Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 16700 in total

  1. Choo BKM, Kundap UP, Kumari Y, Hue SM, Othman I, Shaikh MF
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:139.
    PMID: 29527169 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00139
    Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herbOrthosiphon stamineus, is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract ofO. stamineushas the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures in a zebrafish model; and the effects of the extract on the expression levels of several genes in the zebrafish brain which are associated with seizures. The results of this study indicate thatO. stamineushas the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures as it is pharmacologically active against seizures in a zebrafish model. The anti-convulsive effect of this extract is also comparable to that of diazepam at higher doses and can surpass diazepam in certain cases. Treatment with the extract also counteracts the upregulation of NF-κB, NPY and TNF-α as a result of a Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treated seizure. The anti-convulsive action for this extract could be at least partially due to its downregulation of TNF-α. Future work could include the discovery of the active anti-convulsive compound, as well as determine if the extract does not cause cognitive impairment in zebrafish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  2. Csato V, Kadir SZSA, Khavandi K, Bennett H, Sugden S, Gurney AM, et al.
    Physiol Rep, 2019 Nov;7(22):e14260.
    PMID: 31782255 DOI: 10.14814/phy2.14260
    We investigated the biomechanical relationship between intraluminal pressure within small mesenteric resistance arteries, oxidant activation of PKG, Ca2+ sparks, and BK channel vasoregulation. Mesenteric resistance arteries from wild type (WT) and genetically modified mice with PKG resistance to oxidative activation were studied using wire and pressure myography. Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ transients within vascular smooth muscle cells of intact arteries were characterized using high-speed confocal microscopy of intact arteries. Arteries were studied under conditions of varying intraluminal pressure and oxidation. Intraluminal pressure specifically, rather than the generic stretch of the artery, was necessary to activate the oxidative pathway. We demonstrated a graded step activation profile for the generation of Ca2+ sparks and also a functional "ceiling" for this pressure --sensitive oxidative pathway. During steady state pressure - induced constriction, any additional Ca2+ sensitive-K+ channel functional availability was independent of oxidant activated PKG. There was an increase in the amplitude, but not the Area under the Curve (AUC) of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in pressurized arteries from mice with oxidant-resistant PKG compared with wild type. Overall, we surmise that intraluminal pressure within resistance arteries controls Ca2+ spark vasoregulation through a tightly controlled pathway with a graded onset switch. The pathway, underpinned by oxidant activation of PKG, cannot be further boosted by additional pressure or oxidation once active. We propose that these restrictive characteristics of pressure-induced Ca2+ spark vasoregulation confer stability for the artery in order to provide a constant flow independent of additional pressure fluctuations or exogenous oxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  3. Greatrex JE
    Med Anthropol, 2023 May 19;42(4):340-353.
    PMID: 37022723 DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2023.2185887
    In this article, I examine epidemiological research into scrub typhus in British Malaya between 1924 and 1974. Interwar research, I show, explained the incidence of the disease through conjunctions of rats, mites, plantations, lalang grass, and "jungle." In the process, interwar researchers bridged a novel scientific vocabulary centering on disease "reservoirs" with older suspicions of plantations enabling "pests," as well as with a later, explicitly ecological understanding of infectious disease. In exploring this history I thereby help to re-historicize the emergence of ecological notions of disease reservoirs, whilst also pushing at the limit-points of influential notions of "tropicality."
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  4. Devaraj NK
    BMJ Case Rep, 2019 Feb 01;12(2).
    PMID: 30709894 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-228355
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  5. Zahler M, Rinder H, Zweygarth E, Fukata T, Maede Y, Schein E, et al.
    Parasitology, 2000 Apr;120 ( Pt 4):365-9.
    PMID: 10811277
    18S rDNA sequences from 4 isolates of Babesia gibsoni originating from Japan, Malaysia and Sri Lanka were compared with a previously published, 0.5 kb portion of the 18S rDNA from a B. gibsoni isolate from California, USA, and with the corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of other Babesia spp. Distance, parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses showed almost identical genotypes among the small canine Babesia from Asia, but an unexpectedly distant genetic relationship to that from the USA. While the American isolate segregated together with B. equi, the Asian isolates showed a close relationship to B. divergens and B. odocoilei. These results indicate that small Babesia of dogs originating from North America and Asia belong to different, genetically distantly related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  6. Islam MA, Alam F, Kamal MA, Wong KK, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2016;15(10):1253-1265.
