Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Vignesvaran K, Alias Z
    Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 2016 Jul;92(3):210-21.
    PMID: 27075600 DOI: 10.1002/arch.21332
    Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase D3 (DmGSTD3) has a shorter amino acid sequence as compared to other GSTs known in the fruit flies. This is due to the 15 amino acid N-terminal truncation in which normally active amino acid residue is located. The work has made use of homology modeling to visualize the arrangement of amino acid side chains in the glutathione (GSH) substrate cavity. The identified amino acids were then replaced with amino acids without functional groups in the side chains and the mutants were analyzed kinetically. Homology modeling revealed that the side chains of Y89 and Y97 were shown facing toward the substrate cavity proposing their possible role in catalyzing the conjugation. Y97A and Y89A GSH gave large changes in Km (twofold increase), Vmax (fivefold reduction), and Kcat /Km values for GSH suggesting their significant role in the conjugation reaction. The replacement at either positions has not affected the affinity of the enzyme toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as no significant change in values of Kmax was observed. The replacement, however, had significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency of both mutants with (Kcat /Km )(GSH) and (Kcat /Km )(CDNB) of eight- and twofold reduction. The recombinant DmGSTD3 has shown no activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 2,4-hexadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, p-nitrobenzyl chloride, ethacrynic acid, and sulfobromophthalein. Therefore, it was evident that DmGSTD3 has made use of distal amino acids Y97 and Y89 for GSH conjugation.
  2. Shehu D, Alias Z
    Protein J., 2018 06;37(3):261-269.
    PMID: 29779193 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9774-x
    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate, permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.
  3. Shehu D, Alias Z
    FEBS Open Bio, 2019 03;9(3):408-419.
    PMID: 30868049 DOI: 10.1002/2211-5463.12405
    A glutathione S-transferase (GST) with a potential dehalogenation function against various organochlorine substrates was identified from a polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-degrading organism, Acidovorax sp. KKS102. A homolog of the gene BphK (biphenyl upper pathway K), named BphK-KKS, was cloned, purified and biochemically characterized. Bioinformatic analysis indicated several conserved amino acids that participated in the catalytic activity of the enzyme, and site-directed mutagenesis of these conserved amino acids revealed their importance in the enzyme's catalytic activity. The wild-type and mutant (C10F, K107T and A180P) recombinant proteins displayed wider substrate specificity. The wild-type recombinant GST reacted towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide. The mutated recombinant proteins, however, showed significant variation in specific activities towards the substrates. A combination of a molecular docking study and a chloride ion detection assay showed potential interaction with and a dechlorination function against 2-, 3- and 4-chlorobenzoates (metabolites generated during PCB biodegradation) in addition to some organochlorine pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, endosulfan and permethrin). It was demonstrated that the behavior of the dechlorinating activities varied among the wild-type and mutant recombinant proteins. Kinetic studies (using CDNB and glutathione) showed that the kinetic parameters Km, Vmax, Kcat and Km/Kcat were all affected by the mutations. While C10F and A180P mutants displayed an increase in GST activity and the dechlorination function of the enzyme, the K107T mutant displayed variable results, suggesting a functional role of Lys107 in determining substrate specificity of the enzyme. These results demonstrated that the enzyme should be valuable in the bioremediation of metabolites generated during PCB biodegradation.
  4. Alias Z, Tan IK
    Bioresour. Technol., 2005 Jul;96(11):1229-34.
    PMID: 15734309
    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).
  5. Chee CS, Tan IK, Alias Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:750317.
    PMID: 24892084 DOI: 10.1155/2014/750317
    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively.
  6. Hamzah SN, Farouk SA, Alias Z
    Pestic Biochem Physiol, 2019 Jan;153:116-121.
    PMID: 30744884 DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2018.11.011
    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from susceptible Aedes albopictus larvae were partially isolated using two different purification strategies (GSTrap™ HP and GSH-agarose affinity columns) and the effects of permethrin and DDT on expression of the GSTs were investigated. Distinct double bands on SDS-PAGE with molecular weights between 20 and 25 kDa were successfully purified using GSTrap™ HP while a single band of 24.5 kDa was purified using GSH-agarose. The isolated GSTs belonged to the Delta, Sigma and Theta GST classes. When exposed to permethrin, one isoform of Theta, four isoforms of Sigma and thirteen isoforms of Delta GSTs showed an increased expression between 1.4-fold and 2.5-fold while DDT treatment resulted in between 1.4-fold and 3.2-fold increased expression in one isoform of Theta, four isoforms of Sigma and eleven isoforms of Delta GSTs (p 
  7. Mohamad J, Masrudin SS, Alias Z, Muhamad NA
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2019 Apr;46(2):1855-1871.
