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  1. Jatau AI, Aung MM, Kamauzaman TH, Chedi BA, Sha'aban A, Rahman AF
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Mar 2;5(2):191-7.
    PMID: 27104042 DOI: 10.5455/jice.20160223105521
    Many studies have been conducted in health-care settings with regards to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among patients. However, information regarding CAM use among patients in the emergency department (ED) is scarce. The aim of this article was to conduct a systematic review of published studies with regards to CAM use among the ED patients. A literature search of published studies from inception to September 2015 was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and manual search of the reference list. 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The prevalence rate of CAM use among ED patients across the studies ranged of 1.4-68.1%. Herbal therapy was the sub-modality of CAM most commonly used and frequently implicated in CAM-related ED visits. Higher education, age, female gender, religious affiliation, and chronic diseases were the most frequent factors associated with CAM use among the ED patients. Over 80% of the ED physicians did not ask the patients about the CAM therapy. Similarly, 80% of the ED patients were ready to disclose CAM therapy to the ED physician. The prevalence rate of CAM use among patients at ED is high and is growing with the current increasing popularity, and it has been a reason for some of the ED visits. There is a need for the health-care professionals to receive training and always ask patients about CAM therapy to enable them provide appropriate medical care and prevent CAM-related adverse events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  2. Ismail Z, Mohamed R, Mohd Hassan MH, Wan Su K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2005 Jul;12(2):50-5.
    PMID: 22605958
    The elderly consume many medications including traditional medicines. In 1986, it was found that 29% of elderly took traditional medicines although in 1996, the National Health Morbidity survey reported a 2.3% prevalence. However, studies from other countries showed much higher percentages. The Ministry of Health in Malaysia is concerned that some of these preparations maybe contaminated with steroids, antihistamines, hormones and other poisons. The aims of the study were to determine a). the health seeking behaviour of elderly Malays living in rural areas, b). the utilization of both modern and traditional medicines and c). the steroid content of the traditional medicines used. Methodology included interviews using structured questionnaires of elderly Malays living in rural areas of Kelantan, aged above 60 years. Samples of traditional medications collected were sent to the Pharmacology Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, for steroid content analysis using Thin Layer Chromatography. A total of 599 elderly respondents were interviewed comprising 62.4% females and 37.6% males. The 60-69 years cohort group made up 48.7%, followed by 70-79 years at 36.1% and the remainder 15.2% were more than 80 years. There were 82% of elderly taking medicines. The trends of utilization of modern and traditional medicine in the last two weeks among elderly were 59.3% and 40.9% respectively. The utilization of traditional medicine by rural elderly Malays was therefore much higher than that reported in the previous study and nearly similar to that of France and Australian studies. There were 102 samples of traditional medications collected and analysed for steroid content. Results showed that 27.5% were positive for prednisolone, 34.3% positive for unknown steroids (a total of 61.8%) and 38.2% were negative for both steroids. The present study therefore once again confirmed the high usage of traditional medicines where some of which are contaminated with steroids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  3. Ismail IS, Hairon SM, Yaacob NM, Besari AM, Abdullah S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 May;26(3):90-101.
    PMID: 31303853 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.3.7
    BACKGROUND: The recent epidemic of dengue fever (DF) in Malaysia was alarming. The treatment of DF remains supportive as there is no anti-viral agent or vaccine available as yet. Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) provides an alternative option for the treatment of DF but there is limited evidence with regard to its usage. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, types and predictor factors of T&CM usage among DF patients in the northeast region of Peninsular Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study of DF patients in the northeast region of Peninsular Malaysia who had been admitted to a tertiary centre from January 2014 until December 2015. Serologically-confirmed DF patients aged 18 years and above were randomly selected. Phone interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding the use of T&CM during hospitalisation. Notes were made regarding the prevalence and type of T&CM used. Binary logistic regressions were used to identify the predictor factors of T&CM usage.
