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  1. Kunathasan Chelliah M, Šlapeta J
    Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports, 2019 Apr;16:100272.
    PMID: 31027591 DOI: 10.1016/j.vprsr.2019.100272
    Malaysia is considered a hyperendemic area for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) due to its favorable climate for the completion of the parasite life cycle. This study provides an updated prevalence data on D. immitis in owned dogs from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and compares the trends of D. immitis in Malaysia. In the period between December 2017 and June 2018, 3.85% (5/130) dog blood samples tested positive for the presence of D. immitis antigen. A majority of the tested dogs (122/130) were not on rigorous heartworm prevention. After collating and analyzing information from 10 historical studies (1970-2017), we identified a significant decline in prevalence of D. immitis antigen in Malaysia, after the year 2000. Historically, the prevalence of D. immits antigen in owned dogs was significantly lower than the prevalence seen in stray dogs in Malaysia. This study demonstrates that D. immitis remains active in Kuala Lumpur, implying that accurate compliance of heartworm prevention is essential in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  2. Mustafa N, Kamarudin NA, Ismail AA, Khir AS, Ismail IS, Musa KI, et al.
    Diabetes Care, 2011 Jun;34(6):1362-4.
    PMID: 21498788 DOI: 10.2337/dc11-0005
    OBJECTIVE:
    To determine the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among rural and urban Malaysians.
    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
    This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3,879 Malaysian adults (1,335 men and 2,544 women). All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
    RESULTS:
    The overall prevalence of prediabetes was 22.1% (30.2% in men and 69.8% in women). Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were found in 3.4 and 16.1% of the study population, respectively, whereas 2.6% of the subjects had both IFG and IGT. Based on an OGTT, the prevalence of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 12.6% (31.0% in men and 69.0% in women). The prediabetic subjects also had an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The large proportion of undiagnosed cases of prediabetes and diabetes reflects the lack of public awareness of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  3. Cherenet T, Sani RA, Panandam JM, Nadzr S, Speybroeck N, van den Bossche P
    Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 2004 Dec;71(4):307-12.
    PMID: 15732457
    During a period of four consecutive years, trypanosomosis surveys were conducted in a tsetse-infested and tsetse-free area of the Amhara Region of north-west Ethiopia. In each study area randomly selected communal cattle were sampled and their blood was investigated using parasitological diagnostic methods. At the same time the population of biting flies was sampled. The monthly average prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle did not differ significantly between study areas. In both study areas, the prevalence of trypanosome infections was highest during the long rainy season. Trypanosome infections were mainly due to Trypanosoma vivax and they significantly reduced the average packed cell volume and the body condition of the animals. The monthly prevalence of infection was correlated with the density of biting flies, such as Tabanidae and Stomoxys spp., in the preceding month suggesting an important role of mechanical transmission in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis in both areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  4. Gijsberts CM, Groenewegen KA, Hoefer IE, Eijkemans MJ, Asselbergs FW, Anderson TJ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0132321.
    PMID: 26134404 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132321
    BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

    METHODS: We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.

    RESULTS: Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.

    CONCLUSION: The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  5. Ng CG, Dijkstra E, Smeets H, Boks MP, de Wit NJ
    Br J Gen Pract, 2013 Jan;63(606):e63-8.
    PMID: 23336475 DOI: 10.3399/bjgp13X660797
    It is unclear whether psychiatric disorders are specifically related to the terminal phase of cancer, or independent of the underlying disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  6. Ekker MS, Boot EM, Singhal AB, Tan KS, Debette S, Tuladhar AM, et al.
    Lancet Neurol, 2018 09;17(9):790-801.
