AIM OF THE WORK: Is to study the pattern of lip print in Egyptian and Malaysian populations and its relation to sex and populations difference. Also, to develop equations for sex and populations detection using lip print pattern by different populations (Egyptian and Malaysian).
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample comprised of 120 adults volunteers divided into two ethnic groups; sixty adult Egyptians (30 males and 30 females) and sixty adult Malaysians (30 males and 30 females). The lip prints were collected on a white paper. Each lip print was divided into four compartments and were classified and scored according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Data were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: The results showed that type III lip print pattern (intersected grooves) was the predominant type in both the Egyptian and Malaysian populations. Type II and III were the most frequent in Egyptian males (28.3% each), while in Egyptian females type III pattern was predominant (46.7%). As regards Malaysian males, type III lip print pattern was the predominant one (41.7%), while type II lip print pattern was predominant (30.8%) in Malaysian females. Statistical analysis of different quadrants showed significant differences between males and females in the Egyptian population in the third and fourth quadrants. On the other hand, significant differences were detected only in the second quadrant between Malaysian males and females. Also, a statistically significant difference was present in the second quadrant between Egyptian and Malaysian males. Using the regression analysis, four regression equations were obtained.
METHODS: Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and on cART for more than six months were analysed. Comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and impaired renal function. Treatment outcomes of patients ≥50 years of age with comorbidities were compared with those <50 years and those ≥50 years without comorbidities. We analysed 5411 patients with virological failure and 5621 with immunologic failure. Our failure outcomes were defined to be in-line with the World Health Organization 2016 guidelines. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse time to first virological and immunological failure.
RESULTS: The incidence of virologic failure was 7.72/100 person-years. Virological failure was less likely in patients with better adherence and higher CD4 count at cART initiation. Those acquiring HIV through intravenous drug use were more likely to have virological failure compared to those infected through heterosexual contact. On univariate analysis, patients aged <50 years without comorbidities were more likely to experience virological failure than those aged ≥50 years with comorbidities (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31 to 2.33, p
METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.
RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).
CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.