Overweight and obese adults are at increased risk of both mortality and morbidity, principally from cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Intentional weight loss of 5-1 0% is associated with substantial benefits. Weight reduction should be encouraged by dietary and behavioural modification initially, with realistic targets set over an initial 6-month period. It must be emphasised that these measures should continue indefinitely. This can be complemented by pharmacological intervention with orlistat, or perhaps sibutramine when available in the near future. Given the important impact environmental and social factors have on the aetiology of obesity, the community at large should effect programmes to encourage healthy lifestyles among the populace. Town and city planners should include readily available recreational and sporting facilities in residential districts, especially in the urban and sub-urban areas. Physical education sessions in schools in both primary and secondary levels should receive more emphasis to encourage the young to make sports and physical exercise a part of life, rather than being seen as a non examinable appendage of the school curriculum. The key to defeating obesity is prevention, and an effort to lose weight once it accumulates, can often be too little, too late.
In review provides data on pathophysiological relationships of intestinal microbiota with body weight regulation in patients with abdominal obesity. In manuscript discusses the leading mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases, analyzes its components, including gastrointestinal peptides, short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, farnesoid receptors, etc. Western diet high in salt, dysbiosis and endotoxemia can be powerful pro-inflammatory factors responsible for the development of insulin resistance and weight gain. It is promising to prescribe agonists of gastrointestinal peptides, probiotics and prebiotics, which in abdominal obesity are able to inhibit dysbiosis, regulate immune functions, and protect the organism from low-intensity chronic inflammation.
Childhood obesity has been growing at an alarming rate and is the most common nutritional problem among children in developed as well as in developing countries. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and psychosocial morbidities. This unhealthy trend will progress to adulthood and is expected to lead to huge economic costs in health and social security systems. Among the many factors which contribute to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity include environment and genetic factors. This paper discusses the aetiology, consequences and necessary interventions for this problem.
Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).
Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
from five African countries.
Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
checklist was used to eliminate other studies.
Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.
Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
Three urban public primary schools in the district of Petaling, Selangor were surveyed for obesity amongst the schoolchildren and factors related to it. The prevalence of obesity amongst primary schoolchildren, with the mean age of 8.91 years was 9.5%. In addition, it was more prevalent among the boys (p
The purpose of this study was to examine the association of parental pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) on offspring weight and BMI change from childhood to adulthood. We analysed BMI data from a subsample of parents (n = 1494) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort that started in the early 1980s in Brisbane, Australia: data were collected at pre-pregnancy and then also for offspring at 5, 14 and 21-year follow-ups. Multiple regression for continuous outcomes and multinomial regression for categorical outcomes were performed. A total of 14.7% of offspring experienced BMI change from normal at 5 years to overweight or obese (OW/OB) at 14 years, 15.3% of normal at 14 years to OW/OB at 21 years and 22.8% from normal at 5 years to OW/OB at 21 years. Overall, the strength of the association of parental BMI with offspring BMI was stronger as offspring become older. Pre-pregnancy parental BMI differentially impacts offspring OW/OB across the life course. For every unit increase in paternal and maternal BMI z-score, offspring BMI z-score increased, on average, by between 0.15% (kg m-2) and 0.24% (kg m-2) throughout all three stages of life when both parents were OW/OB; these associations were stronger than with one parent. Parental pre-pregnancy BMI and OW/OB is a strong predictor of offspring weight and BMI change from early life to adulthood.
Obesity is a complex disorder that is linked to many coexisting disorders. Recent epidemiological data have suggested that the prevalence of obesity is at an all-time high, growing to be one of the world's biggest problems. There are several mechanisms on how individuals develop obesity which includes genetic and environmental factors. Not only does obesity contribute to other health issues but it also greatly affects the quality of life, physical ability, mental strength and imposes a huge burden in terms of healthcare costs. Along with that, obesity is associated with the risk of mortality and has been shown to reduce the median survival rate. Obesity is basically when the body is not able to balance energy intake and output. When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, excess calories will be stored as fat leading to weight gain and eventually obesity. The therapeutic market for treating obesity is composed of many different interventions from lifestyle intervention, surgical procedures to pharmacotherapeutic approaches. All of these interventions have their respective benefits and disadvantages and are specifically prescribed to a patient based on the severity of their obesity as well as the existence of other health conditions. This review discusses the genetic and environmental causes of obesity along with the recent developments in anti-obesity therapies.