    PMID: 30129475 DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30233-3
    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of ischaemic stroke in young adults (18-50 years) has increased substantially. These patients have a long life expectancy after stroke, and the costs of long-term care pose huge challenges to health-care systems. Although the current recommendations for treatment of young and old (>50 years) patients with stroke are similar, the optimal management of young adult patients with stroke is unknown. They are usually not included in trials, and specific subanalyses limited to young adult patients with stroke are usually not done, owing to lower incidence of stroke and lower prevalence of vascular risk factors in young adults. Progress has been made in identifying patients with a considerable risk of stroke occurrence, such as those with patent foramen ovale. Future prevention studies might result in a decrease in the incidence of stroke and its sequelae in young adults. The development of guidelines specifically devoted to the management of stroke in young adults will be an important step in achieving this aim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  7. Lim S, Lam DC, Muttalif AR, Yunus F, Wongtim S, Lan le TT, et al.
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2015;14(1):4.
    PMID: 25937817 DOI: 10.1186/s12930-015-0020-9
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical syndrome encompassing a group of chronic, progressive, and debilitating respiratory conditions, that are characterized by incompletely reversible airflow limitation. Within the Asia-Pacific region, prevalence estimates have been derived using various protocols and study methods, and there is little data on the impact of COPD exacerbations. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the current prevalence and burden of COPD in this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  8. Andiappan H, Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N, Nyunt MH, Lau YL, Khaing SL, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:564.
    PMID: 25498432 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0564-9
    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  9. Zuraida, A.S.
    MyJurnal
    Previous studies have shown that the experience of infertility is linked with psychological responses such as depression, anxiety, guilt, social isolation, and decreased self-esteem in both men and women. The prevalence of depression among infertile women ranges from 8% to 54%. Treating gynecologists and healthcare professionals seldom recognized the psychosocial distress in women undergoing fertility treatment. Therefore this paper reviewed the bio-psychosocial response towards infertility among women with infertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  10. Aliyu AB, Saleha AA, Jalila A, Zunita Z
    BMC Public Health, 2016 08 02;16:699.
    PMID: 27484086 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3377-2
    BACKGROUND: The significant role of retail poultry meat as an important exposure pathway for the acquisition and transmission of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) into the human population warrants understanding concerning those operational practices associated with dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retailing. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets in Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Poultry meat (breast, wing, thigh, and keel) as well as the contact surfaces of weighing scales and cutting boards were sampled to detect ESBL-EC by using culture and disk combination methods and polymerase chain reaction assays. Besides, questionnaire was used to obtain data and information pertaining to those operational practices that may possibly explain the occurrence of ESBL-EC. The data were analysed using logistic regression analysis at 95 % CI.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of ESBL-EC was 48.8 % (95 % CI, 42 - 55 %). Among the risk factors that were explored, type of countertop, sanitation of the stall environment, source of cleaning water, and type of cutting board were found to be significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-EC.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, in order to prevent or reduce the presence of ESBL-EC and other contaminants at the retail-outlet, there is a need to design a process control system based on the current prevailing practices in order to reduce cross contamination, as well as to improve food safety and consumer health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  11. Azidah AK, Hasniza H, Zunaina E
    Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res, 2012;2012:539073.
    PMID: 22693496 DOI: 10.1155/2012/539073
    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of falls and its associated factors among elderly diabetes type 2 patients attending a tertiary center in Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 288 elderly diabetes type 2. The data collected includes data on sociodemographic, diabetes history, comorbid diseases, drug use, and activity of daily living (Barthel's index). The patient also was examined physically, and balance and gait assessment was carried out. Prevalence of falls among elderly diabetes was 18.8%. Female gender (OR: 2.54, P < 0.05), age group more than 75 (OR: 2.97, P < 0.05), retinopathy (OR: 2.19, P < 0.05), and orthostatic hypotension (OR: 2.87, P < 0.05) were associated with higher risk for falls. High balance and gait score was associated with reduced risk of fall in elderly diabetes (OR: 0.89, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the factors that are associated with higher risk for falls among elderly diabetes were female sex, age group more than 75, presence of retinopathy, and orthostatic hypotension. Those who had higher balance and gait score were found to be less likely to fall compared with those with lower score.
