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  1. Farh HMH, Eltamaly AM, Othman MF
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(11):e0206171.
    PMID: 30388119 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206171
    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is widely used in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from two main problems in the case of partial shading conditions (PSCs). The first problem is that PSO is a time invariant optimization technique that cannot follow the dynamic global peak (GP) under time variant shading patterns (SPs) and sticks to the first GP that occurs at the beginning. This problem can be solved by dispersing the PSO particles using two new techniques introduced in this paper. The two new proposed PSO re-initialization techniques are to disperse the particles upon the SP changes and the other one is upon a predefined time (PDT). The second problem is regarding the high oscillations around steady state, which can be solved by using fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to fine-tune the output power and voltage from the PV system. The new contribution of this paper is the hybrid PSO-FLC with two PSO particles dispersing techniques that is able to solve the two previous mentioned problems effectively and improve the performance of the PV system in both normal and PSCs. A detailed list of comparisons between hybrid PSO-FLC and original PSO using the two proposed methodologies are achieved. The results prove the superior performance of hybrid PSO-FLC compared to PSO in terms of efficiency, accuracy, oscillations reduction around steady state and soft tuning of the GP tracked.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Lee CH, Ngeow YF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Mar;38(1):23-6.
    PMID: 6633329
    Genital discharge from patients unth. smear positive gonorrhoea was transported from the clinic to the laboratory in. Stuart's transport medium (Oxoid CM 111). Within. six hours of transit time the recovery rate of gonococci was 94%. When compared with "bedside" inoculation onto Modified Thayer Martin medium, there was no significant difference in recovery rates up to 6 hours of transportation in Stuart's transport medium, However, the rate of isolation of gonococci was significantly reduced after 20 to 30 hours of transportation. It is concluded that Stuart's transport medium is an acceptable transport medium for specimens containing gonococci when specimens reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Boo NY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1989 Mar;44(1):35-40.
    PMID: 2626112
    Over a seven month period in 1986, 164 (1.1%) of a total 15,131 neonates delivered in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were born to mothers with prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes. Septic work-ups were performed on 163 of these babies shortly after birth, 77 of them had no bacteriological, radiological or other clinical evidence of infection. The remaining 86 had additional history of illness. Nine of these 86 babies had proven infection: four with septicemia, one with meningitis and four others with congenital pneumonia. This study showed that neonates had risk of infection only when maternal history of prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes was associated with other clinical evidence of infection. However, even in this group of neonates at risk, 89.5% of them were not infected. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a simple, rapid, reliable and cheap laboratory method to help early identification of the infected from the non-infected neonates in order to prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment and hospital stay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Holland B
    Hum. Biol., 1987 Jun;59(3):477-87.
    PMID: 3610122
    The effects of breast-feeding on infant health and mortality, particularly in the developing nations, are a matter of controversy and importance. The Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS) of over 1200 women has recently been the source of a great deal of valuable information on the influence of breast-feeding and interacting social variables on the incidence of infant mortality. Accuracy of reporting of breast-feeding duration is a key issue in the validity of studies of breast-feeding and infant mortality. This paper presents an illustrative analysis of the quality of breast-feeding data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, using logit model schedules. Lesthaeghe and Page derived a logit model schedule of breast-feeding, summarizing empirical experience. This family of model breast-feeding duration curves is similar to the logit model life tables developed by Brass, and was intended for similar applications. To verify the MFLS retrospective breast-feeding reports, the observed median duration and variability were calculated for ethnic group/cohort subsets, and expected duration distribution curves were generated from the model using these observed parameter values. The expected curve generated from the model fit the observed curve of breast-feeding discontinuation extremely closely. Thus it is unlikely that any significant distortion of the pattern of discontinuation of breast-feeding occurred in data collection. Extensions of this method of data quality checking to other duration distributions are suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Ali A, Yeoh WK, Forney C, Siddiqui MW
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2018;58(15):2632-2649.
    PMID: 29072844 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1339180
    Minimally processed fresh produce is one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry due to consumer demand for fresh, healthy, and convenient foods. However, mechanical operations of cutting and peeling induce the liberation of cellular contents at the site of wounding that can promote the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, rates of tissue senescence can be enhanced resulting in reduced storage life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Chlorine has been widely adopted in the disinfection and washing procedures of fresh-cut produce due to its low cost and efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Continuous replenishment of chlorine in high organic wash water can promote the formation of carcinogenic compounds such as trihalomethanes, which threaten human and environmental health. Alternative green and innovative chemical and physical postharvest treatments such as ozone, electrolyzed water, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, high pressure processing, and ultrasound can achieve similar reduction of microorganisms as chlorine without the production of harmful compounds or compromising the quality of fresh-cut produce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Mohd Radi MF, Hashim JH, Jaafar MH, Hod R, Ahmad N, Mohammed Nawi A, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 05;98(5):1281-1295.
    PMID: 29532771 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0922
    Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted an observational ecological study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed. A total of 1,229 leptospirosis cases were notified within the three study periods where incidence doubled in the postflood period. Twelve of 66 subdistricts recorded incidence rates of over 100 per 100,000 population in the postflood period, in comparison with only four subdistricts in the preflooding period. Average nearest neighborhood analysis indicated that the cases were more clustered in the postflood period as compared with the preflood period, with observed mean distance of 1,139 meters and 1,666 meters, respectively (both at P < 0.01). Global Moran's I was higher in the postflood period (0.19; P < 0.01) as compared with the preflood period (0.06; P < 0.01). Geographic weighted regression showed that living close to water bodies increased the risk of contracting the disease. Postflooding hotspots were concentrated in areas where garbage cleanup occurred and the incidence was significantly associated with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and river levels. Postflooding leptospirosis outbreak was associated with several factors. Understanding the spatial distribution and associated factors of leptospirosis can help improve future disease outbreak management after the floods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Jaddi NS, Abdullah S
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(1):e0208308.
    PMID: 30608936 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208308
    Optimization of an artificial neural network model through the use of optimization algorithms is the common method employed to search for an optimum solution for a broad variety of real-world problems. One such optimization algorithm is the kidney-inspired algorithm (KA) which has recently been proposed in the literature. The algorithm mimics the four processes performed by the kidneys: filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion. However, a human with reduced kidney function needs to undergo additional treatment to improve kidney performance. In the medical field, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) test is used to check the health of kidneys. The test estimates the amount of blood that passes through the glomeruli each minute. In this paper, we mimic this kidney function test and the GFR result is used to select a suitable step to add to the basic KA process. This novel imitation is designed for both minimization and maximization problems. In the proposed method, depends on GFR test result which is less than 15 or falls between 15 and 60 or is more than 60 a particular action is performed. These additional processes are applied as required with the aim of improving exploration of the search space and increasing the likelihood of the KA finding the optimum solution. The proposed method is tested on test functions and its results are compared with those of the basic KA. Its performance on benchmark classification and time series prediction problems is also examined and compared with that of other available methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method is applied to a real-world water quality prediction problem. The statistical analysis of all these applications showed that the proposed method had a ability to improve the optimization outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Alyessary AS, Yap AUJ, Othman SA, Ibrahim N, Rahman MT, Radzi Z
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2018 Aug;154(2):260-269.
    PMID: 30075928 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.11.031
    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the effect of bone-borne accelerated expansion protocols on sutural separation and sutural bone modeling using a microcomputed tomography system. We also determined the optimum instant sutural expansion possible without disruption of bone modeling.

    METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).

    RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Rahman AM, Jamayet NB, Nizami MMUI, Johari Y, Husein A, Alam MK
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Jan;28(1):36-48.
    PMID: 30043482 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12950
    PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to identify and interpret results of studies that evaluated the changes in the physical properties of maxillofacial prosthetic materials (1) without aging, (2) after natural or artificial accelerated aging, and (3) after outdoor weathering.

    METHODS: Relevant articles written in English only, before January 15, 2017, were identified using an electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Furthermore, a manual search of the related major journals was also conducted to identify more pertinent articles. The relevancy of the articles was verified by screening the title, abstract, and full text if they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 articles satisfied the criteria, from which data were extracted for qualitative synthesis.

    RESULTS: Among the 37 included articles, 14 were without aging, 15 were natural or artificial accelerated aging, 7 were outdoor weathering, and 1 contained both artificial aging and outdoor weathering. Only 4 studies out of the 14 without aging had significant observations; whereas 9 articles with natural or artificial aging published significant results, and 3 out of 7 outdoor weathering articles showed significant changes in the evaluated silicone elastomers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the varying research, it seems that the single "ideal" maxillofacial prosthetic material that can provide sufficient resistance against different aging conditions is yet to be identified. Therefore, it is imperative for standardization organizations, the scientific community, and academia to develop modified prosthetic silicones possessing improved physical properties and color stability, limiting the clinical problems regarding degradation of maxillofacial prostheses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin, Noor Zalina Mahmood, Noorlidah Abdullah
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1445-1450.
    Vermicomposting for 140 days by using Lumbricus rubellus was conducted after 21 days of natural pre-composting. Five treatments in different ratio of goat manure: spent mushroom substrate were prepared as feed materials with four replicates for each treatment namely; 20:80 (TA), 40:60 (TB), 50:50 (TC), 60:40 (TD) and 80:20 (TE). As for control, each treatment without earthworm was prepared. On the basis of nutrient elements, goat manure and spent mushroom substrate can be decomposed through both methods of vermicomposting and natural composting. Findings of this study indicated that the higher usage of goat manure with longer duration resulted in the production of improved organic fertilizer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Mohd Said N, Othman J, Hairi F
    MyJurnal
    Malaysia's healthcare delivery system in Vision 2020 will be recognized as one of the world’s best. Putrajaya Health Clinic is our first paperless health clinic in Malaysia that incorporates the Health Information System (HIS). This system cuts across programmes and sections in the operational work process in the clinic with the ultimate aim of achieving a paperless status. This clinic provides a comprehensive health care service at the point of contact and focuses on wellness, clientfriendly, seamless and borderless care with e]§‘icient use of resources and towards high a quality of service. This health clinic which seesthe majority of the attendance being well persons, through the immunization programme, antenatal, postnatal, family planning, school health, and well clinics for child and adult, will continue to extend and further expand its services to include geriatric, ill mental, occupational and rehabilitative care. The e-government within Putrajaya will facilitate the use of an
    appointment system, which can be done through e—mail, fax, telephone or walk-in. Information and
    communication technology will also facilitate the promotion of health education for individuals and communities. To facilitate efective streaming or screening of clients/attendees, a simple triage system is introduced. Prompt, short and accurate is the rule for triaging, thus providing timely and ejfective care. New information and communication technologies will allow healthcare providers to adopt a more virtual, more integrated and more distributed approach in the delivery of health services. It was documented that the average contact time at the triage counter in Putrajaya Health Clinic was 1.16 minutes, i.e. the shortest among other services provided here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors*
  12. Guo P, Chiew YS, Shaw GM, Shao L, Green R, Clark A, et al.
    Intensive Crit Care Nurs, 2016 Dec;37:52-61.
    PMID: 27401048 DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2016.05.003
