-168.
    PMID: 31698535 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12480
    AIMS: To evaluate the self-perceived preparedness of final-year dental undergraduate students in dental public universities in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Final-year dental undergraduate students from six dental public universities in Malaysia were invited to participate in an online study using a validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale DU-PAS.

    RESULTS: In total, about 245 students responded to the online questionnaire yielding a response rate of 83.05%. The age range of the respondents was 23-29 years with a mean age of 24.36 (SD 0.797). The total score obtained by the respondents was ranged from 48 to 100 with a mean score of 79.56 (SD 13.495). Weaknesses were reported in several clinical skills, cognitive and behavioural attributes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preparedness of undergraduate students at six dental institutions in Malaysia was comparable to students from developed countries. The dental undergraduate preparedness assessment scale is a useful tool, and dental institutions may be used for self-assessment as well as to obtain feedback from the supervisors.

  5. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2020 Jan 31;124(4):041803.
    PMID: 32058742 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.041803
    The first search for supersymmetry in events with an experimental signature of one soft, hadronically decaying τ lepton, one energetic jet from initial-state radiation, and large transverse momentum imbalance is presented. These event signatures are consistent with direct or indirect production of scalar τ leptons (τ[over ˜]) in supersymmetric models that exhibit coannihilation between the τ[over ˜] and the lightest neutralino (χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0}), and that could generate the observed relic density of dark matter. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77.2  fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016 and 2017. The results are interpreted in a supersymmetric scenario with a small mass difference (Δm) between the chargino (χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±}) or next-to-lightest neutralino (χ[over ˜]_{2}^{0}), and the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0}. The mass of the τ[over ˜] is assumed to be the average of the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±} and χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0} masses. The data are consistent with standard model background predictions. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the sum of the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±}, χ[over ˜]_{2}^{0}, and τ[over ˜] production cross sections for Δm(χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±},χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0})=50  GeV, resulting in a lower limit of 290 GeV on the mass of the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±}, which is the most stringent to date and surpasses the bounds from the LEP experiments.
  6. Clink DJ, Hamid Ahmad A, Klinck H
    Sci Rep, 2020 Jan 28;10(1):1282.
    PMID: 31992788 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-57976-x
    Early morning calling occurs across diverse taxa, which may be related to optimal conditions for sound transmission. There exists substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in calling time which is influenced by intrinsic, social and/or environmental factors. Here, we investigate environmental predictors of calling in gibbons. We hypothesized that male solos- which occur earlier and tend to be longer than duets-would be more influenced by environmental variables, if earlier, longer calling bouts are energetically costly, and therefore limited by overnight energy expenditure. Our top model for male solo events included amount of rain in the previous 24 hours, and explained 30% of the variance, whereas the top model for duet events (which included presence and amount of rainfall) explained only 5% of the variance. Rain the previous night led to a later start time of male solos (~30 minutes), but our top model for duet start time did not include any reliable predictors. Male solo events appear to be more influenced by environmental factors, and duets may be influenced more by social factors. Our results are in line with previous studies that show that changes in overnight conditions -which may alter energy expenditure -can influence early morning calling behavior.
  7. Aziz NS, Yusop N, Ahmad A
    PMID: 31985383 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X15666200127145923
    Stem cells play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis, as well as participating in new tissue regeneration. Over the past 20 years, a great deal of effort has been made to investigate the behaviour of stem cells to enable their potential use in regenerative medicine. However, a variety of biological characteristics is known to exist among the different type of stem cells due to variations in methodological approach, formulation of cell culture medium, isolation protocol and cellular niches, as well as species variation. In recent years, cell-based therapy emerges as one of the advanced techniques applied in both medical and clinical settings. Cell therapies aim to treat and repair the injury sites and replace the loss of tissues by stimulating the repair and regeneration process. In order to enable the use of stem cells in regenerative therapies, further characterisation of cell behaviour, in terms of their proliferation and differentiation capacity, mainly during the quiescent and inductive state is regarded as highly necessary. The central focus of regenerative medicine revolves around the use of human cells, including adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for cell-based therapy. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing body of literature on stem cells research conducted on cellular angiogenesis and migration, to investigate the validity of different strategies and variation of the cell type used. The information gathered within this review may then be shared with fellow researchers to assist in future research work, engaging in stem cell homing for cell-based therapy to enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration process.
  8. Mat Rifin H, Rodzlan Hasani WS, Ling MYJ, Robert Lourdes TG, Saminathan TA, Ab Majid NL, et al.
    Syst Rev, 2020 Jan 13;9(1):13.
    PMID: 31931868 DOI: 10.1186/s13643-019-1263-6
    BACKGROUND: Small/kiddie cigarette packs consist of less than 20 cigarette sticks. Kiddie packs were recently proposed to be reintroduced by the tobacco industry with an excuse to prevent consumers from buying illicit cigarettes. By reintroducing kiddie packs, cigarettes will inevitably be more affordable and this would appeal to lower-income consumers especially teens. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the impact of kiddie packs on smoking, specifically on smoking initiation, the urge/tendency to buy cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption.