    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
    Questionnaires, Scales, Device: Tinetti Balance and Gait Assessment; 5.07 Semmes- Weinstein monofilament; Barthel’s index
    Study site: Diabetic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  12. Raja, Lexshimi R.G., Oranye, N.O., Ho, S.E., Zuraida, J., Zulkifli, S.Z.
    MyJurnal
    The Use of Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a common phenomenon among women with breast cancer in Malaysia. This study examines the prevalence, types, influencing factors and source of information regarding CAM among women with breast cancer, using a cross sectional research design. A purposive sampling was used to recruit 103 women with breast cancer who were attending follow up care at the Radiotherapy and Oncology unit of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Data was gathered through the use of self–administered questionnaires. Ninety one women identified themselves as CAM users while twelve were non users. Among the CAM users, 57(62.6%) were Malays, 27(29.7%) Chinese and 7(7.7%) Indians. The common types of CAM used were vitamins, nutritional supplements and traditional medicines (TM). CAM was used more frequently upon diagnosis (63.7%) and after completion of conventional treatment (97.8%). With regard to decision-making, most of the women (62.6%) did not make the decision to use CAM and were mostly influenced by their husband and mother (67%). Mother (71.4%), husband (67%), and relatives (56%) were the main sources of information and all values showed significant association with CAM use (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  13. Manaf NA, Saravanan C, Zuhrah B
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2016 Mar;10(3):VC01-VC04.
    PMID: 27134977 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/16678.7341
    Introduction: Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance.
    Aim: To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students.
    Materials and Methods: The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders.
    Results: The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders.
    Conclusion: Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders.
    Keywords: Unhealthy body perception, Psychological problems, Relationship between body image and eating disorder
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  14. Mohd Nasarruddin A, Wan Mohammad WM, Nik Hussain NH, Ali SH, Zubir HM
    AIDS Care, 2015;27(3):301-6.
    PMID: 25471247 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.985182
    Kelantan, a northeastern state in Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the states that has been acutely hit by injecting drug user (IDU)-driven HIV epidemic, in addition to having a high number of infected women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk factors, risk perception, and adoption of preventive behaviors among female partners of IDUs in Kelantan. Out of 101 women, the majority of them are from low socioeconomic background and have no other risk factors besides heterosexual HIV transmission from their male IDU partners. Although 45.5% have not been tested for HIV and more than half (53.5%) of them did not use condoms during sexual intercourse, only 44.6% of the women perceived themselves to be at risk of being infected with HIV. Most of the women (86.1%) were willing to undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Female partners of IDUs continue to be vulnerable to HIV due to having sexual contact with IDUs, and also due to their socioeconomic position in the community. To prevent HIV transmission among female partners of IDUs, consolidating HIV prevention efforts from multiple approaches is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  15. Irmi Elfina, R., Ezalia, E., Elizabeth, G., Wan Hayati, M.Y, Norhanim, A., Wahidah, A., et al.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(1):44-52.
    MyJurnal
    Thalassaemia screening programme has been conducted in Malaysia since 2004. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of the disease by identifying thalassaemia carriers. However, the response towards the screening activities was unsatisfactory as there was lack of public awareness against the importance of thalassaemia screening. An alternative approach is to screen blood donors. The purpose of this study was to observe the prevalence of thalassaemia carriers among healthy blood donors. Seven hundred and thirty eight healthy blood donors were screened in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang from July to September 2010 using cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cases with haemoglobin variants were further analyzed by gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. Result shows that the blood donors consisted of 413 Malays (56%), 162 Indians (22%), 148 Chinese (20%) and 15 others (2%). There were 19 (2.6%) individuals with haemoglobin E trait, six (0.8%) with co-inheritance of haemoglobin E and αα- thalassaemia and five (0.7%) with β-thalassaemia trait. Haemoglobin Constant Spring and haemoglobin A2 prime were observed in two (0.3%); and Haemoglobin Lepore and alpha chain variant in one (0.2%). αα-thalassaemia and normal haemoglobin A2 β-thalassaemia could not be excluded in 190 cases (26%), as they required deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) studies for identification. Thalassaemia screening in blood donors is more feasible and effective. Therefore, a wider scale population screening including blood donors could benefit the existing thalassaemia screening programme in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  16. Nor Rizan, K., Abdul Manaf ,A., Sabariah, A.R., Siti Aishah, M.A., Noorjahan Banu, M.A., Zubaidah, Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2011;6(1):59-67.
