Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 929 in total

  1. Juliana N, Shahar S, Sahar MA, Ghazali AR, Manaf ZA, Noah RM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2017 Mar;26(2):278-286.
    PMID: 28244706 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.122015.05
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nutrition and physical activity interventions is beneficial in reversing obesity. However far too little attention has been paid to the effect of these interventions on breast tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of a home-based dietary and physical activity intervention (the Her Shape Program) on metabolic parameters, blood biomarkers and adiposity at the breast.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled study was conducted on obese women with high breast adiposity (<0.1 Sm-1), aged 40-60 years in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Subjects were assigned to intervention (n=16) and control group (n=15). Intervention group received a home based health education package with close monitoring weekly, personal diet consultation and physical training in group. Assessment was ascertained at three time points; baseline, weeks 8 and 16. Outcome measures were the energy intake, physical activity, body composition, blood tests, blood biomarkers and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) quantitative values. Analyses were done using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All subjects completed the program without any drop-out. The HSI group had 100% compliance towards the intervention program; their energy intake was reduced for approximately 35% and their activity score was increased for approximately 11%. A significant interaction effect was found in body weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol/HDL, vitamin C intake and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) (p<0.05). Interestingly, their EIT extremum values were also significantly increased indicating a reduction of breast adiposity. The intervention program was successful in improving body composition, physical activities, MMP9 and breast adipose tissue composition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Borhanuddin B, Mohd Nawi A, Shah SA, Abdullah N, Syed Zakaria SZ, Kamaruddin MA, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2018;2018:2979206.
    PMID: 30111990 DOI: 10.1155/2018/2979206
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) leads to high morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. Therefore, it is important to determine the risk of CVD across the sociodemographic factors to strategize preventive measures. The current study consisted of 53,122 adults between the ages of 35 and 65 years from The Malaysian Cohort project during recruitment phase from year 2006 to year 2012. Sociodemographic profile and physical activity level were assessed via self-reported questionnaire, whereas relevant CVD-related biomarkers and biophysical variables were measured to determine the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). The main outcome was the 10-year risk of CVD via FRS calculated based on lipid profile and body mass index (BMI) associated formulae. The BMI-based formula yielded a higher estimation of 10-year CVD risk than the lipid profile-based formula in the study for both males (median = 13.2% and 12.7%, respectively) and females (median = 4.3% and 4.2%, respectively). The subgroup with the highest risk for 10-year CVD events (based on both FRS formulae) was the Malay males who have lower education level and low physical activity level. Future strategies for the reduction of CVD risk should focus on screening via BMI-based FRS in this at-risk subpopulation to increase the cost-effectiveness of the prevention initiatives.
    Study name: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Wan Ahmad Hazim, Nur Hidayah Aeshah Ng, Salleha Khalid
    Minimally invasive surgery results in faster recovery. The objective of this study is to identify criteria for the feasibility of 24-hour discharge post laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. This is a prospective cross-sectional study that was carried out at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department in Putrajaya Hospital between 1 January and 31 December, 2016. The inclusion criteria were: age between 15 and 45, no comorbidities, no family history of malignancy, BMI of less than 30, mass size less than 18 weeks, single uninoculated simple cyst and no ascites. The exclusion criteria were post-menopause women, known medical illness, family history of malignancy, mass size more than 18 weeks, multiloculated or bilateral ovarian cyst, presence of solid area within the cyst and ascites. The sample size was calculated to be 14. A total of 16 participants were identified. Results showed that using the Visual Analogue Score (VAS), the mean pain score post operatively in the first six hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, two weeks and three months were 3.67, 2.57, 0.5, 0 and 0, respectively. Two of the subjects experienced post-operative nausea and vomiting, one had urinary tract infection and one had minor bleeding from the surgical site. All the participants were discharged within 24 hours post-operatively. There was no readmission. In conclusion, 24-hour discharge post laparoscopic cystectomy is safe and feasible. Factors determining the success must be adhered to closely to ensure a good and satisfactory outcome. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Christakoudi S, Tsilidis KK, Muller DC, Freisling H, Weiderpass E, Overvad K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 Sep 03;10(1):14541.
    PMID: 32883969 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-71302-5
    Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Whitton C, Rebello SA, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM
    J Nutr, 2018 Apr 01;148(4):616-623.
    PMID: 29659965 DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy016
    BACKGROUND: Healthful dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Western populations. However, a consistent healthful dietary pattern across major Asian ethnic groups has yet to be identified.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations.

    METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 8433 Singapore residents (aged 21-94 y) from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort study of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. With the use of 28 food groups, dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using multiple linear regression. Associations between derived patterns and a priori patterns (aHEI-2010-Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMED-alternate Mediterranean Diet, and DASH-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) were assessed, and the magnitude of associations with risk factors compared.

    RESULTS: We identified a "healthy" dietary pattern, similar across ethnic groups, and characterized by high intakes of whole grains, fruit, dairy, vegetables, and unsaturated cooking oil and low intakes of Western fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, poultry, processed meat, and flavored rice. This "healthy" pattern was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (-0.26 per 1 SD of the pattern score; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.16), waist circumference (-0.57 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.32), total cholesterol (-0.070 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.091, -0.048), LDL cholesterol (-0.054 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.074, -0.035), and fasting triglycerides (-0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004) and directly associated with HDL cholesterol (0.013 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.021). Generally, "healthy" pattern associations were at least as strong as a priori pattern associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    CONCLUSION: A healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Zhao D, Kim MH, Pastor-Barriuso R, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0146057.
    PMID: 26731527 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146057
    IMPORTANCE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits).

    EXPOSURES: BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.

    RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Murphy N, Cross AJ, Abubakar M, Jenab M, Aleksandrova K, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2016 Apr;13(4):e1001988.
    PMID: 27046222 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001988
    BACKGROUND: Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models with BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer risk among metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.28) and metabolically unhealthy/overweight (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94) participants, but not among metabolically healthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.65-1.42). Among the overweight individuals, lower colorectal cancer risk was observed for metabolically healthy/overweight individuals compared with metabolically unhealthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). These associations were generally consistent when waist circumference was used as the measure of adiposity. To our knowledge, there is no universally accepted clinical definition for using C-peptide level as an indication of hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore, a possible limitation of our analysis was that the classification of individuals as being hyperinsulinaemic-based on their C-peptide level-was arbitrary. However, when we used quartiles or the median of C-peptide, instead of tertiles, as the cut-point of hyperinsulinaemia, a similar pattern of associations was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that individuals with the metabolically healthy/overweight phenotype (with normal insulin levels) are at lower colorectal cancer risk than those with hyperinsulinaemia. The combination of anthropometric measures with metabolic parameters, such as C-peptide, may be useful for defining strata of the population at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Mohamed M, Winn T, Rampal GL, Abdul Rashid A, Mustaffa B
    Malays J Med Sci, 2005 Jan;12(1):20-5.
    PMID: 22605943
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death since the last three decades in Malaysia and diabetes mellitus and hypertension are considered as major risk factors. A study to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the community (PIKOM) through education and lifestyle changes was undertaken. The study population was from four different areas in Peninsular Malaysia - Kota Bharu and Bachok in Kelantan ; Raub in Pahang; Gunung Besout in Perak and Felda Palong in Negri Sembilan. The subjects invited to participate in this study ware aged between 30 - 65 years, did not have any debilitating illnesses and no known history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Subjects were asked to come to the local clinic in a fasting state and after physical examination, blood was taken for plasma glucose and lipids. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was then performed. A total of 4,121 subjects participated in the study. The proportion of subjects with diabetes mellitus was highest in Felda Palong area (20.3%) and lowest in Raub area (7.1%). The proportion of subjects with hypertension was also highest in Felda Palong area (38.6%) and lowest in Raub area (29.1%). This could be attributable to the subjects in Felda Palong having the highest mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR). There were significant associations between diabetes and hypertension with age and obesity. Subjects with diabetes mellitus and hypertension also had the highest mean age, BMI, WHR and plasma cholesterol.In conclusion, the proportion of patients with risk factors for CVD was high and intervention studies through education and lifestyle changes were being carried out to see their effectiveness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. Petito LC, McCabe ME, Pool LR, Krefman AE, Perak AM, Marino BS, et al.
    Am J Prev Med, 2024 Feb;66(2):216-225.
    PMID: 37751803 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2023.09.019
    INTRODUCTION: Clinical cardiovascular health is a construct that includes 4 health factors-systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and body mass index-which together provide an evidence-based, more holistic view of cardiovascular health risk in adults than each component separately. Currently, no pediatric version of this construct exists. This study sought to develop sex-specific charts of clinical cardiovascular health for age to describe current patterns of clinical cardiovascular health throughout childhood.