    PMID: 30710233 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-019-04638-5
    Pueraria mirifica (PM) is a medicinal plant native to Thailand contained high amount of phytoestrogen and possesses anticancer activity. This study reports the effect of P. mirifica extract, phytoestrogen of diadzein and genistein for its benign prostate hyperplasia properties in testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in male Sprague Dawley rats. The P. mirifica extract was evaluated for its total phenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity using DPPH, FRAP and metal chelating assay. The assessment of P. mirifica, diadzein and genistein against benign prostate hyperplasia was determined in testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in male Sprague Dawley rats. The total phenol was higher than flavonoid but showed low antioxidant activity of DPPH, FRAP and metal chelating. The aqueous PM extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly increased testosterone levels in testosterone-induced rats by 13% while diadzein and genistein increased it by 11% and 17% respectively. However, levels of FSH, LH, triglyceride and HDL are not affected by the oral administration of PM, diadzein and genistein to the rats. Similarly, total protein, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and G-glutamyltransferase showed no significant difference as compared with negative control rats. The body weight of the rats, testis, kidney and liver showed no toxic effect. The zinc content increased significantly and the zinc transporter gen of ZnT4 and ZIP4 highly expressed suggesting that the PM, diadzein and genistein plays essential role in modulating prostate zinc homeostasis. Similarly, the expression of IL-6, AR and ER was significantly reduced indicating functioning in regulation of prostate growth and acts as anti-inflammatory role in preventing BPH. In conclusion, the results indicated that PM reduced BPH and contributed to the regulation in the zinc transport expression of the prostate cells in the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
  8. Yahya MFZR, Alias Z, Karsani SA
    Protein J., 2017 08;36(4):286-298.
    PMID: 28470375 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-017-9719-9
    Salmonella typhimurium is an important biofilm-forming bacteria. It is known to be resistant to a wide range of antimicrobials. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against S. typhimurium biofilm and investigate whole-cell protein expression by biofilm cells following treatment with DMSO. Antibiofilm activities were assessed using pellicle assay, crystal violet assay, colony-forming unit counting and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix assay whilst differential protein expression was investigated using a combination of one dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Treatment with 32% DMSO inhibited pellicle formation, biofilm viability, biofilm biomass and several important components of EPS matrix. Subtractive protein profiling identified two unique protein bands (25.4 and 51.2 kDa) which were present only in control biofilm and not in 32% DMSO-treated biofilm. In turn, 29 and 46 proteins were successfully identified from the protein bands of 25.4 and 51.2 kDa respectively. Protein interaction network analysis identified several biological pathways to be affected, including glycolysis, PhoP-PhoQ phosphorelay signalling and flagellar biosynthesis. The present study suggests that DMSO may inhibit multiple biological pathways to control biofilm formation.
  9. Yahya MFZR, Alias Z, Karsani SA
    Folia Microbiol. (Praha), 2018 Jan;63(1):23-30.
    PMID: 28540585 DOI: 10.1007/s12223-017-0532-9
    Biofilms are complex microbial communities that tend to attach to either biotic or abiotic surface. Enclosed in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, the biofilms often cause persistent infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and afatinib against Gram-negative pathogens. Test microorganisms used in this study were Escherichia coli ATCC 1299, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028. Biofilms were developed in 96-well microplate at 37°C for 24 h. Following removal of non-adherent cells, analysis of biofilm viability, biofilm biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix were performed using resazurin assay, crystal violet assay, and attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. Bradford protein assay was conducted to determine the total amount of EPS proteins. The results demonstrated that both 32% DMSO alone and its combination with 3.2 μg/mL afatinib were effective in killing biofilm cells and reducing biofilm biomass. IR spectral variations of EPS matrix of biofilms in the range between 1700 and 900 cm-1 were also observed. Reduction in EPS proteins verified the chemical modifications of EPS matrix. In conclusion, 32% DMSO alone and its combination with 3.2 μg/mL afatinib showed remarkable antibiofilm activities against Gram-negative pathogens. It was suggested that the biofilm inhibition was mediated by the chemical modification of EPS matrix.
