Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitative method was developed to monitor concentrations of methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) in plasma and urine of patients. The developed method was simple, accurate and reproducible to quantify methadone and EDDP in plasma and urine samples in the concentration range of 15-1,000 and 50-2,000 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed analytical method was applied to plasma and urine samples obtained from 96 patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with daily methadone doses of 2-120 mg/day. Urinary methadone excretion was observed to be significantly affected by pH, in which the ratio of methadone to EDDP was two times higher in acidic urine (P = 0.029). The findings of this study further enhance the guidelines for monitoring of methadone treatment among outpatients. Methadone-to-EDDP ratio in urine was found to be consistent at 24 and 4 h, hence suggesting the possibility that outpatients may be monitored with single urine sample in order to check for compliance. This study which provides data on peak concentrations of methadone and EDDP as well as the ratio of both compounds has added to the body of knowledge regarding pharmacokinetic properties of methadone among heroin-dependent patients under MMT.
Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), HKL, University Malaya Centre for Addiction Sciences (UMCAS) and Rehabilitation Centre of Al-Rahman Mosque, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Pollutants such as human pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones that are not covered by environmental legislation have increasingly become important emerging aquatic contaminants. This paper reports the development of a sensitive and selective multi-residue method for simultaneous determination and quantification of 23 pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones from different therapeutic classes in water samples. Target pharmaceuticals include anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic agents, β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, antihistamine, analgesic and sex hormones. The developed method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with 30 min total run time. River water samples (150 mL) and (sewage treatment plant) STP effluents (100 mL) adjusted to pH 2, were loaded into MCX (3 cm(3), 60 mg) cartridge and eluted with four different reagents for maximum recovery. Quantification was achieved by using eight isotopically labeled internal standards (I.S.) that effectively correct for losses during sample preparation and matrix effects during LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Good recoveries higher than 70% were obtained for most of target analytes in all matrices. Method detection limit (MDL) ranged from 0.2 to 281 ng/L. The developed method was applied to determine the levels of target analytes in various samples, including river water and STP effluents. Among the tested emerging pollutants, chlorothiazide was found at the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 865 ng/L in STP effluent, and 182 ng/L in river water.
A method for the chiral separation of propiconazole using cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD) as chiral selector is reported. The use of a mixture of 30 mM HP-gamma-CD, 50mM SDS, methanol-acetonitrile 10%:5% (v/v) in 25 mM phosphate buffer solution was able to separate two enantiomeric pairs of propiconazole. Stacking- and sweeping-CD-MEKC under neutral pH (pH 7) and under acidic condition (pH 3.0) were used as two on-line preconcentration methods to increase detection sensitivity of propiconazole. Good repeatabilities in the migration time, peak area and peak height were obtained in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD). A sensitivity enhancement factor of 100-fold was achieved using sweeping-CD-MEKC at acidic pH. This is the first report on the separation of two pairs of propiconazole enantiomers and all the enantiomers of fenbuconazole and tebuconazole using sweeping-CD-MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for the three triazole fungicides ranged from 0.09 to 0.1 microg/mL, which is well below the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment and sweeping-CD-MEKC procedure was applied to the determination of selected triazole fungicides in grapes samples spiked at concentration 10-40 times lower than the MRL established by the CAC. The average recoveries of the selected fungicides in spiked grapes samples were good, ranging from 73% to 109% with RSD of 9-12% (n=3).
Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10μg/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6μg/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices.
A new graphene-based tetraethoxysilane-methyltrimethoxysilane sol-gel hybrid magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS) was synthesised, characterized and successfully applied in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for simultaneous analysis of polar and non-polar organophosphorus pesticides from several water samples. The Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Separation, determination and quantification were achieved using gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector. Adsorption capacity of the sorbent was calculated using Langmuir equation. MSPE was linear in the range 100-1000 pg mL(-1) for phosphamidon and dimethoate, and 10-100 pg mL(-1) for chlorpyrifos and diazinon, with limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 19.8, 23.7, 1.4 and 2.9 pg mL(-1) for phosphamidon, dimethoate, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The LODs obtained is well below the maximum residual level (100 pg mL(-1)) as set by European Union for pesticides in drinking water. Acceptable precision (%RSD) was achieved for intra-day (1.3-8.7%, n = 3) and inter-day (7.6-17.8%, n = 15) analyses. Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS showed high adsorption capacity (54.4-76.3 mg g(-1)) for the selected OPPs. No pesticide residues were detected in the water samples analysed. Excellent extraction recoveries (83-105%) were obtained for the spiked OPPs from tap, river, lake and sea water samples. The newly synthesised Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS showed high potential as adsorbent for OPPs analysis.
