Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1094 in total

  1. Au A, Aziz Baba A, Goh AS, Wahid Fadilah SA, Teh A, Rosline H, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2014 Apr;68(3):343-9.
    PMID: 24581936 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.01.009
    The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has become a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. However, the high efficacy of IM has been hampered by the issue of clinical resistance that might due to pharmacogenetic variability. In the current study, the contribution of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 (T1236C, G2677T/A and C3435T) and two SNPs of ABCG2 (G34A and C421A) genes in mediating resistance and/or good response among 215 CML patients on IM therapy were investigated. Among these patients, the frequency distribution of ABCG2 421 CC, CA and AA genotypes were significantly different between IM good response and resistant groups (P=0.01). Resistance was significantly associated with patients who had homozygous ABCB1 1236 CC genotype with OR 2.79 (95%CI: 1.217-6.374, P=0.01). For ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism, a better complete cytogenetic remission was observed for patients with variant TT/AT/AA genotype, compared to other genotype groups (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.239-0.957, P=0.03). Haplotype analysis revealed that ABCB1 haplotypes (C1236G2677C3435) was statistically linked to higher risk to IM resistance (25.8% vs. 17.4%, P=0.04), while ABCG2 diplotype A34A421 was significantly correlated with IM good response (9.1% vs. 3.9%, P=0.03). In addition, genotypic variant in ABCG2 421C>A was associated with a major molecular response (MMR) (OR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.273-3.811, P=0.004), whereas ABCB1 2677G>T/A variant was associated with a significantly lower molecular response (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.248-0.974, P=0.04). However, there was no significant correlation of these SNPs with IM intolerance and IM induced hepatotoxicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of genotyping of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting IM response among CML patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  2. Gan GG, Phipps ME, Lee MM, Lu LS, Subramaniam RY, Bee PC, et al.
    Ann Hematol, 2011 Jun;90(6):635-41.
    PMID: 21110192 DOI: 10.1007/s00277-010-1119-6
    Within the Asian populations, Indian patients had been reported to require higher warfarin dose compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, and this could not entirely be explained by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 gene variants. Genetic variants of vitamin K epoxide oxidase reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) has been well established as one of key determinants in the different responses of warfarin amongst patients. Adult patients who attended an anticoagulation clinic with stable INR were recruited. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype were sequenced, and clinical characteristics were assessed. A total of 91 Malays, 96 Chinese, and 46 Indian patients were recruited. The mean age was 55 years and 51.5% were males. The mean dose of warfarin for all patients was 3.7 mg, and the mean daily dose of warfarin was significantly higher in Indians compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, 4.9 versus 3.5 and 3.3 mg, respectively (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  3. Hor SY, Lee SC, Wong CI, Lim YW, Lim RC, Wang LZ, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics J, 2008 Apr;8(2):139-46.
    PMID: 17876342
    Previously studied candidate genes have failed to account for inter-individual variability of docetaxel and doxorubicin disposition and effects. We genotyped the transcriptional regulators of CYP3A and ABCB1 in 101 breast cancer patients from 3 Asian ethnic groups, that is, Chinese, Malays and Indians, in correlation with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel and doxorubicin. While there was no ethnic difference in docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, ethnic difference in docetaxel- (ANOVA, P=0.001) and doxorubicin-induced (ANOVA, P=0.003) leukocyte suppression was observed, with Chinese and Indians experiencing greater degree of docetaxel-induced myelosuppression than Malays (Bonferroni, P=0.002, P=0.042), and Chinese experiencing greater degree of doxorubicin-induced myelosuppression than Malays and Indians (post hoc Bonferroni, P=0.024 and 0.025). Genotyping revealed both PXR and CAR to be well conserved; only a PXR 5'-untranslated region polymorphism (-24381A>C) and a silent CAR variant (Pro180Pro) were found at allele frequencies of 26 and 53%, respectively. Two non-synonymous variants were identified in HNF4alpha (Met49Val and Thr130Ile) at allele frequencies of 55 and 1%, respectively, with the Met49Val variant associated with slower neutrophil recovery in docetaxel-treated patients (ANOVA, P=0.046). Interactions were observed between HNF4alpha Met49Val and CAR Pro180Pro, with patients who were wild type for both variants experiencing least docetaxel-induced neutropenia (ANOVA, P=0.030). No other significant genotypic associations with pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of either drug were found. The PXR-24381A>C variants were significantly more common in Indians compared to Chinese or Malays (32/18/21%, P=0.035) Inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations of docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics exist, but genotypic variability of the transcriptional regulators PAR, CAR and HNF4alpha cannot account for this variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  4. Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Pham T, Tanwandee T, Nazareth S, Galhenage S, Mollison L, et al.
    World J Gastroenterol, 2015 Jul 28;21(28):8660-9.
    PMID: 26229408 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i28.8660
    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  5. Andrieux-Meyer I, Tan SS, Thanprasertsuk S, Salvadori N, Menétrey C, Simon F, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Jun;6(6):448-458.
    PMID: 33865507 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00031-5
    BACKGROUND: In low-income and middle-income countries, affordable direct-acting antivirals are urgently needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The combination of ravidasvir, a pangenotypic non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor, and sofosbuvir has shown efficacy and safety in patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection. STORM-C-1 trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir in a diverse population of adults chronically infected with HCV.

