Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 928 in total

  1. Kathleen, M.M., Samuel, L., Felecia, C., Ng K. H., Lesley, M.B., Kasing, A.
    (GTG)5 PCR is a type of repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR which amplifies the (GTG)5 repetitive element that lays throughout the bacterial genome. In this study, fifty, thirty-nine and forty-nine unknown bacteria were isolated from aquaculture farms in Miri, Limbang and Lundu, respectively. (GTG)5 PCR was used to screen for clonal diversity among the isolates according to sampling sites. Banding profiles obtained from electrophoresed (GTG)5 PCR products were analyzed by RAPDistance Software to generate a dendrogram of neighbor joining tree (NJT) format. Based on the constructed dendrogram, representative isolates were selected for further identification. Conserved 16S rRNA region of the selected bacteria isolates were amplified and purified DNA products were sequenced. (GTG)5 PCR is useful in differentiation of unknown bacterial isolates and 16S rRNA analysis species identity of the bacteria in Sarawak aquaculture environment. The high diversity of bacteria in aquaculture environment may be caused by contamination from various sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria; Genome, Bacterial
  2. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(13):1080-1092.
    PMID: 30306865 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181009151008
    BACKGROUND: Increased rate of mortality due to the development of resistance to currently available antimicrobial and anticancer agents initiated the need to develop new chemical entities for the treatment of microbial infections and cancer.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to synthesize and evaluate antimicrobial and anticancer activities of Schiff bases of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole.

    METHODS: The Schiff bases of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole were synthesized from 4-(2-(1H-benzo[d]- imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and anticancer activities by tube dilution method and Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compounds 8 (MICpa, an = 2.41, 1.20 µM/ml), 10 (MICse, sa = 2.50 µM/ml), 20 (MICec = 2.34 µM/ml) and 25 (MICca = 1.46 µM/ml) showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains and compounds 20 (IC50 = 8 µg/ml) and 23 (IC50 = 7 µg/ml) exhibited significant anticancer activity.

    CONCLUSION: In general, the synthesized derivatives exhibited moderate antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Compounds 8 and 25 having high antifungal potential among the synthesized compounds may be taken as lead molecules for the development of novel antifungal agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
  3. Tahlan S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, Mani V, Narasimhan B
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):12.
    PMID: 31384761 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0533-7
    Background: Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important target for antimetabolite class of antimicrobials because it participates in purine synthesis. 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI) has similar structural features as purine nucleotides. Given that benzimidazole and similar heteroaromatics have been broadly examined for their anticancer potential, so, we hereby report the design, synthesis and biological studies (i.e. antimicrobial and anticancer studies) of 2MBI derivatives.

    Methodology: The antimicrobial activity of synthesized 2MBI derivatives were evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial species as well as fungal species by tube dilution technique whereas their anticancer activity was assessed against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116) by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. They were also structurally characterized by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analyses.

    Results discussion and conclusion: The antimicrobial activity findings revealed that compound N1 (MIC
     = 1.27, 2.54, 1.27 µM), N8 (MIC
    = 1.43 µM), N22 (MIC
    = 2.60 µM), N23 and N25 (MIC
    = 2.65 µM) exhibited significant antimicrobial effects against tested strains, i.e. Gram-positive, Gram-negative (bacterial) and fungal strains. The anticancer screening results demonstrated that compounds N9, N18 (IC50 = 5.85, 4.53 µM) were the most potent compounds against cancer cell line (HCT116) even more than 5-FU, the standard drug (IC50 = 9.99 µM).

