METHODS: This study was conducted based on secondary data analysed from the third phase of the longitudinal study "Neuroprotective Model for Health Longevity among Malaysian Elderly" (LRGS TUA). Stratification of urban and rural study areas were in accordance to that determined by the Department of Statistics. A total of 814 community dwelling older women (53% urban, 47% rural), aged 60 years and above, across four states within Peninsular Malaysia were included in this analysis. Interview-based questionnaires were used to obtain respondents' sociodemographic details and clinical characteristics. The Timed Up and Go test and Handgrip Strength tests were used to assess physical function. Urinary incontinence was self-reported, and quality of life of those with incontinence was assessed using the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ).
RESULTS: Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 16% and 23% among older women living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Ethnicity was significantly associated with incontinence among older women in both urban and rural population (p
Methods: A total of 330 pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were surveyed. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and analysed with SPSS software version 22.0.
Results: Overall, 84.5% (n = 279) of the pregnant women had experienced UI. Multiple logistic regression identified body mass index (BMI), presence of other illness, and consumption of coffee as major risk factors for UI. The majority of pregnant women preferred early screening for UI.
Conclusion: A great majority of pregnant women in this study experienced UI. Higher BMI and the presence of other medical conditions are significant risk factors for UI and early screening is required. The need for universal education about UI and pelvic floor muscle exercise is warranted and can potentially prevent postnatal UI and UI later in life.
METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region in 2013 and 2014 respectively, using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of risk factors of NCDs. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 1486 participants were recruited.
RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence of the behavioral risk factors tended to be higher in the rural than urban areas for all included factors and significantly higher for alcohol drinking (19.9% vs. 13.9%; p = 0.040) and low fruit & vegetable consumption (96.7% vs. 85.1%; p = 0.001). For the metabolic risk factors, the tendency was opposite, with higher age-standardized prevalence estimates in urban than rural areas, significantly for overweight and obesity combined (40.9% vs. 31.2%; p = 0.023), obesity (12.3% vs.7.7%; p = 0.019) and diabetes (17.2% vs. 9.2%; p = 0.024). In sub-group analysis by gender, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher in urban than rural areas among males, 61.8% vs. 40.4%; p = 0.002 and 31.4% vs. 20.7%; p = 0.009, respectively. Mean values of age-standardized metabolic parameters showed higher values in urban than rural areas for both male and female. Based on WHO age-standardized Framingham risk scores, 33.0% (95% CI = 31.7-34.4) of urban dwellers and 27.0% (95% CI = 23.5-30.8) of rural dwellers had a moderate to high risk of developing CHD in the next 10 years.
CONCLUSION: The metabolic risk factors, as well as a moderate or high ten-year risk of CHD were more common among urban residents whereas behavioral risk factors levels were higher in among the rural people of Yangon Region. The high prevalences of NCD risk factors in both urban and rural areas call for preventive measures to reduce the future risk of NCDs in Myanmar.
METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.
RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).
CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.