    METHODS: STORM-C-1 is a two-stage, open-label, phase 2/3 single-arm clinical trial in six public academic and non-academic centres in Malaysia and four public academic and non-academic centres in Thailand. Patients with HCV with compensated cirrhosis (Metavir F4 and Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A) or without cirrhosis (Metavir F0-3) aged 18-69 years were eligible to participate, regardless of HCV genotype, HIV infection status, previous interferon-based HCV treatment, or source of HCV infection. Once daily ravidasvir (200 mg) and sofosbuvir (400 mg) were prescribed for 12 weeks for patients without cirrhosis and for 24 weeks for those with cirrhosis. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12; defined as HCV RNA <12 IU/mL in Thailand and HCV RNA <15 IU/mL in Malaysia at 12 weeks after the end of treatment). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02961426, and the National Medical Research Register of Malaysia, NMRR-16-747-29183.

    FINDINGS: Between Sept 14, 2016, and June 5, 2017, 301 patients were enrolled in stage one of STORM-C-1. 98 (33%) patients had genotype 1a infection, 27 (9%) had genotype 1b infection, two (1%) had genotype 2 infection, 158 (52%) had genotype 3 infection, and 16 (5%) had genotype 6 infection. 81 (27%) patients had compensated cirrhosis, 90 (30%) had HIV co-infection, and 99 (33%) had received previous interferon-based treatment. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were pyrexia (35 [12%]), cough (26 [9%]), upper respiratory tract infection (23 [8%]), and headache (20 [7%]). There were no deaths or treatment discontinuations due to serious adverse events related to study drugs. Of the 300 patients included in the full analysis set, 291 (97%; 95% CI 94-99) had SVR12. Of note, SVR12 was reported in 78 (96%) of 81 patients with cirrhosis and 153 (97%) of 158 patients with genotype 3 infection, including 51 (96%) of 53 patients with cirrhosis. There was no difference in SVR12 rates by HIV co-infection or previous interferon treatment.

    INTERPRETATION: In this first stage, ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir was effective and well tolerated in this diverse adult population of patients with chronic HCV infection. Ravidasvir plus sofosbuvir has the potential to provide an additional affordable, simple, and efficacious public health tool for large-scale implementation to eliminate HCV as a cause of morbidity and mortality.

    FUNDING: National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand; Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand; Ministry of Health, Malaysia; UK Aid; Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF); MSF Transformational Investment Capacity; FIND; Pharmaniaga; Starr International Foundation; Foundation for Art, Research, Partnership and Education; and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  6. Low JS, Chin YM, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Govindasamy GK, Pua KC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0145774.
    PMID: 26730743 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145774
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx. Despite various reports linking genomic variants to NPC predisposition, very few reports were done on copy number variations (CNV). CNV is an inherent structural variation that has been found to be involved in cancer predisposition.

    METHODS: A discovery cohort of Malaysian Chinese descent (NPC patients, n = 140; Healthy controls, n = 256) were genotyped using Illumina® HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. PennCNV and cnvPartition calling algorithms were applied for CNV calling. Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR were used to validate CNV calls and replicate candidate copy number variant region (CNVR) associations in a follow-up Malaysian Chinese (NPC cases, n = 465; and Healthy controls, n = 677) and Malay cohort (NPC cases, n = 114; Healthy controls, n = 124).