    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria
  4. Chu KB, Abdulah A, Abdullah SZ, Bakar RA
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2013 Dec;24(2):77-84.
    PMID: 24575250 MyJurnal
    The mass mortality of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) within 2-3 days was reported by 3 private farms in Bukit Tambun, Pulau Pinang, in February and March 2007. Only cobia with body weights of 3-4 kg were affected. Most diseased cobia swam on the surface and displayed flashing behaviour. All samples were positive for viral nervous necrosis (VNN) with low to medium levels of infection. Infestations by leeches (Zeylanicobdella arugamensis), body monogeneans (Benedenia sp.) and copepods (Caligus sp.) were also found, but no pathogenic bacteria were isolated. All water quality parameters monitored were within optimal ranges for culturing cobia. The main causes of high mortality in cobia remain unclear during the study. However, we believe that the mass mortality of cobia could be probably due to VNN infection and that the rate of mortality will increase further when cobia are subjected to aquaculture-related stresses (e.g., limited space). Traditional cages with a size of 2 (length) × 2 (width) × 1 m (depth) should only be used for rearing cobia below 1 kg in weight given the species' natural behaviours. In addition, cobia fingerlings should be screened for VNN prior to stocking them in cages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria
  5. AlMatar M, Albarri O, Makky EA, Var I, Köksal F
    Curr Drug Targets, 2020;21(13):1326-1343.
    PMID: 32564749 DOI: 10.2174/1389450121666200621193018
    Iron, which is described as the most basic component found in nature, is hard to be assimilated by microorganisms. It has become increasingly complicated to obtain iron from nature as iron (II) in the presence of oxygen oxidized to press (III) oxide and hydroxide, becoming unsolvable at neutral pH. Microorganisms appeared to produce organic molecules known as siderophores in order to overcome this condition. Siderophore's essential function is to connect with iron (II) and make it dissolvable and enable cell absorption. These siderophores, apart from iron particles, have the ability to chelate various other metal particles that have collocated away to focus the use of siderophores on wound care items. There is a severe clash between the host and the bacterial pathogens during infection. By producing siderophores, small ferric iron-binding molecules, microorganisms obtain iron. In response, host immune cells produce lipocalin 2 to prevent bacterial reuptake of siderophores loaded with iron. Some bacteria are thought to produce lipocalin 2-resistant siderophores to counter this risk. The aim of this article is to discuss the recently described roles and applications of bacterial siderophore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry; Bacteria/metabolism*
  6. Verasoundarapandian G, Wong CY, Shaharuddin NA, Gomez-Fuentes C, Zulkharnain A, Ahmad SA
    PMID: 33572432 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041671
    The globe is presently reliant on natural resources, fossil fuels, and crude oil to support the world's energy requirements. Human exploration for oil resources is always associated with irreversible effects. Primary sources of hydrocarbon pollution are instigated through oil exploration, extraction, and transportation in the Arctic region. To address the state of pollution, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms and processes of the bioremediation of hydrocarbons. The application of various microbial communities originated from the Arctic can provide a better interpretation on the mechanisms of specific microbes in the biodegradation process. The composition of oil and consequences of hydrocarbon pollutants to the various marine environments are also discussed in this paper. An overview of emerging trends on literature or research publications published in the last decade was compiled via bibliometric analysis in relation to the topic of interest, which is the microbial community present in the Arctic and Antarctic marine environments. This review also presents the hydrocarbon-degrading microbial community present in the Arctic, biodegradation metabolic pathways (enzymatic level), and capacity of microbial degradation from the perspective of metagenomics. The limitations are stated and recommendations are proposed for future research prospects on biodegradation of oil contaminants by microbial community at the low temperature regions of the Arctic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics
  7. Tang PW, Chua PS, Chong SK, Mohamad MS, Choon YW, Deris S, et al.
    Recent Pat Biotechnol, 2015;9(3):176-97.
    PMID: 27185502
    BACKGROUND: Predicting the effects of genetic modification is difficult due to the complexity of metabolic net- works. Various gene knockout strategies have been utilised to deactivate specific genes in order to determine the effects of these genes on the function of microbes. Deactivation of genes can lead to deletion of certain proteins and functions. Through these strategies, the associated function of a deleted gene can be identified from the metabolic networks.

    METHODS: The main aim of this paper is to review the available techniques in gene knockout strategies for microbial cells. The review is done in terms of their methodology, recent applications in microbial cells. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are compared and discuss and the related patents are also listed as well.

    RESULTS: Traditionally, gene knockout is done through wet lab (in vivo) techniques, which were conducted through laboratory experiments. However, these techniques are costly and time consuming. Hence, various dry lab (in silico) techniques, where are conducted using computational approaches, have been developed to surmount these problem.

