This article reviews the concept of Combination Syndrome and presents a clinical case of a patient with a modern variation to this clinical scenario': The clinical procedures involved in the provision of a maxillary complete denture against a mandibular implant-supported complete fixed prosthesis is described with some suggestions on how to optimise the treatment outcome for the patient.
Glaucoma is a major cause of permanent visual loss in patients with sarcoid uveitis.In this case glaucoma occurred early in the course of the disease and IOP started to rise up after one month from the initial presentation. Uveitic glaucoma can be extremely difficult to treat; pilocarpine is not normally used in eyes with active inflammation. Patients with uveitis respond poorly to laser trabeculoplasty, and filtering procedures usually fail. Success of modified goniotomy, trabeculectomy and Molteno valve implantation were reported. More drastic therapy, such as cyclodestructive procedures, may be required in the most severe cases. In this case the challenge in preserving the vision. by keeping the balance between the need to control the inflammation and the necessity to avoid the treatment related complications.
Polyamide (PA) Thin-Film Composite (TFC) membranes are widely used for large-scale water and wastewater treatment processes worldwide owing to their good balance between water permeability and dissolved solutes separation rate. The physicochemical properties of the cross-linked PA layer are the main criteria determining the filtration performance of the resultant TFC membrane, and this selective layer can be created through Interfacial Polymerization (IP) between two immiscible active monomers, i.e., amine monomer in aqueous solution and acyl chloride monomer in organic solution. This patent review article intends to provide insights to researchers in fabricating improved properties of TFC membranes through the utilization of secondary monomers during IP process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that gives a state-of-the-art account of the subject matter by emphasizing the impacts of secondary monomers (both amine and acyl chloride monomers) on the properties of conventional TFC membranes for nanofiltration and reverse osmosis applications. Our review indicated that the introduction of secondary monomers into either aqueous or organic solution could alter the physical and chemical properties of PA layer, which led to variations in membrane filtration performance. Nevertheless, more research is still required, as most of the secondary monomers reported in the literature did not overcome the membrane trade-off effect between permeability and selectivity. The subject of improved PA layer development is a multi-disciplinary study that requires researchers with different backgrounds (e.g., materials science, chemistry, physics and engineering) to work together.
The essential oils from different parts of Litsea cubeba, collected from the highlands of Sarawak, were isolated and their chemical compositions analyzed. This study demonstrated significant variations in the chemical compositions and the chemical profiles of the volatiles and could provide valuable supplementary information on the geographical variations of the species. The fruit essential oil was dominated by citronellal, d-limonene and citronellol, while the leaf oil was high in eucalyptol and a-terpineol. High concentrations of citronellal and citronellol in both the root and bark oils were identified. In the stem, the oil was dominated by eucalyptol, d-limonene and α-terpineol. The activity of the oils against brine shrimp larvae, bacteria, yeast and fungi was determined. The oils were toxic against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 25.1 - 30.9 μL/mL. The oils also demonstrated a wide spectrum of inhibition against microorganisms with inhibition zones between 19.5 - 46.7 mm against Gram-positive bacteria and 10.5 - 90.0 mm against yeast and fungi. However, the oils were not active against Gram-negative bacteria.
SOX9, a members of SOX family, plays a significant roles in developmental processes during embryogenesis, including brain tissue. Few studies have shown that SOX9has been involved in tumourigenesis of several types of cancer including brain tumour. However, such studies are still lacking in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study was to determine SOX9expression level in several types of brain tumours in East Coast Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Five formalin-fixed pariffin-embedded brain tumour samples of Malay descendants were sectioned by using microtome. RNA extraction was performed with slight modification by adding Trizol during tissue lysis. The RNA was converted to cDNA using reverse transcription technique before SOX9expression was detected using RT q-PCR assay in brain tumours normalized to non-neoplastic brain tissues. Results: Overall results displayed that SOX9gene in all samples were up-regulated. SOX9overexpression was found in both high and low grade glioma (anaplastic and pilocytic astrocytoma respectively). This is consistence with both low grade (benign) and atypical meningioma. Secondary brain tumour also showed up-regulation when compared to normal brain tissue. Conclusion: Up-regulation in SOX9expression in selected brain tumours in Malay patients revealed its significant roles in brain tumourigenesis. Functional studies should be carried out to observe the SOX9functions and mechanism whether they should reflect their diverse roles in Malaysia population.