    RESULTS: Six putative CNVRs overlapping GRM5, MICA/HCP5/HCG26, LILRB3/LILRA6, DPY19L2, RNase3/RNase2 and GOLPH3 genes were jointly identified by PennCNV and cnvPartition. CNVs overlapping GRM5 and MICA/HCP5/HCG26 were subjected to further validation by Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR. Combined analysis in Malaysian Chinese cohort revealed a strong association at CNVR on chromosome 11q14.3 (Pcombined = 1.54x10-5; odds ratio (OR) = 7.27; 95% CI = 2.96-17.88) overlapping GRM5 and a suggestive association at CNVR on chromosome 6p21.3 (Pcombined = 1.29x10-3; OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.75-10.11) overlapping MICA/HCP5/HCG26 genes.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the association of CNVs towards NPC susceptibility, implicating a possible role of CNVs in NPC development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  7. Choo SW, Beh CY, Russell S, White R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:191535.
    PMID: 25389534 DOI: 10.1155/2014/191535
    In Drosophila, protein trap strategies provide powerful approaches for the generation of tagged proteins expressed under endogenous control. Here, we describe expression and functional analysis to evaluate new Ubx and hth protein trap lines generated by the Cambridge Protein Trap project. Both protein traps exhibit spatial and temporal expression patterns consistent with the reported endogenous pattern in the embryo. In imaginal discs, Ubx-YFP is expressed throughout the haltere and 3rd leg imaginal discs, while Hth-YFP is expressed in the proximal regions of haltere and wing discs but not in the pouch region. The Ubx (CPTI000601) line is semilethal as a homozygote. No T3/A1 to T2 transformations were observed in the embryonic cuticle or the developing midgut. The homozygous survivors, however, exhibit a weak haltere phenotype with a few wing-like marginal bristles on the haltere capitellum. Although hth (CPTI000378) is completely lethal as a homozygote, the hth (CPTI000378) /hth (C1) genotype is viable. Using a hth deletion (Df(3R)BSC479) we show that hth (CPTI000378) /Df(3R)BSC479 adults are phenotypically normal. No transformations were observed in hth (CPTI000378), hth (CPTI000378) /hth (C1), or hth (CPTI000378) /Df(3R)BSC479 embryonic cuticles. We have successfully characterised the Ubx-YFP and Hth-YFP protein trap lines demonstrating that the tagged proteins show appropriate expression patterns and produce at least partially functional proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  8. Ariffin TA, Mohamad S, Yusuf WN, Shueb RH
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014 Aug;8(8):1063-7.
    PMID: 25116676 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.4095
    INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and continuous reports of HIV-1 strains developing resistance to these drugs is rather alarming, as transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons is possible. This study aimed to determine HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of primary mutations associated with antiretroviral (ARV) resistance among treatment-naive prisoners on the east coast of Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 21 treatment-naive prisoners. Protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions were amplified and sequenced. Stanford HIV database algorithms were used for interpretation of resistance, and phylogenetic analysis was performed for subtype assignment.
    RESULTS: In the PR gene, no antiviral resistance-associated mutation was detected. For RT-associated mutations, K103N was the most prevalent in sequenced samples (14.3%). Genetic subtyping on the pol gene revealed that the majority of the prisoners were infected with subtype CRF33_01B (52.4%).
    CONCLUSION: Continuous surveillance of newly infected individuals is required to help strategize the best antiviral treatment for these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  9. Suthandiram S, Gan GG, Zain SM, Bee PC, Lian LH, Chang KM, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics, 2014 Aug;15(11):1479-94.
    PMID: 25303299 DOI: 10.2217/pgs.14.97
    Pharmacogenetics of methotrexate (MTX) contributes to interindividual differences in toxicity. We aimed to evaluate the impact of SNPs within the MTX pathway genes on MTX-induced toxicity and MTX plasma levels at 48 h following treatment in Asian adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  10. Au A, Baba AA, Azlan H, Norsa'adah B, Ankathil R
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2014 Dec;39(6):685-90.
    PMID: 25060527 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12197
    The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has brought about a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment. However, despite the high efficacy of IM, clinical resistance develops due to a heterogeneous array of mechanisms. Pharmacogenetic variability as a result of genetic polymorphisms could be one of the most important factors influencing resistance to IM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variations in drug efflux transporter ABCC1 (MRP1) and ABCC2 (MRP2) genes and response to IM in patients with CML.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  11. Farhadi A, Behzad-Behbahani A, Geramizadeh B, Sekawi Z, Rahsaz M, Sharifzadeh S
    J Med Virol, 2014 Jul;86(7):1134-44.
    PMID: 24700118 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23945
