OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to enlighten the current detection tools developing for fatty acids profile authentication analyses of cosmetic ingredients based on the effectiveness, halal status, safety, advantages and disadvantages of the methods.
METHODOLOGY: The data were extracted from the scientific literatures published between October 2015 and 2020 in the Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, and analyzed with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).
FINDINGS: Based on the systemic literature reviews, essential oil, argan oil, mineral oil, vegetable oil, and jojoba oil were among the mostly studied ingredients in cosmetics. Furthermore, a combination of more than one analytical instrument was utilized to profile fatty acids while the determination of the origin of the fatty acids is under scrutiny. The portable mass spectrometer combined with a direct inlet membrane (DIM) probe seems to be the best tool in terms of time consumption, cost, requires no sample preparation with high efficiency. The current review showed that the best cosmetic base is when the oil is composed of high concentration of fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic, stearic acid, and palmitic acids with concentration range from 19.7 - 46.30%, which offers various beneficial properties to cosmetic products.
OBJECTIVE: To determine and quantify lard as an adulterant in a binary blend with palm oil in a cosmetic soap formulations by FT-IR and multivariate analysis.
METHODS: Fatty acids in lard, palm oil and binary blends were extracted via liquid-liquid extraction and were subjected to FTIR spectrometry, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) for the classification of lard in cosmetic soap formulations via two DA models: Model A (percentage of lard in cosmetic soap) and Model B (porcine and non-porcine cosmetic soap). Linear regression (MLR), partial least square regression (PLS-R) and principal components regression (PCR) were used to assess the degree of adulteration of lard in the cosmetic soap.
FINDINGS: The FTIR spectrum of palm oil slightly differed from that of lard at the wavenumber range of 1453 cm -1 and 1415 cm -1 in palm oil and lard, respectively, indicating the bending vibrations of CH2 and CH3 aliphatic groups and OH carboxyl group respectively. Both of the DA models could accurately classify 100% of cosmetic soap formulations. Nevertheless, less than 100% of verification value was obtained when it was further used to predict the unknown cosmetic soap sample suspected of containing lard or a different percentage of lard. The PCA for Model A and Model B explained a similar cumulative variability (CV) of 92.86% for the whole dataset. MLR and PCR showed the highest determination coefficient (R2) of 0.996, and the lowest relative standard error (RSE) and mean square error (MSE), indicating that both regression models were effective in quantifying the lard adulterant in cosmetic soap.
CONCLUSION: FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics with DA, PCA and MLR or PCR can be used to analyse the presence of lard and quantify its percentage in cosmetic soap formulations.