METHODS: STORM-C-1 is a two-stage, open-label, phase 2/3 single-arm clinical trial in six public academic and non-academic centres in Malaysia and four public academic and non-academic centres in Thailand. Patients with HCV with compensated cirrhosis (Metavir F4 and Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A) or without cirrhosis (Metavir F0-3) aged 18-69 years were eligible to participate, regardless of HCV genotype, HIV infection status, previous interferon-based HCV treatment, or source of HCV infection. Once daily ravidasvir (200 mg) and sofosbuvir (400 mg) were prescribed for 12 weeks for patients without cirrhosis and for 24 weeks for those with cirrhosis. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12; defined as HCV RNA <12 IU/mL in Thailand and HCV RNA <15 IU/mL in Malaysia at 12 weeks after the end of treatment). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02961426, and the National Medical Research Register of Malaysia, NMRR-16-747-29183.
FINDINGS: Between Sept 14, 2016, and June 5, 2017, 301 patients were enrolled in stage one of STORM-C-1. 98 (33%) patients had genotype 1a infection, 27 (9%) had genotype 1b infection, two (1%) had genotype 2 infection, 158 (52%) had genotype 3 infection, and 16 (5%) had genotype 6 infection. 81 (27%) patients had compensated cirrhosis, 90 (30%) had HIV co-infection, and 99 (33%) had received previous interferon-based treatment. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were pyrexia (35 [12%]), cough (26 [9%]), upper respiratory tract infection (23 [8%]), and headache (20 [7%]). There were no deaths or treatment discontinuations due to serious adverse events related to study drugs. Of the 300 patients included in the full analysis set, 291 (97%; 95% CI 94-99) had SVR12. Of note, SVR12 was reported in 78 (96%) of 81 patients with cirrhosis and 153 (97%) of 158 patients with genotype 3 infection, including 51 (96%) of 53 patients with cirrhosis. There was no difference in SVR12 rates by HIV co-infection or previous interferon treatment.
INTERPRETATION: In this first stage, ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir was effective and well tolerated in this diverse adult population of patients with chronic HCV infection. Ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir has the potential to provide an additional affordable, simple, and efficacious public health tool for large-scale implementation to eliminate HCV as a cause of morbidity and mortality.
FUNDING: National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand; Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand; Ministry of Health, Malaysia; UK Aid; Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF); MSF Transformational Investment Capacity; FIND; Pharmaniaga; Starr International Foundation; Foundation for Art, Research, Partnership and Education; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.
METHODS: A discovery cohort of Malaysian Chinese descent (NPC patients, n = 140; Healthy controls, n = 256) were genotyped using Illumina® HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. PennCNV and cnvPartition calling algorithms were applied for CNV calling. Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR were used to validate CNV calls and replicate candidate copy number variant region (CNVR) associations in a follow-up Malaysian Chinese (NPC cases, n = 465; and Healthy controls, n = 677) and Malay cohort (NPC cases, n = 114; Healthy controls, n = 124).
RESULTS: Six putative CNVRs overlapping GRM5, MICA/HCP5/HCG26, LILRB3/LILRA6, DPY19L2, RNase3/RNase2 and GOLPH3 genes were jointly identified by PennCNV and cnvPartition. CNVs overlapping GRM5 and MICA/HCP5/HCG26 were subjected to further validation by Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR. Combined analysis in Malaysian Chinese cohort revealed a strong association at CNVR on chromosome 11q14.3 (Pcombined = 1.54x10-5; odds ratio (OR) = 7.27; 95% CI = 2.96-17.88) overlapping GRM5 and a suggestive association at CNVR on chromosome 6p21.3 (Pcombined = 1.29x10-3; OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.75-10.11) overlapping MICA/HCP5/HCG26 genes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the association of CNVs towards NPC susceptibility, implicating a possible role of CNVs in NPC development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre study with a total of 280 cases of cervical cancer from 4 referral centres in Malaysia, studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of 12 high risk-HPV genotypes.
RESULTS: Overall HPV was detected in 92.5% of cases, in 95.9% of squamous cell carcinomas and 84.3%of adenocarcinomas. The five most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (68.2%), 18 (40%), 58 (10.7%), 33 (10.4%) and 52 (10.4%). Multiple HPV infections were more prevalent (55.7%) than single HPV infections (36.8%). The percentage of HPV positive cases in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 95.5%, 91.9% and 80.0%, respectively. HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were the commonest in all ethnic groups. We found that the percentage of HPV 16 infection was significantly higher in Chinese (75.9%) compared to Malays (63.7%) and Indians (52.0%) (p<0.05), while HPV 18 was significantly higher in Malays (52.6%) compared to Chinese (25.0%) and Indians (28%) (p<0.05). Meanwhile, HPV 33 (17.9%) and 52 (15.2%) were also more commonly detected in the Chinese (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the distribution of HPV genotype in Malaysia is similar to other Asian countries. Importantly, we found that different ethnic groups in Malaysia have different HPV genotype infection rates, which is a point to consider during the implementation of HPV vaccination.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and impact of CYP2C19*2, *3 and *17 genotypes on clopidogrel responsiveness in a multiethnic Malaysian population planned for percutaneous coronary intervention.
SETTING: Between October 2010 and March 2011, a total of 118 consecutive patients planned for percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled in Sarawak General Hospital, Borneo. All patients received at least 75 mg aspirin daily for at least 2 days and 75 mg clopidogrel daily for at least 4 days prior to angiography.
METHOD: Genotyping for CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285, 681G > A), *3 (rs4986893, 636G > A) and *17 (rs11188072, -3402C > T) alleles were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment linked polymorphism method. Whole blood ADP-induced platelet aggregation was assessed with multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEA) using the Multiplate Analyzer.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution of CYP2C19*2, *3 and *17 among different ethnic groups and the association between genotype, clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome were the main outcome measures.
RESULTS: The highest prevalence of poor metabolisers (carriers of at least one copy of the *2 or *3 allele) was among the Chinese (53.7 %), followed by the Malays (26.9 %), Ibans (16.4 %) and other races (3.0 %). Poor metabolisers (PMs) had the highest mean MEA (303.6 AU*min), followed by normal metabolisers (NMs) with 270.5 AU*min and extensive metabolisers (EMs) with 264.1 AU*min (p = 0.518). Among poor responders to clopidogrel, 65.2 % were PMs and NMs, respectively, whereas none were EMs (p = 0.350). Two cardiac-related deaths were reported.
CONCLUSION: There was a diverse inter-ethnic difference in the distribution of CYP2C19 polymorphism. The findings of this study echo that of other studies where genotype appears to have a limited impact on clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome in low-risk patients.
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