    Limited data exist regarding whether a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection increases the risk of developing renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HPV infection has a role in the pathogenesis or development of a certain histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens of 122 patients with histopathologically proven renal cell carcinoma and their respective peritumoral tissues were examined. The presence of HPV-DNA was determined by a combination of MY/GP+ consensus primers and HPV-16/18 type specific nested PCRs followed by direct sequencing. Catalyzed signal-amplified colorimetric in situ hybridization (CSAC-ISH) technique was applied to determine the physical status of viral genome. The expression of p16INK4a and HPV L1 capsid proteins was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. HPV genome was detected in 37 (30.3%) tumor specimens and their four (4.1%) corresponding peritumoral tissues. HPV-18 was the most common viral type identified followed by HPV-16 and 58. Immunoexpression of p16INK4a was detected in 24 (20.3%) cases. Data analysis showed a significant correlation between p16INK4a expression and the presence of HR-HPV DNA (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  12. Jelen MM, Chen Z, Kocjan BJ, Burt FJ, Chan PK, Chouhy D, et al.
    J Virol, 2014 Jul;88(13):7307-16.
    PMID: 24741079 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00621-14
    Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and has been included in both the quadrivalent and nonavalent prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study investigated the global genomic diversity of HPV6, using 724 isolates and 190 complete genomes from six continents, and the association of HPV6 genomic variants with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and gender. Initially, a 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment was sequenced from 492/530 (92.8%) HPV6-positive samples collected for this study. Among them, 130 exhibited at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indel, or amino acid change in the E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment and were sequenced in full. A global alignment and maximum likelihood tree of 190 complete HPV6 genomes (130 fully sequenced in this study and 60 obtained from sequence repositories) revealed two variant lineages, A and B, and five B sublineages: B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5. HPV6 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and a 960-bp representative region for whole-genome-based phylogenetic clustering within the L2 open reading frame were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lineage B predominated globally. Sublineage B3 was more common in Africa and North and South America, and lineage A was more common in Asia. Sublineages B1 and B3 were associated with anogenital infections, indicating a potential lesion-specific predilection of some HPV6 sublineages. Females had higher odds for infection with sublineage B3 than males. In conclusion, a global HPV6 phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two variant lineages and five sublineages, showing some degree of ethnogeographic, gender, and/or disease predilection in their distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  13. Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam H, van Belkum A, Hamat RA, van Wamel W, Neela V
    Microb Drug Resist, 2014 Oct;20(5):472-7.
    PMID: 24841796 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2013.0222
    The prevalence and spread of mupirocin and antiseptic resistance among colonizing and infectious Staphylococcus aureus were determined. S. aureus isolated from anterior nares and infection sites of patients hospitalized in the largest tertiary care referral hospital in Malaysia was investigated for mupirocin and antiseptic susceptibility testing, and for PCR detection of mupA, qacA/B, and smr genes. Twelve isolates showed resistance to mupirocin by disk diffusion, of which 10 (3.8%) harbored the mupA gene. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 64 to 768 μg/ml for mupA positive and below 46 μg/ml for negative isolates. The mupA was more common among ST239 isolates (70%). The qacA/B was carried in 67 out of 95 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (70.5%) and 3 out of 164 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (1.8%), while smr was carried in 6 out of 95 MRSA (6.3%) strains. MICs ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 μg/ml for benzethonium chloride (BTC) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and from 10.3 to 20.7 μg/ml for chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG). Isolates with qacA/B and smr or qacA/B alone showed higher MIC (20.7 μg/ml for CHG and 15.6 μg/ml for BTC and BKC) than the isolates that lacked antiseptic resistance genes (10.3 μg/ml for CHG and 3.9 μg/ml for BTC and BKC). In 16 cases, ST239 was isolated from the infection site and the nares simultaneously, and shared identical resistance patterns (qacAB or qacAB+smr), suggesting possible endogenous infection. Spread of low-level mupirocin resistance expressing ST239 MRSA and high-level resistance expressing emerging ST1, co-existing with antiseptic-resistant genes showing elevated MICs, should be monitored for effective infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  14. Hamzi Abdul Raub S, Isa NM, Zailani HA, Omar B, Abdullah MF, Mohd Amin WA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(2):651-6.
    PMID: 24568473
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third commonest type of cancer among women in Malaysia. Our aim was to determine the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer in our multi-ethnic population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre study with a total of 280 cases of cervical cancer from 4 referral centres in Malaysia, studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of 12 high risk-HPV genotypes.