    METHODS: Data were used from children and adolescents aged 8-19 years in six pooled childhood cohorts (19,261 participants, collected between 1972 and 2010) to create reference standards for fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Using the models for glucose and cholesterol as well as previously published reference standards for body mass index and blood pressure, clinical cardiovascular health charts were developed. All models were estimated using sex-specific random-effects linear regression, and modeling was performed during 2020-2022.

    RESULTS: Models were created to generate charts with smoothed means, percentiles, and standard deviations of clinical cardiovascular health for each year of childhood. For example, a 10-year-old girl with a body mass index of 16 kg/m2 (30th percentile), blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg (46th/50th), glucose of 80 mg/dL (31st), and total cholesterol of 160 mg/dL (46th) (lower implies better) would have a clinical cardiovascular health percentile of 62 (higher implies better).

    CONCLUSIONS: Clinical cardiovascular health charts based on pediatric data offer a standardized approach to express clinical cardiovascular health as an age- and sex-standardized percentile for clinicians to assess cardiovascular health in childhood to consider preventive approaches at early ages and proactively optimize lifetime trajectories of cardiovascular health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Johari MI, Yusoff K, Haron J, Nadarajan C, Ibrahim KN, Wong MS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 08 02;9(1):11232.
    PMID: 31375753 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-47763-8
    Currently, there is no effective therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although intensive calorie restriction is typically recommended but dietary adherence is an issue. The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness and adherence of eight weeks of modified alternate-day calorie restriction (MACR) in the control of NAFLD activity. This was a randomized controlled trial with MACR as the intervention and normal habitual diet as control. The outcome measures were body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, fasting blood sugar (FBS), liver enzymes (ALT and AST), and ultrasonographic measurements of liver steatosis and shear wave elastography (SWE). Per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis were performed within and between-groups with P  0.22). Both liver steatosis grades and fibrosis (SWE) scores were reduced in between-group analyses of MACR vs. controls (PP and ITT, all P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Malays J Nutr, 2003;9(2):-.
    A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted to determine the nutritional status among physically active groups in Kota Bharu. The study population comprised 83 adult male athletes from 8 different types of sports (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 min per day for at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). All the respondents were aged between 18 to 44 years. Measurements taken from the respondents were anthropometric measurements, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol (TC). The results showed that the combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.0-29.9) and obese (BMI ¡Ý30.0) was 21.7% in athletes, 29.9% in exercise group, and 47.5% in sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower compared to the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The incidence of waist-to-hip ratio above 0.9 in athlete, exercise and sedentary groups was 9.6%, 18.7% and 31.3%, respectively. The incidence of hypertension (SBP ¡Ý140 and/or DBP ¡Ý90 mmHg) was 13.2% in athletes, 17.5% in exercise group and 42.5% in the sedentary group. The TC values showed that the prevalence of “high risk” individuals (TC ¡Ý6.20 mmol/l) was also lower in athletes (20.5%), compared to the exercise (36.2%) and sedentary (47.5%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities have better nutritional status compared to sedentary people. However, the nutritional status in the athlete and exercise groups was still unsatisfactory. The incidence of poor health status related to over nutrition in the active groups was rather high and needs attention from health professionals. Further studies are needed to determine nutritional practices among physically active groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Chai Fung Kiew, Chee Ping Chong
    Non-communicable diseases are raising much concern in Malaysia due to changing lifestyles which is parallel to the economic development. Intervention program like community health screening (CHS) allows early detection, prevention and reduction of chronic diseases and its risk factors. This study aimed to assess the obesity level, risk factors for chronic diseases and blood cholesterol level among the Malaysian public. A health screening program was conducted on April 2012 at Sungai Pinang township, in the state of Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. A convenient sample of the general public was recruited. Screening tests consisted of measurements of blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) and blood cholesterol. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the difference between prevalence of obesity among subjects with different age groups and gender. Out of 76 recruited subjects, 23.7% had systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or greater and 7.9% had diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or greater. Approximately 51% of the subjects were obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2). Body fat percentage was high in 63.6% and 63.0% of male and female subjects, respectively. High VFA (≥15) was found in 19.8% of subjects. There were three newly discovered hypercholesterolemia cases (total cholesterol ≥ 5.2 mmol/L). Counselling was given during the health screening program to help the public to take necessary measures to reduce risk factors while preventing complication resulting from these chronic diseases. In conclusion, prevalence of obesity found to be high in the present screened population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Sim PY, Su TT, Abd Majid H, Nahar AM, Jalaludin MY