    RESULTS: A total of 241 DF patients with a mean age of 36.62 (SD = 14.62) years were included. The estimated prevalence of T&CM usage was 84.6% (95%CI: 80.1%, 89.2%). The most common T&CM used were crab soup (85.3%), papaya leaf extract (64.2%) and isotonic drinks (61.8%). The significant predictors for T&CM usage were age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.97; 95%CI: 0.94, 0.99], tertiary education (AOR 3.86; 95%CI: 1.21, 12.32) and unemployment (AOR 2.55; 95%CI: 1.02, 6.42).
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of T&CM usage in our population is high. Age, tertiary education and unemployment influence the use of T&CM.
    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia,
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  4. Leny, S.S., Shuhaila, A., Sutan, R.
    MyJurnal
    Maternal Home-based Record (MHR) is a concise medical record that can be kept by the pregnant women for regular documentation throughout pregnancy stages. This study was done to assess the usage of the MHR among the pregnant women and its associated factors. A good MHR usage was assigned using mean value as cut-off point that has been agreed by an expert group from scoring system which incorporates usage elements in term of follow-up, information documentation, knowledge seeking, continuity of care and self-monitoring of pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and a total of 79 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic were recruited. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was newly developed in Bahasa Malaysia. Content validity and reliability test for internal consistency for the knowledge, satisfaction and usage scale was performed. The Cronbach’s Alpha value for each domain was 0.764, 0.716 and 0.877 respectively. The results showed that the prevalence of good MHR usage was 51.3%. There were significant association found between level of education (Adj OR=0.32, 95% CI 0.12, 0.85, p=0.023) and doctor as birth attendant in previous pregnancies (Adj OR= 2.54, 95% CI 1.97, 6.59, p=0.045) with good usage of MHR. There was a positive significant relationship between satisfaction level among the respondent and the level of the usage (p=0.01, r=0.377), whereby with every increase in 1 score in satisfaction level will increase the usage score by 0.4 (95% CI 0.2 to 0.7) units, p<0.01. Therefore, MHR is still relevant as antenatal care monitoring instruments and it is important to make an effort to improve patient satisfaction in using MHR. Health care providers can use this validated self-administered questionnaire to assess function of MHR to remain relevant to the pregnant women population in their locality.
    Key words: Antenatal care, home-based maternal record, usage, satisfaction
    Study site: Antenatal clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  5. Mafauzy M, Mohamad WB, Anum MY, Musalmah M
    PMID: 8525401
    A total of 2,034 subjects aged 15 years and above from different parts of the State of Kelantan were studied to determine goiter size and urinary iodine excretion. The State was divided into 2 areas - area 1 consisting of localities in the districts near the coast and area 2 consisting of localities in the inland districts. There were 1,050 subjects in area 1 and 984 subjects in areas 2. The mean age (+/- SE) of subjects in areas 1 and 2 were 38.2 + 0.5 and 37.1 +/- 0.5 years, respectively. The prevalence of goiter was 31.4% in area 1 and 45.0% in area 2; the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, the prevalence of large and visible goiters (grades II and III) was only 2.0% in area 1 and 3.3% in area 2; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean (+/- SD) urinary iodine excretion in areas 1 and 2 was 57.1 +/- 2.1 and 56.8 +/- 2.1 micrograms I/g Cr, respectively. The values were below those recommended by WHO. There was no significant difference in urinary iodine excretion between those with and without goiters in both areas and also between the grades of goiters. There were significantly more females with goiters than males in both areas but there was no significant difference in the urinary iodine excretion between the 2 sexes. Thus based on urinary iodine excretion, the iodine intake of the population in this area, was suboptimal and this was associated with a high prevalence of goiter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  6. Murukesu RR, Singh DKA, Shahar S
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):529.
    PMID: 31196015 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6870-6
    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is known to be more prevalent among women and is associated with decline in quality of life. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors of urinary incontinence and its impact on quality of life among community dwelling older women living in urban and rural populations.