The essential oils from the leaves, pseudostems, rhizomes and fruits of Alpinia rafflesiana were isolated by hydrodistillation. The oils were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The most abundant components in the leaf oil were trans-caryophyllene (32.61%), caryophyllene oxide (8.67%), (2E,6Z)-farnesol (4.91%) and alpha-terpineol (4.25%), while 1,8-cineole (32.25%), myrcene (13.63%), alpha-terpineol (9.90%) and trans-caryophyllene (9.80%) were the main constituents in the pseudostem oil. The rhizome constituted of tetracosane (42.61%), tau-cadinol (7.46%), alpha-terpineol (6.71%) were the major components, whereas tetracosane (13.39%), (2E,6E)-farnesol (7.31%), alpha-terpineol (8.51%) and caryophyllene oxide (8.05%) were the main components in the fruit oil. Antimicrobial assay revealed that all the essential oils showed moderate to weak inhibition against the tested microorganisms. The leaf oil was the most active and inhibited both S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 7.81 microg/mL and 15.6 microg/mL, respectively.
Understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation during breast cancer is one of the most difficult problems among oncologists because this regulation is likely comprised of complex genetic interactions. Given this complexity, a computational study using the Bayesian network technique has been employed to construct a gene regulatory network from microarray data. Although the Bayesian network has been notified as a prominent method to infer gene regulatory processes, learning the Bayesian network structure is NP hard and computationally intricate. Therefore, we propose a novel inference method based on low-order conditional independence that extends to the case of the Bayesian network to deal with a large number of genes and an insufficient sample size. This method has been evaluated and compared with full-order conditional independence and different prognostic indices on a publicly available breast cancer data set. Our results suggest that the low-order conditional independence method will be able to handle a large number of genes in a small sample size with the least mean square error. In addition, this proposed method performs significantly better than other methods, including the full-order conditional independence and the St. Gallen consensus criteria. The proposed method achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.79203, whereas the full-order conditional independence and the St. Gallen consensus criteria obtained 0.76438 and 0.73810, respectively. Furthermore, our empirical evaluation using the low-order conditional independence method has demonstrated a promising relationship between six gene regulators and two regulated genes and will be further investigated as potential breast cancer metastasis prognostic markers.
This article is part of a larger study on the role of spirituality in coping with breast cancer among Malaysian Muslim women. The study seeks to reveal the meaning of the experience through the stories of three Muslim women surviving advanced breast cancer, to better understand the deep meanings that inform their experiences with spirituality and transformation as they cope with the challenges of breast cancer. Data were gathered using in-depth interview. Qualitative methods were used in identifying two themes--illness as an awakening and hope and freedom comes from surrendering to God. The themes were discussed in the context of two broad areas: (1) what are the new meanings these women discovered in their experiences with cancer; and (2) how did the new meanings change their lives? The study suggests that cancer survivors' experiences with cancer and their learning processes must be understood within the appropriate cultural context. This is especially so for spirituality. The common emphasis of spirituality on relationship with God, self and others, may significantly influence how people learn to live with cancer.
This study evaluated the shear bond strengths of light-polymerized urethane dimethacrylate (Eclipse) and heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate (Meliodent) denture base polymers to intraoral and laboratory-processed reline materials.