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:475659.
    PMID: 25258711 DOI: 10.1155/2014/475659
    To compare the measurements of body fat percentage (BF%) using the foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FTF-BIA) with the direct segmental multifrequency BIA (DSM-BIA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  14. Sabarudin A, Siong TW, Chin AW, Hoong NK, Karim MKA
    Sci Rep, 2019 03 13;9(1):4374.
    PMID: 30867480 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40758-5
    In this report we have evaluated radiation effective dose received by patients during ECG-gated CCTA examinations based on gender, heart rate, tube voltage protocol and body mass index (BMI). A total of 1,824 patients were retrospectively recruited (1,139 men and 685 women) and they were divided into Group 1 (CCTA with calcium scoring), Group 2 (CCTA without calcium scoring) and Group 3 (only calcium scoring), where the association between gender, heart rate, tube voltage protocol and body mass index (BMI) were analysed. Examinations were performed using a retrospective ECG-gated CCTA protocol and the effective doses were calculated from the dose length product with a conversion coefficient of 0.026 mSv.mGy-1cm-1. No significant differences were observed in the mean effective dose between gender in all groups. The mean estimated dose was significantly higher when the heart rate was lower in Group 1 (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Mellor D, Hucker A, Waterhouse M, binti Mamat NH, Xu X, Cochrane J, et al.
    Am J Mens Health, 2014 Nov;8(6):521-31.
    PMID: 24707036 DOI: 10.1177/1557988314528370
    This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  16. Fazriyati Jamharee, Abu Yazid Md Noh, Tuan Hairulnizam Tuan Kamauzaman, Ariff Arithra Abdullah, Junainah Nor
    Background: Diving related illness has become a public health concern, as there isan increasing number of diversworldwide. However, the incidence of Decompression Illness (DCI), a medical disorder as a result of sudden reduction of ambient pressure, remainsgenerallylow. This paper describes the patternsof decompression illness treated in a military hospital-based recompression chamber facility in Peninsular Malaysiafrom year 2000 until 2010.Objective:The objective ofthis study is to determine the patternsof decompression illnesspatientstreated withHyperbaric Oxygen Therapy(HBOT)in a military hospital-based recompression chamber facility inPeninsular Malaysia.
    Methodology:A retrospective descriptive study was carried out to utilizesecondary data from Hospital Angkatan Tentera Lumut, Perakfrom 1stJanuary 2000 to 31stDecember 2010. A total of 96 caseswere included in thisstudy.
    Results:Most of the patients were male (94.8%), recreational divers (43.0%), non-smokers (56.3%),with no previous medical illness(85.4%), who had dived with compressed air (78.0%), had lessthan 5years divingexperience (56.3%), were non-instructors(75.0%),and had body mass index between 18.5 to 24.9kg/m2(59.4%). Interestingly,25% of the patients developing DCI dived to less than 10 meters depth, 35.4% of them went for a single dive and 71.9% performed safety stops.The majority of the patients had symptoms startingwithin 12 hours after surfacing (85.4%),mainly within the first 3 hours and many had neurological manifestation (61.5%).Only 16.7% of the patients treated withHBOThad therapycommenced within 6 hours from the onset of symptomsand 93.8% from this group had complete recovery. Overall,76.0% of patients had fullrecovery after HBOT.
    Conclusion:Diving activities must be closely monitored. Medical surveillance as well as legislations related to diving activities in Malaysia areessential to improve SCUBA discipline and to reduce mortality and morbidity ofDCI in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Nik Yahya NSR, Jamaludin FIC, Firdaus MKZH, Che Hasan MK
    Enferm Clin, 2019 09;29 Suppl 2:521-527.
    PMID: 31281005 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.079
    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of simulation-based exercise programme among overweight adult in higher learning institutes.

    METHOD: A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted recruiting students from two different higher learning institutions in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Students are selected after fulfilling the criteria such as body mass index (BMI) of ≥23kg/m2, no chronic diseases that may influence by exercise, no significant changes in body weight within two months and not taking any medications or supplements. One institution was purposely chosen as a simulation-based group and another one control group. In the simulation-based group, participants were given a booklet and CD to do aerobic and resistance exercise for a minimum of 25min per day, three times a week for 10 weeks. No exercise was given to the control group. Participants were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage before and after 10 weeks of simulation-based exercise.