    PMID: 27658514 DOI: 10.2174/1871527315666160920122750
    Neurological manifestations or disorders associated with the central nervous system are among the most common and important clinical characteristics of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although in the most recently updated (2006) APS classification criteria, the neurological manifestations encompass only transient ischemic attack and stroke, diverse 'non-criteria' neurological disorders or manifestations (i.e., headache, migraine, bipolar disorder, transverse myelitis, dementia, chorea, epileptic seizures, multiple sclerosis, psychosis, cognitive impairment, Tourette's syndrome, parkinsonism, dystonia, transient global amnesia, obsessive compulsive disorder and leukoencephalopathy) have been observed in APS patients. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these abnormal neurological manifestations in APS remain unclear. In vivo experiments and human observational studies indicate the involvement of thrombotic events and/or high titers of antiphospholipid antibodies in the neuro-pathogenic cascade of APS. Although different types of neurologic manifestations in APS patients have successfully been treated with therapies involving anti-thrombotic regimens (i.e., anticoagulants and/or platelet antiaggregants), antineuralgic drugs (i.e., antidepressants, antipsychotics and antiepileptics) and immunosuppressive drugs alone or in combination, evidence-based guidelines for the management of the neurologic manifestations of APS remain unavailable. Therefore, further experimental, clinical and retrospective studies with larger patient cohorts are warranted to elucidate the pathogenic linkage between APS and the central nervous system in addition to randomized controlled trials to facilitate the discovery of appropriate medications for the 'non-criteria' neurologic manifestations of APS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  7. Fewtrell MS, Mohd Shukri NH, Wells JCK
    BMC Med, 2020 01 09;18(1):4.
    PMID: 31915002 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-019-1473-8
    BACKGROUND: Promoting breastfeeding is an important public health intervention, with benefits for infants and mothers. Even modest increases in prevalence and duration may yield considerable economic savings. However, despite many initiatives, compliance with recommendations is poor in most settings - particularly for exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers commonly consult health professionals for infant feeding and behavioural problems.

    MAIN BODY: We argue that broader consideration of lactation, incorporating evolutionary, comparative and anthropological aspects, could provide new insights into breastfeeding practices and problems, enhance research and ultimately help to develop novel approaches to improve initiation and maintenance. Our current focus on breastfeeding as a strategy to improve health outcomes must engage with the evolution of lactation as a flexible trait under selective pressure to maximise reproductive fitness. Poor understanding of the dynamic nature of breastfeeding may partly explain why some women are unwilling or unable to follow recommendations.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identify three key implications for health professionals, researchers and policymakers. Firstly, breastfeeding is an adaptive process during which, as in other mammals, variability allows adaptation to ecological circumstances and reflects mothers' phenotypic variability. Since these factors vary within and between humans, the likelihood that a 'one size fits all' approach will be appropriate for all mother-infant dyads is counterintuitive; flexibility is expected. From an anthropological perspective, lactation is a period of tension between mother and offspring due to genetic 'conflicts of interest'. This may underlie common breastfeeding 'problems' including perceived milk insufficiency and problematic infant crying. Understanding this - and adopting a more flexible, individualised approach - may allow a more creative approach to solving these problems. Incorporating evolutionary concepts may enhance research investigating mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding; where possible, studies should be experimental to allow identification of causal effects and mechanisms. Finally, the importance of learned behaviour, social and cultural aspects of primate (especially human) lactation may partly explain why, in cultures where breastfeeding has lost cultural primacy, promotion starting in pregnancy may be ineffective. In such settings, educating children and young adults may be important to raise awareness and provide learning opportunities that may be essential in our species, as in other primates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  8. Saad JM, Soepadamo E, Fang XP, McLaughlin JL, Fanwick PE
    J Nat Prod, 1991 11 1;54(6):1681-3.
    PMID: 1812217
    The known lignan (-)-grandisin [1] has been isolated from Cryptocarya crassinervia by using the brine shrimp lethality test to direct the isolation; its structure and relative stereochemistry have been determined by ir, 1H nmr, ms, and X-ray crystallography as an all-trans alpha, alpha'-diaryl-beta, beta'-dimethyltetrahydrofuran. Compound 1 is not significantly cytotoxic in our panel of human tumor cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  9. Xu J, Cheng KK, Yang Z, Wang C, Shen G, Wang Y, et al.