  10. Kabir MZ, Ghani H, Mohamad SB, Alias Z, Tayyab S
    J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn., 2018 Aug;36(10):2495-2507.
    PMID: 28749242 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2017.1360207
    Multiple spectroscopic techniques, such as fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism along with in silico studies were used to characterize the binding of a potent inhibitor molecule, CCG1423 to the major transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopic results confirmed CCG1423-HSA complex formation. A strong binding affinity stabilized the CCG1423-HSA complex, as evident from the values of the binding constant (Ka = 1.35 × 106-5.43 × 105 M-1). The KSV values for CCG1423-HSA system were inversely correlated with temperature, suggesting the involvement of static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic data anticipated that CCG1423-HSA complexation was mainly driven by hydrophobic and van der Waals forces as well as hydrogen bonds. In silico analysis also supported these results. Three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectral analysis suggested microenvironmental perturbations around protein fluorophores and structural (secondary and tertiary) changes in the protein upon CCG1423 binding. CCG1423 binding to HSA also showed some protection against thermal denaturation. Site-specific marker-induced displacement results revealed CCG1423 binding to Sudlow's site I of HSA, which was also confirmed by the computational results. A few common ions were also found to interfere with the CCG1423-HSA interaction.
  11. Andy SN, Pandy V, Alias Z, Kadir HA
    Life Sci., 2018 Aug 01;206:45-60.
    PMID: 29792878 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.05.035
    AIM: Neuroinflammation is a critical pathogenic mechanism of most neurodegenerative disorders especially, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to induce neuroinflammation which is evident from significant upsurge of pro-inflammatory mediators in in vitro BV-2 microglial cells and in vivo animal models. In present study, we investigated anti-neuroinflammatory properties of deoxyelephantopin (DET) isolated from Elephantopus scaber in LPS-induced neuroinflammatory rat model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, DET (0.625. 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in rats for 21 days and those animals were challenged with single injection of LPS (250 μg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days. Cognitive and behavioral assessment was carried out for 7 days followed by molecular assessment on brain hippocampus. Statistical significance was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test to compare the treatment groups with the control group.

    KEY FINDINGS: DET ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by suppressing major pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, DET enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokines and concomitantly suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine production. DET treatment also reversed LPS-induced behavioral and memory deficits and attenuated LPS-induced elevation of the expression of AD markers. DET improved synaptic-functionality via enhancing the activity of pre- and post-synaptic markers, like PSD-95 and SYP. DET also prevented LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration via inhibition of PARP-1, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our studies suggest DET can prevent neuroinflammation-associated memory impairment and neurodegeneration and it could be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation-mediated and neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  12. Kabir MZ, Mukarram AK, Mohamad SB, Alias Z, Tayyab S
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2016 Jul;160:229-39.
    PMID: 27128364 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.04.005
    Interaction of a promising anticancer drug, lapatinib (LAP) with the major transport protein in human blood circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as molecular docking analysis. LAP-HSA complex formation was evident from the involvement of static quenching mechanism, as revealed by the fluorescence quenching data analysis. The binding constant, Ka value in the range of 1.49-1.01×10(5)M(-1), obtained at three different temperatures was suggestive of the intermediate binding affinity between LAP and HSA. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data (∆H=-9.75kJmol(-1) and ∆S=+65.21Jmol(-1)K(-1)) suggested involvement of both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in LAP-HSA interaction, which were in line with the molecular docking results. LAP binding to HSA led to the secondary and the tertiary structural alterations in the protein as evident from the far-UV and the near-UV CD spectral analysis, respectively. Microenvironmental perturbation around Trp and Tyr residues in HSA upon LAP binding was confirmed from the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results. LAP binding to HSA improved the thermal stability of the protein. LAP was found to bind preferentially to the site III in subdomain IB on HSA, as probed by the competitive drug displacement results and supported by the molecular docking results. The effect of metal ions on the binding constant between LAP and HSA was also investigated and the results showed a decrease in the binding constant in the presence of these metal ions.