    RESULTS: Overall HPV was detected in 92.5% of cases, in 95.9% of squamous cell carcinomas and 84.3%of adenocarcinomas. The five most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (68.2%), 18 (40%), 58 (10.7%), 33 (10.4%) and 52 (10.4%). Multiple HPV infections were more prevalent (55.7%) than single HPV infections (36.8%). The percentage of HPV positive cases in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 95.5%, 91.9% and 80.0%, respectively. HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were the commonest in all ethnic groups. We found that the percentage of HPV 16 infection was significantly higher in Chinese (75.9%) compared to Malays (63.7%) and Indians (52.0%) (p<0.05), while HPV 18 was significantly higher in Malays (52.6%) compared to Chinese (25.0%) and Indians (28%) (p<0.05). Meanwhile, HPV 33 (17.9%) and 52 (15.2%) were also more commonly detected in the Chinese (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the distribution of HPV genotype in Malaysia is similar to other Asian countries. Importantly, we found that different ethnic groups in Malaysia have different HPV genotype infection rates, which is a point to consider during the implementation of HPV vaccination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  15. Wu WH, Kuo TC, Lin YT, Huang SW, Liu HF, Wang J, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e83711.
    PMID: 24391812 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083711
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease can be classified into three genotypes and many subtypes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of EV71 in the central region of Taiwan from 2002-2012 and to test the hypothesis that whether the alternative appearance of different EV71 subtypes in Taiwan is due to transmission from neighboring countries or from re-emergence of pre-existing local strains. We selected 174 EV71 isolates and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify their VP1 region for DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found that the major subtypes of EV71 in Taiwan were B4 for 2002 epidemic, C4 for 2004-2005 epidemic, B5 for 2008-2009 epidemic, C4 for 2010 epidemic and B5 for 2011-2012 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2002 and 2008 epidemics were associated with EV71 from Malaysia and Singapore; while both 2010 and 2011-2012 epidemics originated from different regions of mainland China including Shanghai, Henan, Xiamen and Gong-Dong. Furthermore, minor strains have been identified in each epidemic and some of them were correlated with the subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the EV71 infection in Taiwan may originate from pre-existing minor strains or from other regions in Asia including mainland China. In addition, 101 EV71 isolates were selected for the detection of new recombinant strains using the nucleotide sequences spanning the VP1-2A-2B region. No new recombinant strain was found. Analysis of clinical manifestations showed that patients infected with C4 had significantly higher rates of pharyngeal vesicles or ulcers than patients infected with B5. This is the first study demonstrating that different EV 71 genotypes may have different clinical manifestations and the association of EV71 infections between Taiwan and mainland China.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  16. Ong LY, Razak SN, Lee YM, Sri La Sri Ponnampalavanar S, Syed Omar SF, Azwa RI, et al.
    J Med Virol, 2014 Jan;86(1):38-44.
    PMID: 24127302 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23772
    Expansion of antiretroviral treatment programs have led to the growing concern for the development of antiretroviral drug resistance. The aims were to assess the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 variants and to identify circulating subtypes among HAART-naïve patients. Plasma specimens from N = 100 HIV+ HAART-naïve adult were collected between March 2008 and August 2010 and viral RNA were extracted for nested PCR and sequenced. PR-RT sequences were protein aligned and checked for transmitted drug resistance mutations. Phylogenetic reconstruction and recombination analysis were performed to determine the genotypes. Based on the WHO consensus guidelines, none of the recruited patients had any transmitted drug resistance mutations. When analyzed against the Stanford guidelines, 35% of patients had at least one reported mutation that may reduce drug susceptibility to PI (24%), NRTI (5%), and NNRTI (14%). The commonly detected mutation that may affect current first line therapy was V179D (3%), which may lead to reduced susceptibility to NNRTI. The predominant circulating HIV-1 genotypes were CRF01_AE (51%) and CRF33_01B (17%). The prevalence of unique recombinant forms (URF) was 7%; five distinct recombinant structures involving CRF01_AE and subtype B' were observed, among them a cluster of three isolates that could form a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) candidate. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence among HAART-naïve patients was low in this cohort of patients in Kuala Lumpur despite introduction of HAART 5 years ago. Owing to the high genetic diversity, continued molecular surveillance can identify the persistent emergence of HIV-1 URF and novel CRF with significant epidemiological impact.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  17. Masiran R, Sidi H, Mohamed Z, Mohamed Saini S, Nik Jaafar NR
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:41-9.
    PMID: 23857836 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12043
    SSRIs are known for their sexual side-effects with a variable rate of sexual dysfunction (SD). 5HT2A (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found to have significant association with SD. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of female SDD, its clinical correlates and association with 5HT2A (rs6311) SNP in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with SSRIs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  18. Mejin M, Tiong WN, Lai LY, Tiong LL, Bujang AM, Hwang SS, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2013 Aug;35(4):621-8.
    PMID: 23661171 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-013-9783-y
    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) loss-of-function polymorphisms are more common in Asian populations and have been associated with diminished antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. In this era of 'personalised medicine', combining genotyping and phenotyping as a strategy to personalise antiplatelet therapy warrants further exploration.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and impact of CYP2C19*2, *3 and *17 genotypes on clopidogrel responsiveness in a multiethnic Malaysian population planned for percutaneous coronary intervention.