Graphene-magnetite composite (G-Fe3O4) was successfully synthesized and applied as adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of two phenolic acids namely 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB) from stingless bee honey prior to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (HPLC-UV/Vis). Several MSPE parameters affecting extraction of these two acids were optimized. Optimum MSPE conditions were 50 mg of G-Fe3O4 adsorbent, 5 min extraction time at 1600 rpm, 30 mL sample volume, sample solution pH 0.5, 200 µL methanol as desorption solvent (5 min sonication assisted) and 5% w/v NaCl. The LODs (3 S/N) calculated for 4-HB and 3,4-DHB were 0.08 and 0.14 µg/g, respectively. Good relative recoveries (72.6-110.6%) and reproducibility values (RSD
The application of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) increased gradually because of the rise in global food demand that triggered the agriculture sector to increase the production, leading to OPP residues in the surface water. This study elucidated the presence of OPPs and estimated its ecological risk in the riverine ecosystem of the urbanised Linggi River, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The OPP concentration in surface water was determined using solid-phase extraction method and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. Further, the ecological risk was estimated by using the risk quotient (RQ) method. The three OPPs, i.e. chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and quinalphos were detected with mean concentrations of 0.0275 µg/L, 0.0328 µg/L, and 0.0362 µg/L, respectively. The OPPs were at high risk (in general and worst cases) under acute exposure. The estimated risk of diazinon was observed as medium for general (RQm = 0.5857) and high for worst cases (RQex = 4.4678). Notably, the estimated risk for chlorpyrifos was high for both general and worst cases (RQm = 1.9643 and RQex = 11.5643) towards the aquatic ecosystem of the Linggi River. Chronic risk of quinalphos remains unknown because of the absence of toxicity endpoints. This study presented clear knowledge regarding OPP contamination and possible risk for aquatic ecosystems. Hence, OPPs should be listed as one of the main priority contaminants in pesticide mitigation management in the future.
In this study, caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive microsolid phase extraction was described for the first time for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. Fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene were selected as model compounds. The caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetry analyses. The effective parameters namely desorption solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, desorption time, the mass of adsorbent and sample volume were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the developed method showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.996), low limits of detection and quantification (0.42-0.22 ng mL-1) (0.73-1.38 ng mL-1) respectively, good relative recoveries (71.2-104.2%) and reproducibility (RSD 1.8-12.4%, n = 3) for the studied PAHs in water sample. With high enrichment factor (1,000), short extraction time (<30 min), low amounts of adsorbent (100 mg) and low amounts of solvent (0.1 mol) have proven that the microsolid phase extraction method based on calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes are environmentally friendly and convenient extraction method to use as an alternative adsorbent in the simultaneous preconcentration of PAHs from environmental water samples.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.
The progress of novel sorbents and their function in preconcentration techniques for determination of trace elements is a topic of great importance. This review discusses numerous analytical approaches including the preparation and practice of unique modification of solid-phase materials. The performance and main features of ion-imprinting polymers, carbon nanotubes, biosorbents, and nanoparticles are described, covering the period 2007-2012. The perspective and future developments in the use of these materials are illustrated.
An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent.
A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
A novel sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was produced and applied as sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE). Five selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of the synthesized sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several important SPE parameters were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS as SPE sorbent showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-1 μg L(-1), good repeatability (RSD 2.1-3.1%, n=5), low limits of detection at S/N=3 (0.5-0.9 pg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (1-3 pg mL(-1), S/N=10). The performance of the MTMOS-TEOS SPE was compared to commercial C18 Supelclean SPE since C18 SPE is widely used for OPPs. The MTMOS-TEOS SPE method LOD was 500-600 × lower than the LOD of commercial C18 SPE. The LOD achieved with the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent allowed the detection of these OPPs in drinking water well below the level set by European Union (EU) at 0.1 μg L(-1) of each pesticides. The developed MTMOS-TEOS SPE method was successfully applied to real sample analysis of the selected OPPs from several water samples and its application extended to the analysis of several fruits samples. Excellent recoveries and RSDs of the OPPs were obtained from the various water samples (recoveries: 97-111%, RSDs 0.4-2.8%, n=3) and fruit samples (recoveries: 96-111%), RSDs 1-4%, n=5) using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent. Recoveries and RSDs of OPPs from river water samples and fruit samples using C18 Supelclean SPE sorbent were 91-97%, RSD 0.9-2.6, n=3 and 86-96%, RSD 3-8%, n=5, respectively). The novel sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent demonstrate the potential as an alternative inexpensive extraction sorbent for OPPs with higher sensitivity for the OPPs.
A new solid phase extraction method for rapid high performance liquid chromatography-UV determination of mitragynine in plasma has been developed. Optimal separation was achieved with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate buffer, 50 mM at pH 5.0 (50:50, v/v). The method had limits of detection and quantification of 0.025 and 0.050 microg/mL, respectively. The method was accurate and precise for the quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human and rat plasma with within-day and between-day accuracies between 84.0 and 109.6%, and their precision values were between 1.7 and 16.8%. Additional advantages over known methods are related to the solid phase extraction technique for sample preparation which yields a clean chromatogram, a short total analysis time, requires a smaller amount of plasma samples and has good assay sensitivity for bioanalytical application. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and stability studies of mitragynine. In the present study, mitragynine was found to be fairly stable during storage and sample preparation. The present study showed for the first time the detailed pharmacokinetic profiles of mitragynine. Following intravenous administration, mitragynine demonstrated a biphasic elimination from plasma. Oral absorption of the drug was slow, prolonged and was incomplete, with a calculated absolute oral bioavailability value of 3.03%. The variations observed in previous pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of mitragynine could be attributed to its poor bioavailability rather than to the differences in assay method, metabolic saturation or mitragynine dose.