    PMID: 26170882 DOI: 10.1155/2015/801691
    Gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- ((1)H NMR-) based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM) acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM) acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  10. Liu F, Wang S, Liu B, Wang Y, Tan W
    Cells, 2020 02 24;9(2).
    PMID: 32102363 DOI: 10.3390/cells9020511
    Psoriasis is a skin disease that is characterized by a high degree of inflammation caused by immune dysfunction. (R)-salbutamol is a bronchodilator for asthma and was reported to alleviate immune system reactions in several diseases. In this study, using imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse psoriasis-like dermatitis model, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of (R)-salbutamol in psoriasis in vivo, and explored the metabolic pathway involved. The results showed that, compared with IMQ group, (R)-salbutamol treatment significantly ameliorated psoriasis, reversed the suppressive effects of IMQ on differentiation, extreme keratinocyte proliferation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed that (R)-salbutamol markedly reduced the plasma levels of IL-17. Cell analysis using flow cytometry showed that (R)-salbutamol decreased the proportion of CD4+ Th17+ T cells (Th17), whereas it increased the percentage of CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleens. (R)-salbutamol also decreased the weight ratio of spleen to body. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomics showed that (R)-salbutamol affected three metabolic pathways, including (i) arachidonic acid metabolism, (ii) sphingolipid metabolism, and (iii) glycerophospholipid metabolism. These results demonstrated that (R)-salbutamol can alleviate IMQ-induced psoriasis through regulating Th17/Tregs cell response and glycerophospholipid metabolism. It may provide a new use of (R)-salbutamol in the management of psoriasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  11. Khoo LW, Kow ASF, Maulidiani M, Ang MY, Chew WY, Lee MT, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2019 Jan;30(1):46-61.
    PMID: 30183131 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2789
    INTRODUCTION: Clinacanthus nutans, a small shrub that is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and as a food source. Its anti-inflammation properties is influenced by the metabolites composition, which can be determined by different binary extraction solvent ratio and extraction methods used during plant post-harvesting stage.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.

    METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.

    RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50  = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  12. Sok SPM, Ori D, Wada A, Okude H, Kawasaki T, Momota M, et al.
    Int Immunol, 2021 06 18;33(7):373-386.
    PMID: 33830232 DOI: 10.1093/intimm/dxab016
    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain containing (NLRP) 3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that triggers Caspase-1-mediated IL-1β production and pyroptosis, and its dysregulation is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is a natural compound in the rhizome of tropical ginger Alpinia species with anti-microbial, anti-allergic and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we found that ACA suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and human THP-1 monocytes. ACA inhibited Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production by NLRP3 agonists such as nigericin, monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, and ATP. Moreover, it suppressed oligomerization of the adapter molecule, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and Caspase-1-mediated cleavage of pyroptosis executor Gasdermin D. Mechanistically, ACA inhibited generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA, which trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation. ACA also prevented NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo, as evidenced in the MSU crystal-induced peritonitis and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis mouse models accompanied by decreased Caspase-1 activation. Thus, ACA is a potent inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome for prevention of NLRP3-associated inflammatory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  13. In LL, Arshad NM, Ibrahim H, Azmi MN, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    PMID: 23043547 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-179
    Oral cancers although preventable, possess a low five-year survival rate which has remained unchanged over the past three decades. In an attempt to find a more safe, affordable and effective treatment option, we describe here the use of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a component of Malaysian ginger traditionally used for various medicinal purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  14. Subramani IG, Perumal V, Gopinath SCB, Mohamed NM, Ovinis M, Sze LL
    Sci Rep, 2021 10 21;11(1):20825.
    PMID: 34675227 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-00057-4
    The bovine milk allergenic protein, 'β-lactoglobulin' is one of the leading causes of milk allergic reaction. In this research, a novel label-free non-faradaic capacitive aptasensor was designed to detect β-lactoglobulin using a Laser Scribed Graphene (LSG) electrode. The graphene was directly engraved into a microgapped (~ 95 µm) capacitor-electrode pattern on a flexible polyimide (PI) film via a simple one-step CO2 laser irradiation. The novel hybrid nanoflower (NF) was synthesized using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) as the organic molecule and copper (Cu) as the inorganic molecule via one-pot biomineralization by tuning the reaction time and concentration. NF was fixed on the pre-modified PI film at the triangular junction of the LSG microgap specifically for bio-capturing β-lactoglobulin. The fine-tuned CDI-Cu NF revealed the flower-like structures was viewed through field emission scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed the interactions with PI film, CDI-Cu NF, oligoaptamer and β-lactoglobulin. The non-faradaic sensing of milk allergen β-lactoglobulin corresponds to a higher loading of oligoaptamer on 3D-structured CDI-Cu NF, with a linear range detection from 1 ag/ml to 100 fg/ml and attomolar (1 ag/ml) detection limit (S/N = 3:1). This novel CDI-Cu NF/LSG microgap aptasensor has a great potential for the detection of milk allergen with high-specificity and sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  15. Lim FP, Dolzhenko AV
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Oct 6;85:371-90.