    METHODS: This systematic review will be based on the review of original articles on the impact of kiddie packs on smoking. There is no restriction on the publication dates. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus will be searched to retrieve potential original articles. Additional records identified through other sources: Google Scholar, as well as Journal of Substance Use and Tobacco Control, are also to be searched. These will include original articles in any language which included all study designs (randomised controlled trials, quasi experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies) comparing kiddie packs with regular cigarette packs. The primary outcomes of interest will be initiation of smoking and urge/tendency to buy cigarettes in the general population and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption among current smokers. Secondary outcomes will be the prevalence of smoking using kiddie packs among the current smokers.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will provide evidence to support the impact of kiddie packs on smoking in terms of smoking initiation, smoking prevalence, urge/tendency to purchase cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption. The findings from this review could be helpful to policymakers in regulating kiddie packs to control the consumption of tobacco.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018102325.

  9. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2020;80(1):43.
    PMID: 32026888 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7585-7
    A measurement is presented of electroweak (EW) production of a
    W
    boson in association with two jets in proton-proton collisions at


    s

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    . The data sample was recorded by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



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    ν

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    ν

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    jj

    >
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    j


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    25


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    . The cross section of the process is measured in the electron and muon channels yielding


    σ
    EW


    (
    W
    jj
    )

    =
    6.23
    ±
    0.12

    (stat)
    ±
    0.61

    (syst)

    pb

    per channel, in agreement with leading-order standard model predictions. The additional hadronic activity of events in a signal-enriched region is studied, and the measurements are compared with predictions. The final state is also used to perform a search for anomalous trilinear gauge couplings. Limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings associated with dimension-six operators are given in the framework of an effective field theory. The corresponding 95% confidence level intervals are

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  10. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Dec 13;123(24):241801.
    PMID: 31922872 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.241801
    Results are reported from a search for new particles that decay into a photon and two gluons, in events with jets. Novel jet substructure techniques are developed that allow photons to be identified in an environment densely populated with hadrons. The analyzed proton-proton collision data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in 2016 at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. The spectra of total transverse hadronic energy of candidate events are examined for deviations from the standard model predictions. No statistically significant excess is observed over the expected background. The first cross section limits on new physics processes resulting in such events are set. The results are interpreted as upper limits on the rate of gluino pair production, utilizing a simplified stealth supersymmetry model. The excluded gluino masses extend up to 1.7 TeV, for a neutralino mass of 200 GeV and exceed previous mass constraints set by analyses targeting events with isolated photons.
  11. Nna VU, Bakar ABA, Ahmad A, Umar UZ, Suleiman JB, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Andrology, 2019 Dec 09.
    PMID: 31816190 DOI: 10.1111/andr.12739
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors for male subfertility/infertility. Malaysian propolis is reported to decrease hyperglycaemia in diabetic state.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the protective effect of Malaysian propolis on diabetes-induced subfertility/infertility. Additionally, its combined beneficial effects with metformin were investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into five groups, namely normal control, diabetic control, diabetic + Malaysian propolis (300 mg/k.g. b.w.), diabetic + metformin (300 mg/kg b.w.) and diabetic + Malaysian propolis + metformin. Diabetes was induced using a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg b.w.) and treatment lasted for 4 weeks. During the 4th week, mating behavioural experiments were performed using sexually receptive female rats. Thereafter, fertility parameters were assessed in the female rats.