    CONCLUSION: The development of numerous techniques for gene knockout in microbial cells has brought many advancements in the study of gene functions. Based on the literatures, we found that the gene knockout strategies currently used are sensibly implemented with regard to their benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics*
  8. Chukwuma OB, Rafatullah M, Tajarudin HA, Ismail N
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021 Jun 03;18(11).
    PMID: 34204975 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18116001
    Discovering novel bacterial strains might be the link to unlocking the value in lignocellulosic bio-refinery as we strive to find alternative and cleaner sources of energy. Bacteria display promise in lignocellulolytic breakdown because of their innate ability to adapt and grow under both optimum and extreme conditions. This versatility of bacterial strains is being harnessed, with qualities like adapting to various temperature, aero tolerance, and nutrient availability driving the use of bacteria in bio-refinery studies. Their flexible nature holds exciting promise in biotechnology, but despite recent pointers to a greener edge in the pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass and lignocellulose-driven bioconversion to value-added products, the cost of adoption and subsequent scaling up industrially still pose challenges to their adoption. However, recent studies have seen the use of co-culture, co-digestion, and bioengineering to overcome identified setbacks to using bacterial strains to breakdown lignocellulose into its major polymers and then to useful products ranging from ethanol, enzymes, biodiesel, bioflocculants, and many others. In this review, research on bacteria involved in lignocellulose breakdown is reviewed and summarized to provide background for further research. Future perspectives are explored as bacteria have a role to play in the adoption of greener energy alternatives using lignocellulosic biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria
  9. Reddy LJ, Kumar PS, Pandrangi SL, Chikati R, Srinivasulu C, John A, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2023 Apr;195(4):2743-2766.
    PMID: 36422804 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-022-04215-w
    The majority of the Earth's ecosystem is frigid and frozen, which permits a vast range of microbial life forms to thrive by triggering physiological responses that allow them to survive in cold and frozen settings. The apparent biotechnology value of these cold-adapted enzymes has been targeted. Enzymes' market size was around USD 6.3 billion in 2017 and will witness growth at around 6.8% CAGR up to 2024 owing to shifting consumer preferences towards packaged and processed foods due to the rising awareness pertaining to food safety and security reported by Global Market Insights (Report ID-GMI 743). Various firms are looking for innovative psychrophilic enzymes in order to construct more effective biochemical pathways with shorter reaction times, use less energy, and are ecologically acceptable. D-Galactosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic oxygen link between the terminal non-reducing D-galactoside unit and the glycoside molecule. At refrigerated temperature, the stable structure of psychrophile enzymes adjusts for the reduced kinetic energy. It may be beneficial in a wide variety of activities such as pasteurization of food, conversion of biomass, biological role of biomolecules, ambient biosensors, and phytoremediation. Recently, psychrophile enzymes are also used in claning the contact lens. β-D-Galactosidases have been identified and extracted from yeasts, fungi, bacteria, and plants. Conventional (hydrolyzing activity) and nonconventional (non-hydrolytic activity) applications are available for these enzymes due to its transgalactosylation activity which produce high value-added oligosaccharides. This review content will offer new perspectives on cold-active β-galactosidases, their source, structure, stability, and application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/metabolism
  10. Ding CH, Hussin S, Tzar MN, Rahman MM, Ramli SR
    Pak J Med Sci, 2013 Apr;29(2):666-8.
    PMID: 24353601
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an free-living gram-negative bacterium causing melioidosis and is endemic in Southeast Asia. A 56-year-old diabetic construction worker with a 1-month history of abdominal pain and 1-day history of high-grade fever was found to have a left non-dissecting infrarenal mycotic aortic aneurysm by abdominal computerized tomography scan. Bacteriological examination of his blood yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei. The patient was treated with right axillo-bifemoral bypass with excision of aneurysm and high-dose intravenous ceftazidime for two weeks, followed by oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and oral doxycycline for a minimum of five months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria
  11. Asdren Zajmi, Nur Atikah Adam, Mohammed Abdelfatah Alhoot
    Introduction: Tropical phagedenic ulcer is a skin disease caused by a cocktail of bacteria. This painful ulcer forms over the lower limbs. It is also associated with necrotic slough and foul-smelling discharge that eventually lead to amputation and permanent disabilities. Tropical phagedenic ulcer in Malaysia has not been given much attention. In light of this situation, this research was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tropical phagedenic ulcer among the public in Shah Alam, Selangor. Methods: The total respondents were 384, consisting of 164 males and 220 females who were randomly selected. Data were obtained qualitatively through structured questionnaires and analysed using the chi-square test to study the association between the dependent variables and demographic factors. Results: The collected data showed that the respondents (67.2%) had poor knowledge of trop- ical phagedenic ulcer; merely 65.4% considered it to be a health problem, whereas 29.7% believed it is contagious. Also, the data revealed an association between age (χ2=13.587, p =0.004), marital status (χ2=15.435, p=0.001), time spent in community (χ2=6.438, p=0.04) and knowledge of the local name of tropical phagedenic ulcer. About 74.7% of the respondents did not know the cause of tropical phagedenic ulcer. Only 22.1% of the respondents had encoun- tered tropical phagedenic ulcer patients and an association was found between the variable with gender (χ2=4.672, p =0.031), age (χ2=24.134, p =0.000) and marital status (χ2=17.143, p =0.001). Conclusion: This study reveals mis- conceptions about the aetiology and transmission of tropical phagedenic ulcer which greatly influence the attitude of community members towards tropical phagedenic ulcer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria; Bacterial Infections