    MyJurnal
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. HPV has been found in 99.7% of cervical cancers worldwide. In Malaysia, it is the second most common cancer among women in all major ethnic groups. The main purpose of this study was to establish the method of SyBrGreen Real-Time PCR and apply it for identification of multiple infections of the two high risk HPV subtypes. In this study, 57 positive samples for HPV 16 and HPV 18 were used to establish a simple
    and sensitive method to detect and identify HPV infection in the cervical neoplasia at different stages of the disease by using real-time ABICycler SyBrGreen 1 technology. The results showed 67 HPV genomes in 57 samples. HPV 16 genome was detected in 55/67 (82%) cases while HPV 18 was detected in 8/67 (12%) cases with 4 cases showing multiple infections of HPV 16 and HPV 18. HPV 16 was the most prevalent followed by HPV 18. Using SyBr Green Real-Time PCR techniques, the results
    showed that DNA melting curve for HPV 16 had a peak around 80.2ºC and Ct value of 20 cycles whereas the DNA melting curve for HPV 18 around 79.2ºC and Ct value of 22 cycles. In conclusion, a SyBr Green Real-Time PCR method has the potential for clinical usage in detection and identification of HPV infection in cervical neoplasia at different stages of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  17. Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib, Chin, Yit Siew, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Tung, Serene En Hui, Yim, Hip Seng, Zubaidah Jamil Osman
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(2):153-161.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) of children are important
    in view of rising prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide. This study compares
    the risks of insulin resistance, inflammation and metabolic syndrome between
    overweight/obese (OW/OB) and normal weight (NW) children in Kuala Lumpur.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 primary schools selected
    using multi-stage stratified random sampling. Height and weight were taken of a
    total of 1971 children aged 10-11 years. Based on BMI-for-age, 235 OW/OB children
    matched for age, sex and ethnicity with 226 NW children were selected for the study.
    Overnight fasting blood samples were collected to determine insulin, high-sensitivity
    C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose and lipid profiles. Logistic regression analysis
    was conducted to estimate associations between weight status and metabolic risk
    factors.

    Results: Prevalence of MetS among OW/OB children was 3.8% compared to
    0% in the NW. Prevalence of insulin resistance among OW/OB was 45.5% compared
    to 18.6% among NW children. High risk of inflammation was found in 28.1% of the
    OW/OB children compared to 12.4% in the NW. The odds ratio of having insulin
    resistance, inflammation and metabolic risk factors among OW/OB were 3.66 (95%
    CI: 2.40-5.59), 2.76 (95% CI: 1.69-4.50), 4.93 (95% CI: 3.42-7.10), respectively
    compared to the NW.

    Conclusion: The OW/OB children in this study showed higher
    risks of developing insulin resistance, inflammation and MetS compared to the NW
    counterparts. Further studies are suggested to better understand the relationships
    between insulin resistance, inflammation and MetS in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  18. Khambalia AZ, Aimone AM, Zlotkin SH
    Nutr. Rev., 2011 Dec;69(12):693-719.