  13. Taufek NM, Aspani F, Muin H, Raji AA, Razak SA, Alias Z
    Fish Physiol. Biochem., 2016 Aug;42(4):1143-55.
    PMID: 26886132 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-016-0204-8
    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.
  14. Kabir MZ, Feroz SR, Mukarram AK, Alias Z, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn., 2016 Aug;34(8):1693-704.
    PMID: 26331959 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1089187
    Interaction of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib (VDB), with the major transport protein in the human blood circulation, human serum albumin (HSA), was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular docking analysis. The binding constant of the VDB-HSA system, as determined by fluorescence quenching titration method was found in the range, 8.92-6.89 × 10(3 )M(-1) at three different temperatures, suggesting moderate binding affinity. Furthermore, decrease in the binding constant with increasing temperature revealed involvement of static quenching mechanism, thus affirming the formation of the VDB-HSA complex. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding reaction between VDB and HSA yielded positive ΔS (52.76 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and negative ΔH (-6.57 kJ mol(-1)) values, which suggested involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in stabilizing the VDB-HSA complex. Far-UV and near-UV CD spectral results suggested alterations in both secondary and tertiary structures of HSA upon VDB-binding. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results also showed significant microenvironmental changes around the Trp residue of HSA consequent to the complex formation. Use of site-specific marker ligands, such as phenylbutazone (site I marker) and diazepam (site II marker) in competitive ligand displacement experiments indicated location of the VDB binding site on HSA as Sudlow's site I (subdomain IIA), which was further established by molecular docking results. Presence of some common metal ions, such as Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) in the reaction mixture produced smaller but significant alterations in the binding affinity of VDB to HSA.
  15. Saat MN, Annuar MS, Alias Z, Chuan LT, Chisti Y
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2014 May;37(5):765-75.
    PMID: 24005762 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-013-1046-8
    Production of extracellular laccase by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus was examined in batch submerged cultures in shake flasks, baffled shake flasks and a stirred tank bioreactor. The biomass growth in the various culture systems closely followed a logistic growth model. The production of laccase followed a Luedeking-Piret model. A modified Luedeking-Piret model incorporating logistic growth effectively described the consumption of glucose. Biomass productivity, enzyme productivity and substrate consumption were enhanced in baffled shake flasks relative to the cases for the conventional shake flasks. This was associated with improved oxygen transfer in the presence of the baffles. The best results were obtained in the stirred tank bioreactor. At 28 °C, pH 4.5, an agitation speed of 600 rpm and a dissolved oxygen concentration of ~25 % of air saturation, the laccase productivity in the bioreactor exceeded 19 U L(-1 )days(-1), or 1.5-fold better than the best case for the baffled shake flask. The final concentration of the enzyme was about 325 U L(-1).
  16. Tayyab S, Izzudin MM, Kabir MZ, Feroz SR, Tee WV, Mohamad SB, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2016 Sep;162:386-94.
    PMID: 27424099 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.06.049
    Binding characteristics of a promising anticancer drug, axitinib (AXT) to human serum albumin (HSA), the major transport protein in human blood circulation, were studied using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as molecular docking analysis. A gradual decrease in the Stern-Volmer quenching constant with increasing temperature revealed the static mode of the protein fluorescence quenching upon AXT addition, thus confirmed AXT-HSA complex formation. This was also confirmed from alteration in the UV-vis spectrum of HSA upon AXT addition. Fluorescence quenching titration results demonstrated moderately strong binding affinity between AXT and HSA based on the binding constant value (1.08±0.06×10(5)M(-1)), obtained in 10mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH7.4 at 25°C. The sign and magnitude of the enthalpy change (∆H=-8.38kJmol(-1)) as well as the entropy change (∆S=+68.21Jmol(-1)K(-1)) clearly suggested involvement of both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding in AXT-HSA complex formation. These results were well supported by molecular docking results. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results indicated significant microenvironmental changes around Trp and Tyr residues of HSA upon complexation with AXT. AXT binding to the protein produced significant alterations in both secondary and tertiary structures of HSA, as revealed from the far-UV and the near-UV CD spectral results. Competitive drug displacement results obtained with phenylbutazone (site I marker), ketoprofen (site II marker) and hemin (site III marker) along with molecular docking results suggested Sudlow's site I, located in subdomain IIA of HSA, as the preferred binding site of AXT.