    Monitoring clinical activity at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) can provide useful information to evaluate nursing care and patient recovery. However, it is labour intensive to quantify these activities and there is a need for an automated method to record and quantify these activities. This paper presents an automated system, Clinical Activity Tracking System (CATS), to monitor and evaluate clinical activity at the patient's bedside. The CATS uses four Microsoft Kinect infrared sensors to track bedside nursing interventions. The system was tested in a simulated environment where test candidates performed different motion paths in the detection area. Two metrics, 'Distance' and 'Dwell time', were developed to evaluate interventions or workload in the detection area. Results showed that the system can accurately track the intervention performed by individual or multiple subjects. The results of a 30-day, 24-hour preliminary study in an ICU bed space matched clinical expectations. It was found that the average 24-hour intervention is 22.0minutes/hour. The average intervention during the day time (7am-11pm) is 23.6minutes/hour, 1.4 times higher than 11pm-7am, 16.8minutes/hour. This system provides a unique approach to automatically collect and evaluate nursing interventions that can be used to evaluate patient acuity and workload demand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors*
  13. Kalid N, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Salman OH, Hashim M, Muzammil H
    J Med Syst, 2017 Dec 29;42(2):30.
    PMID: 29288419 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-017-0883-4
    The growing worldwide population has increased the need for technologies, computerised software algorithms and smart devices that can monitor and assist patients anytime and anywhere and thus enable them to lead independent lives. The real-time remote monitoring of patients is an important issue in telemedicine. In the provision of healthcare services, patient prioritisation poses a significant challenge because of the complex decision-making process it involves when patients are considered 'big data'. To our knowledge, no study has highlighted the link between 'big data' characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process, as well as the inherent challenges involved. Thus, we present comprehensive insights into the elements of big data characteristics according to the six 'Vs': volume, velocity, variety, veracity, value and variability. Each of these elements is presented and connected to a related part in the study of the connection between patient prioritisation and real-time remote healthcare monitoring systems. Then, we determine the weak points and recommend solutions as potential future work. This study makes the following contributions. (1) The link between big data characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process is described. (2) The open issues and challenges for big data used in the patient prioritisation process are emphasised. (3) As a recommended solution, decision making using multiple criteria, such as vital signs and chief complaints, is utilised to prioritise the big data of patients with chronic diseases on the basis of the most urgent cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors*
  14. Bong LJ, Neoh KB, Jaal Z, Lee CY
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2013 Dec;106(6):2530-40.
    PMID: 24498755
    The contact toxicity of four insecticide formulations (deltamethrin, fipronil, fenitrothion, and imidacloprid) applied on three different substrates (tile, plywood, and concrete) against the adult rove beetle, Paederus fuscipes Curtis, was evaluated. The relative order of speed of killing effects was as follows: deltamethrin > imidacloprid > fipronil > fenitrothion. Although deltamethrin showed the fastest action against P. fuscipes, the recovery rate of rove beetles at 48 h posttreatment was moderate (approximately 25%) on the tile surface to high (approximately 80%) on the plywood surface. Thus, it is likely that the insects did not pick up the lethal dose especially on porous surfaces. In contrast, fipronil demonstrated delayed toxicity that might promote maximal uptake by the insects. More than 80% mortality was registered for tile and plywood surfaces up to 4 wk after exposure. High mortality (almost 100%) was recorded for imidacloprid-exposed P. fuscipes at 48 h posttreatment, but only on the tile surface. Among the four insecticides tested, fenitrothion was the least effective against P. fuscipes because low percentage to no mortality was recorded in the fenitrothion treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Leong WS, Liong ML, Liong YV, Wu DB, Lee SW
    Urology, 2014 Jan;83(1):40-4.
    PMID: 24044912 DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2013.08.004
    To determine the efficacy of a combination of simultaneous shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), hydration with controlled inversion therapy compared with SWL with hydration alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Talei D, Valdiani A, Maziah M, Mohsenkhah M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:408026.
    PMID: 24307869 DOI: 10.1155/2013/408026
    Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR), germination percentage (GP), and mean germination time (MGT) were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GP(a3) ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGT(a3). The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length). Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Abu Hanifah R, Mohamed MN, Jaafar Z, Mohsein NA, Jalaludin MY, Majid HA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e82893.
    PMID: 24349388 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082893
    BACKGROUND: In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR) after step test in Malaysian secondary school students.

