METHODS: The scoping review was conducted based on the framework by Arksey and O'Malley. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) diagram was used as a guide to record the review process. Articles from year 2008 until 2017 on overweight and obesity among adults aged 18 years and above were retrieved based on the keywords using electronic databases (Embase/Ovid, Pubmed, Cochrane library and Google Scholar). Local journals, Nutrition Research in Malaysia Biblography (2011 and 2016), online local theses databases, virtual library databases were also included in the searches. Consultations with relevant key informants from the National Institutes of Health and local universities were also conducted. Search activities were managed using Endnote software and MS Excelsheet.
RESULTS: The characteristics of the results were described based on the objectives of the review. A total of 2004 articles and reports were retrieved, and 188 articles related to obesity in Malaysia were included in the final review. Scopes and topics of obesity research based on the Nutrition Research Priorities in Malaysia (NRPM) for 11th Malaysia Plan were obesity prevalence, weight loss intervention, association of physical activities and dietary factors with obesity. The majority of obesity research among adults in Malaysia was cross sectional studies and only a small number of intervention studies, qualitative studies and systematic review were indentified. Research gaps were identified in order to make useful recommendations to the stakeholders.
CONCLUSIONS: In the past decade, there has been an emerging evidence on obesity research among adults in Malaysia. More obesity research needs to be conducted particularly on obesity intervention among specific gender, qualitative studies, economic cost and genetic factors of obesity.
METHODS: The fresh Azolla pinnata plant from Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia was used for crude extraction using Soxhlet and maceration methods. Then, the chemical composition of extracts and its structure were identified using GCMS-QP2010 Ultra (Shimadzu). Next, following the WHO procedures for larval bioassays, the extracts were used to evaluate the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes mosquito vectors.
RESULTS: The larvicidal activity of Azolla pinnata plant extracts evidently affected the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors. The Soxhlet extraction method had the highest larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti early 4th instar larvae, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1093 and 1343 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the maceration extraction compounds were recorded with the LC50 and LC95 values of 1280 and 1520 mg/L, respectively. The larvae bioassay test for Ae. albopictus showed closely similar values in its Soxhlet extraction, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1035 and 1524 mg/L, compared with the maceration extraction LC50 and LC95 values of 1037 and 1579 mg/L, respectively. The non-target organism test on guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata, showed no mortalities and posed no toxic effects. The chemical composition of the Azolla pinnata plant extract has been found and characterized as having 18 active compounds for the Soxhlet method and 15 active compounds for the maceration method.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that the crude extract of A. pinnata bioactive molecules are effective and have the potential to be developed as biolarvicides for Aedes mosquito vector control. This study recommends future research on the use of active ingredients isolated from A. pinnata extracts and their evaluation against larvicidal activity of Aedes in small-scale field trials for environmentally safe botanical insecticide invention.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome-wide microarray-based transcription analysis was carried out to detect the genes associated with metabolic resistance in these populations. Comparisons of the susceptible New Orleans strain to three non-exposed multiple insecticide resistant field strains; Penang, Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu detected 2605, 1480 and 425 differentially expressed transcripts respectively (fold-change>2 and p-value ≤ 0.05). 204 genes were commonly over-expressed with monooxygenase P450 genes (CYP9J27, CYP6CB1, CYP9J26 and CYP9M4) consistently the most up-regulated detoxification genes in all populations, indicating that they possibly play an important role in the resistance. In addition, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and other gene families commonly associated with insecticide resistance were also over-expressed. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated an over-representation of GO terms linked to resistance such as monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, glutathione S-transferases and heme-binding. Polymorphism analysis of CYP9J27 sequences revealed a high level of polymorphism (except in Joho Bharu), suggesting a limited directional selection on this gene. In silico analysis of CYP9J27 activity through modelling and docking simulations suggested that this gene is involved in the multiple resistance in Malaysian populations as it is predicted to metabolise pyrethroids, DDT and bendiocarb.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The predominant over-expression of cytochrome P450s suggests that synergist-based (PBO) control tools could be utilised to improve control of this major dengue vector across Malaysia.
Methodology: WESIHAT 2.0 was devised in a senior-friendly style, which includes touch screen, greater font size, larger icons, and employed multimedia components of text, images, and videos. The components employed in WESIHAT 2.0 were a screening tool called TUA-WELLNESS, 10 guides for memory improvement, health diary, and guide for a healthy menu. This application assessed a group of 73 candidates consisting of elderly people, health professionals, caregivers, and information technology (IT) professionals for 1 month.
Results: All the elderly people, caregivers, and 75% of IT and health professionals were satisfied with the subject matter of WESIHAT 2.0. About more than half of the elderly people, caregivers, and IT and health professionals had given a consensus on the comprehensive ease of the terminologies, sentences, images, table, and advice related to diet included in the web application. Proposals for improvements of the web portal included suggestions such as using smaller sentences, using greater font size, adding more images, and avoiding the use of unfamiliar terminologies.
Conclusion: WESIHAT 2.0 is a suitable tool for educating older people about the lifestyle modification strategies to slower progression to cognitive impairment, with regard to the significance of expert advice.