    PMID: 22133195 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00437.x
    An international perspective of the magnitude of anemia in indigenous peoples is currently lacking. The present systematic review was performed to characterize the global prevalence, severity, and etiology of anemia in indigenous peoples by conducting a systematic search of original research published in English from 1996 to February 2010 using PubMed, Medline, and Embase. A total of 50 studies, representing the following 13 countries, met the inclusion criteria: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, the United States, and Venezuela. Results indicate major deficiencies in the coverage and quality of anemia monitoring data for indigenous populations worldwide. The burden of anemia is overwhelmingly higher among indigenous groups compared to the general population and represents a moderate (20-39.9%) to severe (≥40%) public health problem. For the most part, the etiology of anemia is preventable and includes inadequate diet, poor living conditions, and high infection rates (i.e., malaria and intestinal parasites). A concerted global effort is needed to reduce the worldwide burden of anemia in these marginalized populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  19. Browne N, Braoun C, McIlwain J, Nagarajan R, Zinke J
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e7382.
    PMID: 31428541 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7382
    For reefs in South East Asia the synergistic effects of rapid land development, insufficient environmental policies and a lack of enforcement has led to poor water quality and compromised coral health from increased sediment and pollution. Those inshore turbid coral reefs, subject to significant sediment inputs, may also inherit some resilience to the effects of thermal stress and coral bleaching. We studied the inshore turbid reefs near Miri, in northwest Borneo through a comprehensive assessment of coral cover and health in addition to quantifying sediment-related parameters. Although Miri's Reefs had comparatively low coral species diversity, dominated by massive and encrusting forms of Diploastrea, Porites, Montipora, Favites, Dipsastrea and Pachyseris, they were characterized by a healthy cover ranging from 22 to 39%. We found a strong inshore to offshore gradient in hard coral cover, diversity and community composition as a direct result of spatial differences in sediment at distances <10 km. As well as distance to shore, we included other environmental variables like reef depth and sediment trap accumulation and particle size that explained 62.5% of variation in benthic composition among sites. Miri's reefs showed little evidence of coral disease and relatively low prevalence of compromised health signs including bleaching (6.7%), bioerosion (6.6%), pigmentation response (2.2%), scars (1.1%) and excessive mucus production (0.5%). Tagged colonies of Diploastrea and Pachyseris suffering partial bleaching in 2016 had fully (90-100%) recovered the following year. There were, however, seasonal differences in bioerosion rates, which increased five-fold after the 2017 wet season. Differences in measures of coral physiology, like that of symbiont density and chlorophyll a for Montipora, Pachyseris and Acropora, were not detected among sites. We conclude that Miri's reefs may be in a temporally stable state given minimal recently dead coral and a limited decline in coral cover over the last two decades. This study provides further evidence that turbid coral reefs exposed to seasonally elevated sediment loads can exhibit relatively high coral cover and be resilient to disease and elevated sea surface temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  20. Chua, Philip Yi Shean, Lee, Sue Laine, Tow, Zhen Jiang, Mantok, Richmund, Muhamad Khairul Hawari Muhamad Nor, Dorairaja, Lavena, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):223-231.
    MyJurnal
    Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) is a systematic, semi-structured activity carried out in the field by a multidisciplinary team that is designed to obtain new information and hypotheses about rural life. This article reports the results of an RRA conducted in Kampung Paris 1 (KGP1), Kinabatangan, Sabah under the Annual Health Promotion Program of the School of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. A systematic random sampling was used to recruit the villagers and data was obtained through compilation of pre-existing data, field observation, structured interviews with key informants and villagers. Cardiorespiratory diseases were prevalent in KGP1. Common water sources such as rain water collected in dug wells in KGP1 were unhygienic. Dangerous toxic fumes were produced by the burning of municipal wastes nearby village houses. The villagers of KGP1 were exposed to various farm animals, which may harbor zoonoses. Health care services are limited in KGP1. Villagers who were not poor (>RM897) represented 48% of the population, followed by the poor (RM503-897), 20% and the hardcore poor (1.00 person per bedroom. Poor water hygiene, polluted air from open burning, exposure to farm animals, poverty, poor education, overcrowding and inadequate health care services were among the few possible factors affecting the health of villagers in KGP1. Formal rigorous research should be conducted in the future to facilitate specific health interventions in areas of need such as KGP1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
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