    PMID: 25105925 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.112
    Purines can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Fusion of 1,3,5-triazine ring with pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole or 1,2,4-triazole results in seven bicyclic heterocyclic systems isosteric to purine. Application of the isosterism concept for the development of new compounds with therapeutic potential in areas involving purinergic regulation or purine metabolism led to significant advances in medicinal chemistry of the azolo[1,3,5]triazines. These 1,3,5-triazine-based purine-like scaffolds significantly increase level of molecular diversity and allow covering chemical space in the important areas of medicinal chemistry. Some of these azolo[1,3,5]triazine systems have become privileged scaffolds in the development of inhibitors of various kinases, phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, and thymidine phosphorylase, antagonists of adenosine and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors, anticancer and antiviral agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  16. Morgan ER, Aziz NA, Blanchard A, Charlier J, Charvet C, Claerebout E, et al.
    Trends Parasitol, 2019 01;35(1):52-71.
    PMID: 30477758 DOI: 10.1016/j.pt.2018.10.006
    An elicitation exercise was conducted to collect and identify pressing questions concerning the study of helminths in livestock, to help guide research priorities. Questions were invited from the research community in an inclusive way. Of 385 questions submitted, 100 were chosen by online vote, with priority given to open questions in important areas that are specific enough to permit investigation within a focused project or programme of research. The final list of questions was divided into ten themes. We present the questions and set them briefly in the context of the current state of knowledge. Although subjective, the results provide a snapshot of current concerns and perceived priorities in the field of livestock helminthology, and we hope that they will stimulate ongoing or new research efforts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  17. Ruszymah BH, Zaiton Z, Aminuddin S, Khalid BA
    Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes, 2001;109(4):227-30.
    PMID: 11453035
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altered thyroid status on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD type 1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD type 2) bioactivity in rat kidney and colon. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250 g) were treated with either L-thyroxine (T4) or propylthiouracil (PTU) for 4 weeks. Blood were then analysed for serum thyroxine, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). The kidneys and colon were assayed for 11beta-HSD type 1 and 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity. In T4 treated rats the serum thyroxine was significantly elevated (p<0.05) whilst PTU decreased serum thyroxine significantly (p<0.001) compared to controls. Serum Na+ and K+ were within normal limits. There were no significant changes in 11beta-HSD type 1 bioactivity in both treatment groups compared to controls. However, the 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity in rats given thyroxine was significantly higher in the colon (p<0.003) compared to controls. We conclude that altered thyroid status had no effect on 11beta-HSD type 1 bioactivity but 11beta-HSD type 2 bioactivity was elevated in the colon of rats given supplementary thyroxine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  18. Phan CS, Kamada T, Ishii T, Hamada T, Vairappan CS
    Nat Prod Res, 2019 Mar;33(6):808-813.
    PMID: 29202596 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1410812
    One new compound, 12-epi-9-deacetoxyxenicin (1) along with a hydroperoxide product, 12-epi-9-deacetoxy-8-hydroperoxyxenicin (2) and two known sesquiterpenoids (3-4) were isolated from a population of Bornean soft coral Xenia sp. The structures of these secondary metabolites were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxic activity against ATL cell line, S1T. In addition, compound 3 exhibited hyphal inhibition of Lagenidium thermophilum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  19. Chua, Y.C.J., Lim, L.A., Hudzairy, A.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(1):91-94.
    We are reporting a case of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia with an open wound exposing an intra medullar nail implant for 13 years. The patient presented with fresh ipsilateral tibia plateau fracture. He was treated by removal of the implant, debridement and local placement of Gentamicin-impregnated PMMA beads according to guidelines of two-stage Belfast technique . After five months of wound treatment, the exposed bone was covered by healthy granulation tissue and the patient was able to fully bear weight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
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