    RESULTS: Malaysian propolis increased serum and intratesticular free testosterone levels, up-regulated the mRNA levels of AR and luteinizing hormone receptor, up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in the testes of diabetic rats. Furthermore, Malaysian propolis up-regulated testicular MCT2, MCT4 and lactate dehydrogenase type C mRNA levels, in addition to improving sperm parameters (count, motility, viability and normal morphology) and decreasing sperm nDNA fragmentation in diabetic rats. Malaysian propolis improved mating behaviour by increasing penile guanosine monophosphate levels. Malaysian propolis also improved fertility outcome as seen with decreases in pre- and post-implantation losses, increases in gravid uterine weight, litter size per dam and foetal weight. Malaysian propolis's effects were comparable to metformin. However, their combination yielded better results relative to the monotherapeutic interventions.

    CONCLUSION: Malaysian propolis improves fertility potential in diabetic state by targeting steroidogenesis, testicular lactate metabolism, spermatogenesis and mating behaviour, with better effects when co-administered with metformin. Therefore, Malaysian propolis shows a promising complementary effect with metformin in mitigating Diabetes mellitus-induced subfertility/infertility.

  12. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Dec 06;123(23):231803.
    PMID: 31868480 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.231803
    A search for narrow low-mass resonances decaying to quark-antiquark pairs is presented. The search is based on proton-proton collision events collected at 13 TeV by the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}, recorded in 2016. The search considers the case where the resonance has high transverse momentum due to initial-state radiation of a hard photon. To study this process, the decay products of the resonance are reconstructed as a single large-radius jet with two-pronged substructure. The signal would be identified as a localized excess in the jet invariant mass spectrum. No evidence for such a resonance is observed in the mass range 10 to 125 GeV. Upper limits at the 95% confidence level are set on the coupling strength of resonances decaying to quark pairs. The results obtained with this photon trigger strategy provide the first direct constraints on quark-antiquark resonance masses below 50 GeV obtained at a hadron collider.
  13. Ahmad A, Jamil SNAM, Shean Yaw Choong T, Abdullah AH, Mastuli MS, Othman N, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Dec 04;11(12).
    PMID: 31817283 DOI: 10.3390/polym11122011
    This paper describes the preparation, characterisation, and potential application of flexible palm oil-based polyurethane foam (PUF) as a support for iron-silica (Fe-Si) adsorbent. Fe-Si/polyurethane composite (Fe-Si/PUC) was prepared by impregnating Fe-Si adsorbent onto the surface of PUF by using a novel immersion-drying method. Morphological analysis of Fe-Si/PUC proved that Fe-Si was successfully impregnated onto the surface of PUF. Compression test and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to determine the flexibility and thermal stability of Fe-Si/PUC, respectively. The Fe-Si/PUC removed 90.0% of 10 ppm methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution in 60 min. The reusability study showed that Fe-Si/PUC removed 55.9% of MB on the seventh cycle. Hence, the synthesis of Fe-Si/PUC opens up a new path of implementing palm oil-based PUF to assist in the recovery of an adsorbent for environmental clean-up. The mechanism of physical interaction during the impregnation of Fe-Si adsorbent onto PUF was proposed in this paper.