  12. Saini, D., Nadig, G., Saini, R.
    The main objective of a root end filling material is to provide an apical seal that prevents the movement of bacteria and the diffusion of bacterial products from the root canal system into periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of three root end filling materials Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Glass ionomer cement (GIC) and Silver GIC (Miracle Mix) using dye penetration technique under stereomicroscope. Forty-five extracted human maxillary central incisors were instrumented and obturated with gutta percha using lateral compaction technique. Following this, the teeth were stored in saline. After one week, teeth were apically resected at an angle of 90ï° to the long axis of the root and root end cavities were prepared. The teeth were divided into three groups of fifteen specimens each and were filled with Group I -MTA, Group II - GIC and Group III - Miracle Mix. The samples were coated with varnish and after drying, they were immersed in 1% methylene blue dye for 72 hours. The teeth were then rinsed, sectioned longitudinally and observed under stereomicroscope. The depth of dye penetration was measured in millimeters. Microleakage was found to be significantly less in MTA (0.83 mm) when compared to GIC (1.32 mm) (p < 0.001) and with Miracle Mix (1.39 mm) (p < 0.001) No significant difference was found when microleakage in Miracle Mix was compared to that of GIC (p = 0.752). Thus we concluded that MTA is a better material as root end filling material to prevent microleakage, in comparison to GIC and Miracle Mix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria
  13. Lim VK, Halijah MY
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Jun;15(1):65-8.
    PMID: 8277793
    Cefepime is a new cephalosporin antibiotic which is highly active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the in-vitro activity of cefepime and three other cephalosporins against recent clinical isolates from patients at the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur. A total of 334 strains comprising Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for their sensitivity to cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics were established using an agar dilution method. With the exception of some strains of Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Xanthomonas maltophilia and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, cefepime was found to be active against a wide range of Gram-negative organisms. Cefepime was as or more active than the other cephalosporins against Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Strains of Klebsiella and Salmonella that were resistant to the third generation cephalosporins were sensitive to cefepime. Cefepime could be a valuable alternative for the treatment of nosocomial infections due to multiply resistant organisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects
  14. Oruganti RK, Katam K, Show PL, Gadhamshetty V, Upadhyayula VKK, Bhattacharyya D
    Bioengineered, 2022 Apr;13(4):10412-10453.
    PMID: 35441582 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2022.2056823
    The scarcity of water resources and environmental pollution have highlighted the need for sustainable wastewater treatment. Existing conventional treatment systems are energy-intensive and not always able to meet stringent disposal standards. Recently, algal-bacterial systems have emerged as environmentally friendly sustainable processes for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. The algal-bacterial systems work on the principle of the symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria. This paper comprehensively discusses the most recent studies on algal-bacterial systems for wastewater treatment, factors affecting the treatment, and aspects of resource recovery from the biomass. The algal-bacterial interaction includes cell-to-cell communication, substrate exchange, and horizontal gene transfer. The quorum sensing (QS) molecules and their effects on algal-bacterial interactions are briefly discussed. The effect of the factors such as pH, temperature, C/N/P ratio, light intensity, and external aeration on the algal-bacterial systems have been discussed. An overview of the modeling aspects of algal-bacterial systems has been provided. The algal-bacterial systems have the potential for removing micropollutants because of the diverse possible interactions between algae-bacteria. The removal mechanisms of micropollutants - sorption, biodegradation, and photodegradation, have been reviewed. The harvesting methods and resource recovery aspects have been presented. The major challenges associated with algal-bacterial systems for real scale implementation and future perspectives have been discussed. Integrating wastewater treatment with the algal biorefinery concept reduces the overall waste component in a wastewater treatment system by converting the biomass into a useful product, resulting in a sustainable system that contributes to the circular bioeconomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics; Bacteria/metabolism
  15. Graham LE, Knack JJ, Graham ME, Graham JM, Zulkifly S
    J Phycol, 2015 Jun;51(3):408-18.
    PMID: 26986658 DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12296