    RESULTS: A total of 52 (control: 25, simulation-based: 27) participants involved in the study. There was no baseline characteristics difference between the two groups (p>0.005). All 27 participants in the simulation-based group reported performing the exercise based on the recommendation. The retention rate at three months was 100%. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. Better outcomes (p<0.001) were reported among participants in the simulation-based group for BMI, WC and body fat percentage.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that the simulation-based exercise programme may be feasible for an overweight adult in higher learning institutes. As a feasibility study this is not powered to detect significant differences on the outcomes. However, participants reported positive views towards the recommended exercise with significant improvements in body mass index, body fat percentage and reduced the waist circumference.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Zain SM, Mohamed R, Mahadeva S, Cheah PL, Rampal S, Basu RC, et al.
    Hum Genet, 2012 Jul;131(7):1145-52.
    PMID: 22258181 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-012-1141-y
    The adiponutrin (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism has been found to be associated with susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in various cohorts. We further investigated the association of this polymorphism with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) severity and with histological features of NAFLD. A total of 144 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 198 controls were genotyped for PNPLA3 gene polymorphism (rs738409 C>G). The biopsy specimens were histologically graded by a qualified pathologist. We observed an association of G allele with susceptibility to NAFLD in the pooled subjects (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.69-3.24, p < 0.0001), and following stratification, in each of the three ethnic subgroups, namely Chinese, Indian and Malay (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.12-3.37, p = 0.018; OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.69-7.26, p = 0.001 and OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.25-3.35, p = 0.005, respectively). The G allele is associated with susceptibility to NASH (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.85-3.75, p < 0.0001), with NASH severity (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.05-3.26, p = 0.035) and with presence of fibrosis (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.26, p = 0.013) but not with simple steatosis nor with other histological parameters. Although the serum triglyceride level is significantly higher in NAFLD patients compared to controls, the G allele is associated with decreased level of triglycerides (p = 0.029) in the NAFLD patients. Overall, the rs738409 G allele is associated with severity of NASH and occurrence of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  19. Choong WY, Teh KW, Lau MN, Wey MC, Abd Rahman ANA, Ashari A
    Cranio, 2023 Jul;41(4):340-347.
    PMID: 35254223 DOI: 10.1080/08869634.2022.2043023
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of adults and children seeking orthodontic treatment at high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and pediatric OSA (POSA) and its association with demographic variables.

    METHODS: One hundred-eleven adults and 105 children were consecutively recruited from three centers. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and ESS for Children and Adolescents were used for Risk stratifications for OSA and POSA.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of patients seeking orthodontic treatment at high risk of OSA/POSA was 27.8%, where 26.1% were adults, and 29.5% were children. High risk for OSA/POSA was not associated with gender, ethnicity, age, Body Mass Index, or neck circumference.

    CONCLUSION: Approximately 26% of adults and 30% of children seeking orthodontic care were at high risk for OSA and POSA. Screening for OSA and POSA among adults and children seeking orthodontic treatment is imperative.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  20. Rampal L, Rampal S, Khor GL, Zain AM, Ooyub SB, Rahmat RB, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007;16(3):561-6.
    PMID: 17704038
    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in all states of Malaysia with the aim to determine the prevalence of obesity among Malaysians aged fifteen years and above and factors associated. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design with proportional allocation was used. Trained interviewers using a standardized protocol obtained the weight and height measurements and other relevant information. Subjects with a body mass index >= 30 kg/m2 were labelled as obese. The results show that the overall national prevalence of obesity among Malaysians aged 15 years old and above was 11.7% (95% CI = 11.1 - 12.4%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females (13.8%) as compared to 9.6% in males (p< 0.0001). Prevalence of obesity was highest amongst the Malays (13.6%) and Indians (13.5%) followed by the indigenous group of "Sarawak Bumiputra" (10.8%) and the Chinese (8.5%). The indigenous group of "Sabah Bumiputra" had the lowest prevalence of 7.3%. These differences are statistically significant (p< 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis results show that there was a significant association between obesity and age, gender, ethnicity urban/rural status and smoking status. The prevalence of obesity amongst those aged >= 18 years old has markedly increased by 280% since the last National Health and Morbidity Survey in 1996.
    Study name: National study on Cardio-Vascular Disease Risk Factors 2004
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
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