A novel microextraction technique termed solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) was developed. Selected triazine herbicides were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the adsorbent enclosed in SPMTE device. The SPMTE procedure was performed in semi-automated dynamic mode and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L, acceptable reproducibility (RSD 6-8%, n=5), low limits of detection (0.2-0.5 microg/L), and satisfactory relative recoveries (95-101%). The SPMTE device could be regenerated and reused up to 15 analyses with no analyte carry-over effects observed. Comparison was made with commercially available solid phase extraction-molecular imprinted polymer cartridge (SPE-MIP) for triazine herbicides as the reference method. The new developed method showed comparable or even better results against reference method and is a simple, feasible, and cost effective microextraction technique.
A simple, sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 251 nm was developed for quantitation of buparvaquone (BPQ) in human and rabbit plasma. The method utilizes 250 microL of plasma and sample preparation involves protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction. The method was validated on a C18 column with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 m, pH 3.0) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 18:82 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficient>or=0.998) in the selected range. The method is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL for BPQ. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and BPQ was found to be stable. Partial validation studies were carried out using rabbit plasma and intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 7%. This method is simple, reliable and can be routinely used for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies for BPQ.
Poly(β-cyclodextrin functionalized ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@βCD-Vinyl-TDI) as sorbent in magnetic µ-SPE was developed for the determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rice samples coupled with gas chromatographic-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The nanocomposite was characterized by various tools and significant parameters that affected the extraction efficiency of PAHs were investigated. The calibration curves were linear for the concentration ranging between 0.1 and 500 μg kg-1 with correlation determinations (R2) from 0.9970 to 0.9982 for all analytes. Detection limits ranged at 0.01-0.18 μg kg-1 in real matrix. The RSD values ranged at 2.95%-5.34% (intra-day) and 4.37%-7.05% (inter-day) precision for six varied days. The sorbents showed satisfactory reproducibility in 2.9% to 9.9% range and acceptable recovery values at 80.4%-112.4% were obtained for the real sample analysis. The optimized method was successfully applied to access content safety of selected PAHs for 24 kinds of commercial rice available in Malaysia.
The non-ionic silicone surfactant (OFX 0309) has been applied in cloud point extraction for the extraction of triazine herbicides in food samples. Evidence has shown that the non-ionic silicone surfactant demonstrated a good performance as an extractor toward triazine herbicides. In this present study, OFX 0309 surfactant was combined with activated charcoal (AC) due to their valuable properties. Activated charcoal modified with non-ionic silicone surfactant coated with magnetic nanoparticles (AC-OFX MNPs) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, VSM, SEM, TEM and BET. This novel material was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the pre-concentration and separation of triazine herbicides due to hydrophobic interaction between polysiloxane polyether of OFX 0309 surfactant and triazine herbicides. Under optimal conditions, the proposed magnetic solid phase extraction method using AC-OFX MNPs adsorbent was applied to extract triazine herbicides from selected milk and rice samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. The validation method revealed a good linearity (1 - 500 μg L-1) with the coefficient of determination (R2) in the range of 0.992-0.998 for the samples. The limits of detection (LOD) of the developed method were 0.04 - 0.05 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.02 - 0.05 µg L-1 (rice sample). The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.134 - 0.176 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.075 - 0.159 µg L-1 (rice sample). The recoveries of the triazine compounds ranged from 81% to 109% in spiked milk samples and from 81% to 111% in spiked rice samples, with relative standard deviations (RSD) values lower than 13.5% and 12.1% for milk and rice samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that have investigated the use of magnetic nanoparticles coated activated charcoal modified with OFX 0309 surfactant for pretreatment of triazine herbicides in food samples analysis for simultaneous separation of organic pollutants.
In this work, new selective and sensitive dual-template molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized. Sorbent MIPs were investigated for simultaneous extraction and clean-up of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid from light and dark honey samples. In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry triple-quadrupole (UHPLC-MS/MS) (QQQ) was used to detect and quantify the pesticides. The kinetic model with adsorption kinetics of sorbent was investigated. The optimal adsorption conditions were 80 mg of polymer MIPs, a 30-min extraction time, and a pH of 7. The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) varied from 0.045 to 0.070 µg kg-1 and from 0.07 to 0.10 µg kg-1, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD, %) ranged from 1.3 to 2.0% and from 8.2 to 12.0%, respectively. The recovery of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid ranged from 96.8 to 106.5% and 95.3 to 104.4%, respectively, in light and dark honey samples.