    METHODS: This study was conducted based on secondary data analysed from the third phase of the longitudinal study "Neuroprotective Model for Health Longevity among Malaysian Elderly" (LRGS TUA). Stratification of urban and rural study areas were in accordance to that determined by the Department of Statistics. A total of 814 community dwelling older women (53% urban, 47% rural), aged 60 years and above, across four states within Peninsular Malaysia were included in this analysis. Interview-based questionnaires were used to obtain respondents' sociodemographic details and clinical characteristics. The Timed Up and Go test and Handgrip Strength tests were used to assess physical function. Urinary incontinence was self-reported, and quality of life of those with incontinence was assessed using the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ).

    RESULTS: Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 16% and 23% among older women living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Ethnicity was significantly associated with incontinence among older women in both urban and rural population (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  7. Mohd Yusoff D, Awang S, Kueh YC
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2019 Feb;14(1):39-46.
    PMID: 31435388 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.11.009
    Objectives: Urinary incontinence (UI) is common among pregnant women. This growing health problem affects physical, emotional, and social well-being. This study determined the prevalence of UI and associated factors, and evaluated screening needs.

    Methods: A total of 330 pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were surveyed. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire and analysed with SPSS software version 22.0.

    Results: Overall, 84.5% (n = 279) of the pregnant women had experienced UI. Multiple logistic regression identified body mass index (BMI), presence of other illness, and consumption of coffee as major risk factors for UI. The majority of pregnant women preferred early screening for UI.

    Conclusion: A great majority of pregnant women in this study experienced UI. Higher BMI and the presence of other medical conditions are significant risk factors for UI and early screening is required. The need for universal education about UI and pelvic floor muscle exercise is warranted and can potentially prevent postnatal UI and UI later in life.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  8. Htet AS, Bjertness MB, Sherpa LY, Kjøllesdal MK, Oo WM, Meyer HE, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016 12 05;16(1):1225.
    PMID: 27919240
    BACKGROUND: Recent societal and political reforms in Myanmar may upturn the socio-economy and, thus, contribute to the country's health transition. Baseline data on urban-rural disparities in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors are not thoroughly described in this country which has been relatively closed for more than five decades. We aim to investigate urban-rural differences in mean values and the prevalence of selected behavioral and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases and 10-years risk in development of coronary heart diseases (CHD).

    METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region in 2013 and 2014 respectively, using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of risk factors of NCDs. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 1486 participants were recruited.

    RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence of the behavioral risk factors tended to be higher in the rural than urban areas for all included factors and significantly higher for alcohol drinking (19.9% vs. 13.9%; p = 0.040) and low fruit & vegetable consumption (96.7% vs. 85.1%; p = 0.001). For the metabolic risk factors, the tendency was opposite, with higher age-standardized prevalence estimates in urban than rural areas, significantly for overweight and obesity combined (40.9% vs. 31.2%; p = 0.023), obesity (12.3% vs.7.7%; p = 0.019) and diabetes (17.2% vs. 9.2%; p = 0.024). In sub-group analysis by gender, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher in urban than rural areas among males, 61.8% vs. 40.4%; p = 0.002 and 31.4% vs. 20.7%; p = 0.009, respectively. Mean values of age-standardized metabolic parameters showed higher values in urban than rural areas for both male and female. Based on WHO age-standardized Framingham risk scores, 33.0% (95% CI = 31.7-34.4) of urban dwellers and 27.0% (95% CI = 23.5-30.8) of rural dwellers had a moderate to high risk of developing CHD in the next 10 years.