The aim of this study is to report the yield of extraction, as well as the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extracted chitosan from mud crabs (S.olivacea) as compared to commercial chitosan. The yield obtained for extracted chitosan was 44.57 ± 3.44 % with a moisture and ash content of 9.48 ± 0.59 % and 5.97 ± 0.90 %, respectively. Commercial chitosan demonstrated a higher degree of deacetylation (58.42 ± 2.67 %), water (250 ± 9.90 %) and fat (329 ± 7.07 %) binding capacity, solubility (73.85 %), viscosity (463.25 ± 13.10 %) and also the whiteness value (77.8 ± 0.47) compared to the extracted chitosan, which were only 53.42 ± 0.88 %, 180 ± 0.00 %, 260 ± 0.00 %, 53.38 %, 383.9 ± 28.43 % and 62.1 ± 7.52 %, respectively. The structure of extracted and commercial chitosan was also investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In conclusion, the extracted chitosan possessed potential properties similar to the commercial chitosan with high reducing power but low in the scavenging activity on the DPPH and hydroxyl radicals compared to the commercial chitosan.
A lamellar liquid crystalline region was identified in a typical skin lotion formulation system composed of a mixture of isostearic acid and triethanolamine (TEA) at 65:35 (w/w), decane, and water (the temperature was controlled at 30 degrees C). The interlayer spacings were determined by a small-angle X-ray diffraction technique. Incorporation of a natural dye, curcumin, resulted in lower interlayer spacings and higher penetration of water into the layered structure. However, the higher penetration of water was not apparent at all compositions of isostearic acid:TEA, decane, and water.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious, severe acute respiratory syndrome that poses significant health risks to healthcare providers. A delicate balance is needed between timely intervention for ill patients without apparent COVID-19 infection and the safety of healthcare personnel who provide essential treatment in the midst of the pandemic. We report our experience managing a 70-year-old man who presented with acute gallstone pancreatitis at our hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia. We also describe the safety protocol measures that have been implemented in our institution to protect the healthcare personnel from this disease during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This case illustrates the importance of meticulous planning, risk assessment, effective team communication and strict adherence to recommendations when providing treatment during an unprecedented pandemic.
The study examined the relationship between environmental attitude, environmental subjective norm, environmental perceived behavioural control, and school headteachers' environmental responsive behaviour. The population of the study consists of primary school headteachers in the northern region of Malaysia who are attached to the Ministry of Education (MoE), Malaysia. An online survey was used to collect the data of the study from 167 sampled respondents. While Theory of planned behaviour underpinned the study, the researcher employed explanatory, descriptive, and hypothesis testing quantitative strategies to explain the relationship. Smart PLS 3.0 and SPSS 21 were equally used to analyse the data. The result of the data analysis revealed that environmental attitude, environmental subjective norm, and environmental perceived behavioural control significantly influence school headteachers' environmental responsive behaviour.
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of five risk factors comprising central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which predispose a person to cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies reported the beneficial effects of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome through its antiobesity, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, and hypotensive actions. This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanism of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome. The therapeutic effects of honey largely depend on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of its polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Polyphenols, such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid, are some of the phenolic acids known to have antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic properties. They could inhibit the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and its target lipogenic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS). Meanwhile, caffeic acid and quercetin in honey are also known to reduce body weight and fat mass. In addition, fructooligosaccharides in honey are also known to alter lipid metabolism by reducing FAS activity. The fructose and phenolic acids might contribute to the hypoglycaemic properties of honey through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B insulin signalling pathway. Honey can increase the expression of Akt and decrease the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. Quercetin, a component of honey, can improve vasodilation by enhancing nitric oxide production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and stimulate calcium-activated potassium channels. In conclusion, honey can be used as a functional food or adjuvant therapy to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.
A study was conducted to screen the occurrence and level of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in urine samples of 206 urban and rural residents in Terengganu, Malaysia. The level of AFM1 was quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immune-absorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 206 samples, 84 were positive for AFM1 (40.8%) in a range of 0.07-5.53 ng/ml (mean = 0.589 ng/ml). Residents of Terengganu are moderately exposed to AFM1. Age, ethnicity, marital status and employment status were associated with urinary level of AFM1. Subjects aged 30 years and above, non-Malays, married, and those unemployed had significantly higher levels of urinary AFM1 (p
Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.