    Periphyton dominated by the cellulose-rich filamentous green alga Cladophora forms conspicuous growths along rocky marine and freshwater shorelines worldwide, providing habitat for diverse epibionts. Bacterial epibionts have been inferred to display diverse functions of biogeochemical significance: N-fixation and other redox reactions, phosphorus accumulation, and organic degradation. Here, we report taxonomic diversity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic epibionts and diversity of genes associated with materials cycling in a Cladophora metagenome sampled from Lake Mendota, Dane Co., WI, USA, during the growing season of 2012. A total of 1,060 distinct 16S, 173 18S, and 351 28S rRNA operational taxonomic units, from which >220 genera or species of bacteria (~60), protists (~80), fungi (6), and microscopic metazoa (~80), were distinguished with the use of reference databases. We inferred the presence of several algal taxa generally associated with marine systems and detected Jaoa, a freshwater periphytic ulvophyte previously thought endemic to China. We identified six distinct nifH gene sequences marking nitrogen fixation, >25 bacterial and eukaryotic cellulases relevant to sedimentary C-cycling and technological applications, and genes encoding enzymes in aerobic and anaerobic pathways for vitamin B12 biosynthesis. These results emphasize the importance of Cladophora in providing habitat for microscopic metazoa, fungi, protists, and bacteria that are often inconspicuous, yet play important roles in ecosystem biogeochemistry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria
  16. Shukor Y, Shamsuddin B, Mohamad O, Ithnin K
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Feb 15;11(4):672-5.
    PMID: 18817148
    In this research, we modify a previously developed assay for the quantification molybdenum blue to determine whether inhibitors to molybdate reduction in bacteria inhibits cellular reduction or inhibit the chemical formation of one of the intermediate of molybdenum blue; phosphomolybdate. We manage to prove that inhibition of molybdate reduction by phosphate and arsenate is at the level of phosphomolybdate and not cellular. We also prove that mercury is a physiological inhibitor to molybdate reduction. We suggest the use of this method to assess the effect of inhibitors and activators to molybdate reduction in bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/metabolism*
  17. Cheong YM, Ng YP, Chin CS, Thambu J
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Mar;47(1):44-50.
    PMID: 1387449
    Vaginal discharge is a common complaint of women attending gynaecological clinics. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of commonly implicated microorganisms in vaginal discharge amongst women with or without the complaint, attending a gynaecological and family planning clinic. The association of Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis was also studied. It was found that there were no significant differences between the cases and controls in the isolation rate of Gardnerella vaginalis, Torulopsis glabrata, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma ssp and Group B streptococcus (p greater than 0.05). Only the isolation rate of Candida albicans was significantly higher in the cases than controls (p less than 0.01). However, there was a significant association of G. vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*; Vaginosis, Bacterial/etiology
  18. Haripriyan U, Arun J, Gopinath KP, Mythili R, Kim W, Govarthanan M
    Arch Microbiol, 2022 Dec 15;205(1):29.
    PMID: 36522563 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-022-03367-x
    Bioremediation of heavy metals and dyes is one of the emerging techniques globally as it is evident from the numerous publications made by various research groups. Biofilm-assisted bioremediation is one of the trending approaches as it facilitates negatively charged extracellular polymeric substances which makes the bacteria resistant to the toxic chemicals. Genetic engineering of microbes will make them unique in the bioremediation process. This mini-review concentrates on source and toxic effects of heavy metals and dyes on aqueous and living beings. Further, the genetic improvement strategies for effective bioremediation are described. However, the gap between practicability and real-time applicability needs to test with real-time wastewater in the industrial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics
  19. Hui DS, Ip M, Ling T, Chang SC, Liao CH, Yoo CG, et al.
    Respirology, 2011 Apr;16(3):532-9.
    PMID: 21299688 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.01943.x
    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem and the prevalence is high in many Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects; Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
  20. Contreras E, Masuyer G, Qureshi N, Chawla S, Dhillon HS, Lee HL, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 06 28;10(1):2869.
    PMID: 31253776 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10732-w
    Clostridial neurotoxins, including tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins, generally target vertebrates. We show here that this family of toxins has a much broader host spectrum, by identifying PMP1, a clostridial-like neurotoxin that selectively targets anopheline mosquitoes. Isolation of PMP1 from Paraclostridium bifermentans strains collected in anopheline endemic areas on two continents indicates it is widely distributed. The toxin likely evolved from an ancestral form that targets the nervous system of similar organisms, using a common mechanism that disrupts SNARE-mediated exocytosis. It cleaves the mosquito syntaxin and employs a unique receptor recognition strategy. Our research has an important impact on the study of the evolution of clostridial neurotoxins and provides the basis for the use of P. bifermentans strains and PMP1 as innovative, environmentally friendly approaches to reduce malaria through anopheline control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/metabolism; Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology*
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