    CONCLUSION: The metabolic risk factors, as well as a moderate or high ten-year risk of CHD were more common among urban residents whereas behavioral risk factors levels were higher in among the rural people of Yangon Region. The high prevalences of NCD risk factors in both urban and rural areas call for preventive measures to reduce the future risk of NCDs in Myanmar.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  9. Jie Y, Isa ZM, Jie X, Ju ZL, Ismail NH
    PMID: 23625129 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6898-1_2
    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  10. Khor GL
    Nepal Med Coll J, 2003 Dec;5(2):113-22.
    PMID: 15024783
    Approximately 70.0% of the world's malnourished children live in Asia, resulting in the region having the highest concentration of childhood malnutrition. About half of the preschool children are malnourished ranging from 16.0% in the People's Republic of China to 64.0% in Bangladesh. Prevalence of stunting and underweight are high especially in South Asia where one in every two preschool children is stunted. Besides protein-energy malnutrition, Asian children also suffer from micronutrient deficiency. Iron deficiency anaemia affects 40.0-50.0% of preschool and primary school children. Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xeropthalmia in the world occurs in South and Southeast Asia, with large numbers of cases in India (35.3 million), Indonesia (12.6 million) and China (11.4 million). Another major micronutrient problem in the region is iodine deficiency disorders, which result in high goiter rates as manifested in India, Pakistan and parts of Indonesia. While under-nutrition problem persists, overweight problem in children has emerged in Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore and urban China and Malaysia. The etiology of childhood malnutrition is complex involving interactions of multiple determinants that include biological, cultural and socio-economic influences. Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency leading to early growth failure often can be traced to poor maternal nutritional and health care before and during pregnancy, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation and children born with low birth weight. While significant progress has been achieved over the past 30 years in reducing the proportion of malnourished children in developing countries, nonetheless, malnutrition persists affecting large numbers of children. The socio-economic cost of the malnutrition burden to the individual, family and country is high resulting in lower cognitive outcomes in children and lower adult productivity. Interventions that are cost-effective and culturally appropriate for the elimination of childhood malnutrition deserve the support of all.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  11. Patil SS, Abdul Rashid K, Narayan KA
    MyJurnal
    Background and Objectives: Unmet need for contraception is the gap between women's reproductive intentions and their contraceptive behavior. This community based interventional study was carried out to determine the unmet needs for contraception, the reasons for this and to assess the impact of interventional measures on acceptance of contraception.
    Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted in 52 villages in the state of Maharashtra, India, among 363 married women selected by cluster sampling. Data was collected using an interview guide. An intervention was done for the women who had an unmet need and an assessment of the change was done subsequently. Data was analyzed by using SPSS.
    Results The prevalence of contraceptive usage was 59.2% and the prevalence of unmet need for contraception was 44% (160). The unmet need for spacing births was 53.8%, 38.7% for limiting births and 7.5% women were dissatisfied with the current contraceptive method. The reasons ranged from side effects to contraceptives to source of obtaining contraceptives. Age of the respondents, education and number of living children showed statistically significant association with unmet needs. Post intervention, the contraceptive prevalence rate increased significantly 85.7% and there was a significant reduction in the unmet needs for spacing and limiting births, equally there was a significant reduction of dissatisfaction with using contraception.
    Conclusion: Improvement in the use of contraception and addressing the unmet need for contraception requires community involvement and ongoing, sustained efforts by health workers to ensure quality care to the beneficiaries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  12. Ng CW, Shahari MR, Mariapun J, Hairi NNM, Rampal S, Mahal A
    Health Syst Reform, 2017 Jul 03;3(3):159-170.
    PMID: 31514671 DOI: 10.1080/23288604.2017.1342746
    An analysis of population coverage of hypertension treatment services can be used to make inferences about the performance of primary care services within health systems. Malaysia, an upper middle-income country, has a well-established primary care system but one that favors rural populations and provision of services for maternal and child health and infectious diseases. Demographic factors including rapid aging, urbanization, as well as lifestyle changes characteristic of a modernizing society have led to an increase in noncommunicable diseases, including hypertension. In this article, we used data from a nationally representative household health survey to develop service coverage indicators for hypertension screening and treatment services. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was estimated to be 33.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.9, 33.9). Only 39.0% (95% CI, 37.5, 40.6) of adults with hypertension had been diagnosed by a medical practitioner, 35.7% had been on treatment, and 9.6% had blood pressure controlled under treatment. The diagnosis, treatment, and controlled treatment coverage were higher for older persons compared to younger persons. There were no differences in the diagnosis and treatment coverage between urban and rural areas and between ethnic groups. However, controlled treatment coverage was higher among Chinese and those living in urban areas. Our findings suggest that primary care services in Malaysia may need to intensify health education activities to promote screening services. There is also a need to reprioritize activities to provide regular community health screening of adults and increase access to affordable primary care services, especially in the urban areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  13. Loh KW, Vriens MR, Gerritsen A, Borel Rinkes IH, van Hillegersberg R, Schippers C, et al.
    Neth J Med, 2012 Oct;70(8):365-9.
    PMID: 23065984
    Disease-related malnutrition is highly prevalent in hospital patients and varies from 25-40%. Early nutritional screening of patients at admission helps to improve recognition of malnourished patients to allow early interventions and enhance clinical outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  14. Peltzer K, Pengpid S
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2015 Nov;12(11):14936-47.
    PMID: 26610542 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph121114936
    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.
    Study name: Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  15. Hasimah Ismail, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Mohammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Lim, Kuang Kuay, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):677-684.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide
    and many of these affected individuals remain unidentified. Undiagnosed
    T2DM may impose substantial public health implications because these
    individuals remain untreated and at risk for complications. The objective of
    this study was to determine the national prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM
    and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted involving 17,783
    respondents. Two-stage stratified sampling design was used to select a
    representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Structured
    validated questionnaires with face to face interviews were used to obtain
    data. Respondents, who claimed that they were not having diabetes, were
    then asked to perform a fasting blood glucose finger-prick test by Accutrend
    GC machine.