  17. Kabir MZ, Tee WV, Mohamad SB, Alias Z, Tayyab S
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2017 Jun 15;181:254-263.
    PMID: 28376387 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.03.059
    Binding studies between a multi-targeted anticancer drug, sunitinib (SU) and human serum albumin (HSA) were made using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking analysis. Both fluorescence quenching data and UV-vis absorption results suggested formation of SU-HSA complex. Moderate binding affinity between SU and HSA was evident from the value of the binding constant (3.04×104M-1), obtained at 298K. Involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds as the leading intermolecular forces in the formation of SU-HSA complex was predicted from the thermodynamic data of the binding reaction. These results were in good agreement with the molecular docking analysis. Microenvironmental perturbations around Tyr and Trp residues as well as secondary and tertiary structural changes in HSA upon SU binding were evident from the three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism results. SU binding to HSA also improved the thermal stability of the protein. Competitive displacement results and molecular docking analysis revealed the binding locus of SU to HSA in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). The influence of a few common ions on the binding constant of SU-HSA complex was also noticed.
  18. Kabir MZ, Hamzah NAB, Ghani H, Mohamad SB, Alias Z, Tayyab S
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Jan 15;189:485-494.
    PMID: 28843881 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.08.051
    Interaction of an anticancer drug, vandetanib (VDB) with a ligand transporter, lysozyme (LYZ) was explored using multispectroscopic techniques, such as fluorescence, absorption and circular dichroism along with computational analysis. Fluorescence data and absorption results confirmed VDB-LYZ complexation. VDB-induced quenching was characterized as static quenching based on inverse correlation of KSV with temperature as well as kq values. The complex was characterized by the weak binding constant (Ka=4.96-3.14×103M-1). Thermodynamic data (ΔS=+12.82Jmol-1K-1; ΔH=-16.73kJmol-1) of VDB-LYZ interaction revealed participation of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds in VDB-LYZ complexation. Microenvironmental perturbations around tryptophan and tyrosine residues as well as secondary and tertiary structural alterations in LYZ upon addition of VDB were evident from the 3-D fluorescence, far- and near-UV CD spectral analyses, respectively. Interestingly, addition of VDB to LYZ significantly increased protein's thermostability. Molecular docking results suggested the location of VDB binding site near the LYZ active site while molecular dynamics simulation results suggested stability of VDB-LYZ complex. Presence of Mg2+, Ba2+ and Zn2+ was found to interfere with VDB-LYZ interaction.
  19. Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, Taib NA, Hartman M, Alias Z, Tan GH, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2187-94.
    PMID: 24736587 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.183
    Within a setting without organised breast cancer screening, the characteristics and survival of very early breast cancer were determined.
  20. Raji AA, Alaba PA, Yusuf H, Abu Bakar NH, Mohd Taufek N, Muin H, et al.
    Res. Vet. Sci., 2018 Aug;119:67-75.
    PMID: 29864632 DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.05.013
    This study explored fishmeal replacement with two freshwater microalgae: Spirulina Platensis and Chlorella vulgaris in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) diet. The effect of inclusion of the two microalgae on biomarkers of oxidative stress, haematological parameters, enzyme activities and growth performance were investigated. The juvenile fish were given 3 distinct treatments with isonitrogenous (35.01-36.57%) and isoenergetic (417.24-422.27 Kcal 100 g-1) diets containing 50% S. platensis (50SP), 75% S. platensis (75SP), 50% C. vulgaris (50CL), 75% C. vulgaris (75CL) and 100% fishmeal (100% FM) was used as the control diet. The result shows that all the diets substituted with both S. platensis, and C. vulgaris boosted the growth performance based on specific growth rate (SGR) and body weight gain (BDWG) when compared with the control diet. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was significantly influenced by all the supplementations. The haematological analysis of the fish shows a significant increase in the value of red and white blood cells upon supplementation with 50SP and 50CL but decrease slightly when increased to 75SP and 75CL. Furthermore, the value of haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased upon supplementation with 50SP and 50CL but decrease slightly when increased to 75SP and 75CL. The white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) increased, while total cholesterol (TCL), and Plasma glucose levels decreased significantly upon supplementation of algae. This is a clear indication that S. platensis and C. vulgaris are a promising replacement for fishmeal, which is a source protein in the C. gariepinus diet.
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