    SETTING: Between October 2010 and March 2011, a total of 118 consecutive patients planned for percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled in Sarawak General Hospital, Borneo. All patients received at least 75 mg aspirin daily for at least 2 days and 75 mg clopidogrel daily for at least 4 days prior to angiography.

    METHOD: Genotyping for CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285, 681G > A), *3 (rs4986893, 636G > A) and *17 (rs11188072, -3402C > T) alleles were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment linked polymorphism method. Whole blood ADP-induced platelet aggregation was assessed with multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEA) using the Multiplate Analyzer.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution of CYP2C19*2, *3 and *17 among different ethnic groups and the association between genotype, clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome were the main outcome measures.

    RESULTS: The highest prevalence of poor metabolisers (carriers of at least one copy of the *2 or *3 allele) was among the Chinese (53.7 %), followed by the Malays (26.9 %), Ibans (16.4 %) and other races (3.0 %). Poor metabolisers (PMs) had the highest mean MEA (303.6 AU*min), followed by normal metabolisers (NMs) with 270.5 AU*min and extensive metabolisers (EMs) with 264.1 AU*min (p = 0.518). Among poor responders to clopidogrel, 65.2 % were PMs and NMs, respectively, whereas none were EMs (p = 0.350). Two cardiac-related deaths were reported.

    CONCLUSION: There was a diverse inter-ethnic difference in the distribution of CYP2C19 polymorphism. The findings of this study echo that of other studies where genotype appears to have a limited impact on clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome in low-risk patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  19. Ng ZX, Kuppusamy UR, Iqbal T, Chua KH
    Gene, 2013 Jun 1;521(2):227-33.
    PMID: 23545311 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.03.062
    Receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) gene polymorphism 2245G/A is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, the mechanism on how it affects the disease development is still unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  20. Alyousefi NA, Mahdy MA, Xiao L, Mahmud R, Lim YA
    Exp Parasitol, 2013 Jun;134(2):141-7.
    PMID: 23523861 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.03.001
    Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in Yemen with infection rates ranging from 18% to 27%. To date, there has been no genotyping study to provide a better understanding of the transmission dynamic. This study was conducted to genotype and subtype G. duodenalis in Yemen. Stool samples were collected from 503 Yemeni outpatients between 1 and 80 years old, including 219 males and 284 females. Giardia cysts were detected via microscopy after the formal-ether concentration. Genotyping of Giardia was carried out using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA and b-giardin genes. Of the 89 microscopy-positive Giardia samples, 65 were successfully sequenced, of which 66% (43 of 65) were identified as G. duodenalis assemblage A and 34% (22 of 65) as assemblage B. Further subtyping analysis based on b-giardin gene identified the presence of subtypes A2 and A3, which belong to the anthroponotic sub-assemblage AII. Data of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission played a potential role in the transmission of giardiasis in the community. However, further genotyping and subtyping studies of specimens from humans and animals living in the same households are needed for a more definitive understanding of giardiasis transmission in Yemen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
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