    Results The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was 8.9% (n=1587). The highest
    percentage of undiagnosed T2DM was found among males (10.2%), 55-59
    years old (13.4%), highest education attainers of primary school (11.1%),
    Indians (10.3%), married (10.3%), working (8.9%) and living in the urban
    areas (9.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with
    undiagnosed T2DM were gender, age group, ethnicity, marital status, obesity
    and hypertension.

    Conclusion This study found an increasing trend of undiagnosed T2DM in Malaysia
    compared to 2006. This finding is alarming as risk factors associated with
    undiagnosed diabetes were related to most of the socio-demographic factors
    studied. Therefore, early diabetic screening is crucial especially among adults
    aged 30 and above to prevent more serious complications of this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  16. Al-Darraji HA, Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Aug;21(8):1049-1058.
    PMID: 27197601 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12726
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed active tuberculosis (TB) cases among prisoners in Malaysia's largest prison using an intensified TB case-finding strategy.

    METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  17. Lee SC, Ngui R, Tan TK, Roslan MA, Ithoi I, Mahdy MAK, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2017 Dec;176:349-354.
    PMID: 28859958 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.030
    The epidemiology of giardiasis in rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia was examined in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, animals and environment (i.e. river water). A cross-sectional study was carried out among five rural communities in Malaysia to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals and river water. Fecal samples collected from humans and animals were examined by light microscopy. Water was sampled from the rivers adjacent to the target communities and investigated for the occurrence of Giardia cysts. The isolated cysts were further genotyped targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase genes. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 6.7% (18/269) and 4.7% (8/169) among humans and animals, respectively. Giardia cysts (mean concentration range: 0.10-5.97 cysts/L) were also found in adjacent rivers at four out of the five villages examined. At Kemensah and Kuala Pangsun, Giardia cysts were isolated from humans [rate: 3.7% each (of 54 each)], animals [rates: 6.3% (of 62) and 11.3% (of 16), respectively] and river water [average concentration of 9 samples each: 0.83±0.81 and 5.97±7.00, respectively]. For both villages at Pos Piah and Paya Lebar, 12.2% (of 98) and 6.1% (of 33) of collected human samples were infected, respectively whilst none of the collected animals samples in these villages were found to be positive. The river water samples of these two villages were also contaminated (average concentration: 0.20±0.35 (of 9) and 0.10±0.19 (of 3), respectively). In conclusion, Giardia cysts were simultaneously observed in the human-animal-environment (i.e., river water) interfaces in at least two of five studied communities highlighting a vital need to improve understanding on the interplay of transmission dynamics, the role of infected humans and animals in contaminating the water sources and the role of water as a vehicle of disease transmission in these communities. Indeed, this study illustrates the One Health approach which is to recognize that the optimal health of humans are interconnected with the well-being of animals and their environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  18. Koh MT, Liu CS, Chiu CH, Boonsawat W, Watanaveeradej V, Abdullah N, et al.
    Epidemiol. Infect., 2016 Apr;144(6):1192-200.
    PMID: 26468043 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268815002393