    METHODS: In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min) and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min) were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR.

    RESULTS: For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024) in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008).

    CONCLUSION: There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living which should start from young.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Aldhubhani AH, lzham MI, Pazilah I, Anaam MS
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2013 Oct;19(10):837-42.
    PMID: 24313146
    Few studies have explored diagnosis delay by tuberculosis (TB) patients and its effects on the rate of infection among their close contacts. A cross-sectional study of the close contacts of 505 newly diagnosed TB patients was conducted in a TB referral centre in Sana'a, Yemen from 2008 to 2010. Only the close contacts of 89 new TB patients agreed to participate and completed the tuberculin skin test (TST). Of the 239 close contacts investigated, 133 (55.6%) had a positive TST result. Index patients were classified as long or short diagnosis delay (above or below the median). There was no significant difference in the number of infected close contacts between long and short delay index patients (Mann-Whitney U-test). A larger sample size, with more incentives for patients to participate and the use of other investigative tools could provide a better picture of the pattern of TB transmission among all contacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Mahre MB, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Jesse FF, Azlan CA, Yap KC
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2013 Oct;141(3-4):148-53.
    PMID: 24012278 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.07.012
    A study was conducted to profile the plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and establish the length of oestrous cycle in the Rusa timorensis during the breeding season. Five healthy hinds were selected for peripheral blood sampling twice weekly to gauge the P4 levels by radioimmunoassay, at the start of the breeding season indicated by rutting behaviours of sexually active males. The hinds were polyestrous as proven by the cyclic trend of P4 levels. After the presumptive oestrus indicated by the lowest P4 concentrations (0.20±0.09ng/ml), this ovarian hormone was markedly elevated on day 7 of the cycle (0.78±0.20ng/ml), reached its peak (2.61±0.23ng/ml, P<0.05) on day 14, and then declined to the basal level in the subsequent oestrus. The mean oestrous cycle length in R. timorensis during the breeding season was 19.2 days with a range of 18-21 days, and the pattern of circulating progesterone during the oestrous cycle of the R. timorensis is similar to those of other deer species. It was also observed that the length of oestrous cycle of R. timorensis determined by gauging the progesterone levels and observation of the oestrous behaviours as well as changes in the cellular pattern of vaginal epithelial cells are highly consistent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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