  14. Ahmad A, Ghufran R, Al-Hosni TK
    J Environ Health Sci Eng, 2019 Dec;17(2):1195-1203.
    PMID: 32030185 DOI: 10.1007/s40201-019-00434-2
    To investigate the interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with fly ash soil (FAS) for the reduction of metals from FAS by Parthenium hysterophorus were studied. The average accumulation of metals by P. hysterophorus stem were Fe 79.6%; Zn 88.5%; Cu 67.5%; Pb 93.6%; Ni 43.5% and Hg 39.4% at 5.5 g ZnO NP. The concentration of ZnO NP at 1.5 g did not affect the metals accumulation, however at 5.5 g ZnO NP showed highest metal reduction was 96.7% and at 10.5-15.5 g ZnO NP of 19.8%. The metal reduction rate was R
    max
    for Fe 16.4; Zn 21.1; Pb 41.9; Hg 19.1 was higher than Ni 6.4 and Cu 11.3 from the FAS at 5.5 g ZnO NP whereas, the reduction rate of Pb showed highest. With doses of 5.5 g ZnO NP the biomass increased upto 78%; the metal reduced upto 98.7% with the share of 100% ZnO NP from FAS. Further investigation with phytotoxicity the plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were affected due was mainly due to the recovery of metals from FAS (R2 = 0.99).
  15. Saminathan TA, Rodzlan Hasani WS, Robert Lourdes TG, Mohd Yusoff MF, Ismail H, Akmal Abd Hamid H, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Oct;31(7_suppl):53S-60S.
    PMID: 31189348 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519854873
    We assessed the prevalence of cessation of e-cigarette and its associated factors among adolescents in Malaysia. This study analyzed data from the Tobacco and E-Cigarette Survey among Malaysian Adolescent (TECMA) in 2016, a cross-sectional study with 2-stage stratification cluster sampling. A total of 14 832 school-going adolescents aged 10 to 19 years participated in this survey. A complex sampling design and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. Nearly half of the adolescents (49.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.9-55.0) who had ever used e-cigarette ceased the usage. Based on multivariate analysis, adolescents were more likely to quit e-cigarette because they could not afford the e-cigarette (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.78-3.20), if they are aged 13 year and older (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.25-2.61), and those who claimed their e-cigarette does not contain nicotine (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.03-1.78). E-cigarette prevention efforts among adolescents could consider the cessation factors described in this study.
  16. Lew LC, Hor YY, Yusoff NAA, Choi SB, Yusoff MSB, Roslan NS, et al.
    Clin Nutr, 2019 10;38(5):2053-2064.
    PMID: 30266270 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.010
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the effects of probiotic in alleviation of stress in stressed adults, along our focus to identify and justify strain specificity on selected health benefits with a precisely targeted population.