    Surveillance data on the burden of pertussis in Asian adults are limited. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of serologically confirmed pertussis in adults with prolonged cough in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Adults (⩾19 years) with cough lasting for ⩾14 days without other known underlying cause were enrolled from outpatient clinics of seven public and/or private hospitals. Single blood samples for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) were analysed and economic impact and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaires assessed. Sixteen (5·13%) of the 312 chronically coughing adults had serological evidence of pertussis infection within the previous 12 months (anti-PT IgG titre ⩾62·5 IU/ml). Three of them were teachers. Longer duration of cough, paroxysms (75% seroconfirmed, 48% non-seroconfirmed) and breathlessness/chest pain (63% seroconfirmed, 36% non-seroconfirmed) were associated with pertussis (P < 0·04). Of the seroconfirmed patients, the median total direct medical cost per pertussis episode in public hospitals (including physician consultations and/or emergency room visits) was US$13 in Malaysia, US$83 in Taiwan (n = 1) and US$26 in Thailand. The overall median EQ-5D index score of cases was 0·72 (range 0·42-1·00). Pertussis should be considered in the aetiology of adults with a prolonged or paroxysmal cough, and vaccination programmes considered.
    Study site in Malaysia: Klinik Kesihatan Seremban, Negeri Sembilan; Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  19. Fadil Lokman ML
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):232-235.
    MyJurnal
    It all started with a SSM research. SSM, which is an abbreviation for ‘Special Study Module’ is a unique module in the curriculum of the Medical Faculty National University of Malaysia (UKM), where each students were required to do a medical research in the field that we have interest in. Being interested in the field of public health, 3 of my friends and I did a research on the prevalence of tuberculosis in Cheras using the graphic informational system (GIS) to map each case of tuberculosis on the map of Kuala Lumpur. Our supervisor was Associate Professor Dr Shamsul Azhar, who is himself an expert on the field of GIS study and has been doing his PhD research using the same system in Niigata University, Japan for almost 4 years. During one of our SSM meetings, he mentions that the post-graduate students in UKM has done several visits to Niigata University and brought up the idea that maybe the undergraduate students like us could do the same. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  20. Wan Noorina Wan Ahmad, Dalia Abdullah, Kanagasingam, Shalini, Safura Anita Baharin, Jasmina Qamaruz zaman
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2010;31(2):90-93.
    MyJurnal
    This study aims to determine the prevalence of hand-held ProTaper® files system among UKM final year dental undergraduates and to assess their perception in performing endodontic treatments.

    Methods: 85 final year dental students from 2006/2007 academic session participated in the questionnaire survey. All students underwent didactic endodontic teaching of conventional stainless steel files throughout a 2-year course and a 2-day ProTaper® hand files seminar on canal preparation. Each student had a total of 6 months clinical period before the survey was distributed to the subjects and returned for data analysis.

    Results: A 100% response rate was received. About 58.8% (n=50) used hand ProTaper routinely while 41.2% claimed themselves as non-users. Amongst the users, 52.5% were moderate users and about 33.6% were frequent users. Tooth type and size of canals were the selected criteria for file use. Majority of users used ProTaper® hand for posterior teeth and regarded it as user friendly. Although almost all users expressed concern of instrument fracture during use, very few did break. Procedural errors were not experienced by 51.3% users.

    Conclusion: About 2/3rd majority of UKM undergraduate dental students use ProTaper® hand-held system as an alternative for canal preparation. Procedural errors were perceived to occur much less when using the NiTi files. The system can be initiated to novice users and can be taught as part of endodontic curricula.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
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