METHODS: Eight internal carotid arteries from different medical centers were diagnosed as stenosed internal carotid arteries, as plaques were found at different locations on the vessel. A computational fluid dynamics solver was developed based on an open-source code (OpenFOAM) to test the flow ratio and energy loss of those stenosed internal carotid arteries. For comparison, a healthy internal carotid artery and an idealized internal carotid artery model have also been tested and compared with stenosed internal carotid artery in terms of flow ratio and energy loss.
RESULTS: We found that at a given common carotid artery bifurcation, there must be a certain flow distribution in the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, for which the total energy loss at the bifurcation is at a minimum; for a given common carotid artery flow rate, an irregular shaped plaque at the bifurcation constantly resulted in a large value of minimization of energy loss. Thus, minimization of energy loss can be used as an indicator for the estimation of internal carotid artery stenosis.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Recent studies have demonstrated a potent anticancer potential of P. macrocarpa, especially against HeLa cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of miRNAs on MDA-MB-231 treated with P. macrocarpa ethyl acetate fraction (PMEAF).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regulation of miRNAs on MDA-MB-231 cells treated with PMEAF was studied through IIlumina, Hi-Seq. 2000 platform of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and various in silico bioinformatics tools.
RESULTS: The PMEAF treatment against MDA-MB-231 cells identified 10 upregulated and 10 downregulated miRNAs. A set of 606 target genes of 10 upregulated miRNAs and 517 target genes of 10 downregulated miRNAs were predicted based on computational and validated databases by using miRGate DB Query. Meanwhile, results from DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.8 specified the functional annotation of the upregulated miRNAs involvement in cancer pathway by suppressing the oncogenes and downregulating miRNAs by expressing the tumour suppressor genes in the regulation of apoptosis pathway.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of this study proved that PMEAF is a promising anticancer agent with high cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and it induced apoptotic cell death mechanism through the regulation of miRNAs. PMEAF might be the best candidate for developing more potent anticancer drugs or chemo preventive supplements.