    METHODS: This 12-weeks randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum P8; 10 log CFU daily) on psychological, memory and cognition parameters in one hundred and three (P8 n = 52, placebo n = 51) stressed adults with mean age of 31.7 ± 11.1 years old. All subjects fulfilled the criteria of moderate stress upon diagnosis using the PSS-10 questionnaire.

    RESULTS: At the end of study, subjects on P8 showed reduced scores of stress (mean difference 2.94; 95% CI 0.08 to 5.73; P = 0.048), anxiety (mean difference 2.82; 95% CI 0.35 to 5.30; P = 0.031) and total score (mean difference 8.04; 95% CI 0.73 to 15.30; P = 0.041) as compared to placebo after 4-weeks, as assessed by the DASS-42 questionnaire. Although plasma cortisol levels were only marginally different between placebo and P8 (mean difference 3.28 ug/dl; 95% CI -7.09 to 0.52; P = 0.090), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ (mean difference 8.07 pg/ml; 95% CI -11.2 to -4.93; P 

  17. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Sep 27;123(13):131802.
    PMID: 31697516 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.131802
    A search for a light charged Higgs boson (H^{+}) decaying to a W boson and a CP-odd Higgs boson (A) in final states with eμμ or μμμ is performed using data from pp collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. In this search, it is assumed that the H^{+} boson is produced in decays of top quarks, and the A boson decays to two oppositely charged muons. The presence of signals for H^{+} boson masses between 100 and 160 GeV and A boson masses between 15 and 75 GeV is investigated. No evidence for the production of the H^{+} boson is found. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are obtained on the combined branching fraction for the decay chain, t→bH^{+}→bW^{+}A→bW^{+}μ^{+}μ^{-}, of 1.9×10^{-6} to 8.6×10^{-6}, depending on the masses of the H^{+} and A bosons. These are the first limits for these decay modes of the H^{+} and A bosons.
  18. Aziz ZAA, Nasir HM, Ahmad A, Setapar SHM, Ahmad H, Noor MHM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Sep 23;9(1):13678.
    PMID: 31548590 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50134-y
    Eucalyptus globulus is an aromatic medicinal plant which known for its 1,8-cineole main pharmacological constituent exhibits as natural analgesic agent. Eucalyptus globulus-loaded micellar nanoparticle was developed via spontaneous emulsification technique and further evaluation for its analgesic efficacy study, in vivo analgesic activity assay in rats. The nanoemulsion system containing Eucalyptus-micelles was optimized at different surfactant types (Tween 40, 60 and 80) and concentrations (3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12.0, 15.0, and 18.0 wt. %). These formulations were characterized by thermodynamically stability, viscosity, micelles particle size, pH, and morphology structure. The spontaneous emulsification technique offered a greener micelles formation in nanoemulsion system by slowly titrated of organic phase, containing Eucalyptus globulus (active compound), grape seed oil (carrier oil) and hydrophilic surfactant into aqueous phase, and continuously stirred for 30 min to form a homogeneity solution. The characterizations evaluation revealed an optimized formulation with Tween 40 surfactant type at 9.0 wt. % of surfactant concentration promoted the most thermodynamic stability, smaller micelles particle size (d = 17.13 ± 0.035 nm) formed with spherical shape morphological structure, and suitable in viscosity (≈2.3 cP) and pH value (6.57) for transdermal purpose. The in vivo analgesic activity assay of optimized emulsion showed that the transdermal administration of micellar nanoparticle of Eucalyptus globulus on fore and hind limb of rats, possessed the central and peripheral analgesic effects by prolonged the rats pain responses towards the heat stimulus after being put on top of hot plate (55 °C), with longest time responses, 40.75 s at 60 min after treatment administration. Thus, this study demonstrated that micellar nanoparticle of Eucalyptus globulus formed in nanoemulsion system could be promising as an efficient transdermal nanocarrier for the analgesic therapy alternative.
  19. Chen AH, Ahmad A, Kearney S, Strang N
    Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2019 Sep;257(9):1997-2004.
    PMID: 31273509 DOI: 10.1007/s00417-019-04405-z
    PURPOSE: Near work, accommodative inaccuracy and ambient lighting conditions have all been implicated in the development of myopia. However, differences in accommodative responses with age and refractive error under different visual conditions remain unclear. This study explores differences in accommodative ability and refractive error with exposure to differing ambient illumination and visual demands in Malay schoolchildren and adults.

    METHODS: Sixty young adults (21-25 years) and 60 schoolchildren (8-12 years) were recruited. Accommodative lag and accommodative fluctuations at far (6 m) and near (25 cm) were measured using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 open-field autorefractor. The effects of mesopic room illumination on accommodation were also investigated.

    RESULTS: Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that accommodative lag at far and near differed significantly between schoolchildren and young adults [F(1.219, 35.354) = 11.857, p  0.05). Accommodative lag and fluctuations were greater under mesopic room conditions for all ages [all p 

  20. Ahmad A, Abu Osman NA, Mokhtar H, Mehmood W, Kadri NA
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2019 Sep;233(9):901-908.
    PMID: 31244368 DOI: 10.1177/0954411919856144
    The Chêneau brace has proven its effectiveness in treating the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. However, no studies reported on the analysis of interface pressure in double-curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. In this study, we evaluated the interface pressure of the Chêneau brace action in double-curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patient treatment. A total of 72 (60 girls and 12 boys) patients aged 10 years and above participated in the study. The F-Socket transducers (9811E) were used to evaluate the pressure on the right thoracic and left thoracolumbar curves between normal and maximum strap tension and variation in these interface pressures with other tasks. Each patient was asked to do nine different tasks corresponding to daily activities, and the interface pressures for each activity were recorded for both normal and maximum tension. The resultant mean peak pressure in double-curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was higher for right thoracic curves than left thoracolumbar curves in all tasks. The pressure significantly increased at the task of maximal inspiration (p 
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