Unusual walk patterns may increase individuals' risks of falling. Anthropometric features of the human body, such as the body mass index (BMI), influences the walk patterns of individuals. In addition to the BMI, uneven walking surfaces may cause variations in the usual walk patterns of an individual that will potentially increase the individual's risk of falling. The objective of this study was to statistically evaluate the variations in the walk patterns of individuals belonging to two BMI groups across a wide range of walking surfaces and to investigate whether a deep learning method could classify the BMI-specific walk patterns with similar variations. Data collected by wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors attached to individuals with two different BMI were collected while walking on real-world surfaces. In addition to traditional statistical analysis tools, an advanced deep learning-based neural network was used to evaluate and classify the BMI-specific walk patterns. The walk patterns of overweight/obese individuals showed a greater correlation with the corresponding walking surfaces than the normal-weight population. The results were supported by the deep learning method, which was able to classify the walk patterns of overweight/obese (94.8 ± 4.5%) individuals more accurately than those of normal-weight (59.4 ± 23.7%) individuals. The results suggest that application of the deep learning method is more suitable for recognizing the walk patterns of overweight/obese population than those of normal-weight individuals. The findings from the study will potentially inform healthcare applications, including artificial intelligence-based fall assessment systems for minimizing the risk of fall-related incidents among overweight and obese individuals.
Obesity is a chronic disease in which the abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat leads to impaired health and increased risk of mortality and chronic health complications. Prevalence of obesity is rising rapidly in South and Southeast Asia, with potentially serious consequences for local economies, healthcare systems, and quality of life. Our group of obesity specialists from Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam undertook to develop consensus recommendations for management and care of adults and children with obesity in South and Southeast Asia. To this end, we identified and researched 12 clinical questions related to obesity. These questions address the optimal approaches for identifying and staging obesity, treatment (lifestyle, behavioral, pharmacologic, and surgical options) and maintenance of reduced weight, as well as issues related to weight stigma and patient engagement in the clinical setting. We achieved consensus on 42 clinical recommendations that address these questions. An algorithm describing obesity care is presented, keyed to the various consensus recommendations.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence has increased globally with considerable morbidity and economic burden at both individual and national levels. Japan is the first and only country that has introduced a nationwide lifestyle guidance intervention program to manage and control MetS. We conducted a quasi-experiment approach-regression discontinuity design-to evaluate the impact of this intervention on health outcomes at the population level. We retrospectively collected data of adults aged ≥35 years who participated in health checkups in 2015. Age in 2015 was used as the assignment variable, and an age of 40 years old was the threshold because those with MetS aged ≥40 were required to receive lifestyle guidance intervention. Among 26,772 MetS adults, those who received the intervention had significant reductions in obesity measurements (bodyweight, waist circumference, and body mass index [BMI]) after 1 year of this intervention. Blood pressure was also significantly reduced in men after 1 year of undertaking the intervention. The results were similar when including demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral covariates and using alternative functional forms to estimate the impact, or when bandwidths around intervention thresholds were changed. Our results showed that lifestyle guidance intervention for MetS has an important impact on weight loss and blood pressure reduction at the population level. This intervention could address the high burden of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in Japan and other countries with an unmet need for MetS prevention and management.
This study aimed to report the prevalence of obesity, classified using Asian cut-off, and its relationships with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and hypercholesteremia. We analyzed the nationally representative data from 14,025 Malaysian adults who participated in the NHMS 2015. The relationship between obesity and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and hypercholesteremia was determined using multivariable logistic regressions, and lifestyle risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics were adjusted. The undiagnosed high blood pressure group showed the highest proportionate of overweight/obese (80.0%, 95% CI: 78.1-81.8) and central obesity (61.8%, 95% CI: 59.3-64.2). Inverse association was observed between underweight with undiagnosed high blood pressure (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.26-0.61) and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95) groups. In contrast, positive relationships were shown between overweight/obese and risk of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.31-2.07), high blood pressure (aOR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.60-3.63), and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.53). Likewise, central obesity was positively associated with a risk of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.17-1.67), high blood pressure (aOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.45-3.26), and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.42). Our findings indicated the importance of periodical health examinations to assess the risk of non-communicable diseases among the general and abdominal obese Malaysian adults.