Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Ariffin N
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):103-4.
    PMID: 20058565
    Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant (UCBT) is a type of allogenic haematopoetic stem cell transplant. Stem cell transplantation as a mode of treatment of diseases was first successfully done by the pioneering work of a Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine, E. Donnall Thomas in 1957. Throughout the past 50 years, numerous other researchers have improved the techniques of this previously highly risky procedure. Among the notable landmark in haematopoetic stem cell transplant include: advancement in immunogenetics of HLA, better immunosuppressive preparative regimen, improved control of infections, appearance of donor registries throughout the world and successful transplantation stories using haematopoetic stem cells from peripheral blood and the cord blood. These developments lead to a change in terminology from marrow transplantation to haematopoetic stem cell transplantation .
  2. Noor Haslina MN, Ariffin N, Illuni Hayati I, Rosline H
    PMID: 17333748
    The development of red blood cell (RBC) isoimmunization with alloantibodies and autoantibodies complicate transfusion therapy in multiply transfused thalassemia patients. Thus, the frequency, causes and prevention of these phenomena were studied among these patients. Clinical and serological data from 58 Malay multiply transfused thalassemic patients who sought treatment at Hospital University Sains Malaysia were collected and analyzed prospectively. Blood samples were subjected to standard blood bank procedures to screen for antibody and subsequent antibodies identification. All patients in our hospital received blood matched for only ABO and Rh (D) antigens. There were 46 (79.3%) patients with Hb E/beta thalassemia, 8 (13.8%) with beta thalassemia major, 3 (5.2%) with Hb H Constant Spring and 1 (1.7%) with Hb H disease. Overall, 8.6% of the patients had alloantibodies and 1.7% had autoantibodies. The alloantibodies identified were anti-E, anti-c, anti-K, anti-Jka, anti-N and anti-S. In conclusion, the transfusion of matched blood is essential for chronically multiply transfused patients in order to avoid alloimmunization. Considering the high frequency of anti E at our hospital, it is advisable to genotype patients and match the red cells for E antigens in multiply transfused thalassemia patients.
  3. Quah BS, Wan-Pauzi I, Ariffin N, Mazidah AR
    Respirology, 2005 Mar;10(2):244-9.
    PMID: 15823193
    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis in school children in Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and in so doing to determine the differences in symptom prevalence rates of asthma, and atopic diseases in Kota Bharu school children between 1995 and 2001.
  4. Norsarwany M, Abdelrahman Z, Rahmah N, Ariffin N, Norsyahida A, Madihah B, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):479-88.
    PMID: 23018511
    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.
  5. Noor Haslina MN, Ariffin N, Illuni Hayati I, Rosline H
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Oct;48(10):922-5.
    PMID: 17909677
    Thalassaemia is one of the major public health problems in Malaysia. Regular monthly blood transfusion remains the main treatment for severe thalassaemia patients. One of the complications of blood transfusion is the formation by the recipients of alloantibodies and autoantibodies against red blood cell (RBC) antigen. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of RBC autoantibodies among multiple-transfused thalassaemic patients in our institution and factors that contribute to its development.
  6. Joazlina ZY, Wastie ML, Ariffin N
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Jan;47(1):37-41.
    PMID: 16397719
    INTRODUCTION: There is an awareness of the increased incidence of splenic abscess in Southeast Asia giving rise to unexplained fever. This study looks at the role of computed tomography (CT) in evaluating focal splenic lesions in patients presenting with fever.
    METHODS: 37 patients presenting with fever of unknown origin underwent CT and this study retrospectively analyses the findings in these patients. 13 patients also had associated abdominal pain. Patients with conditions at high risk for splenic infection include: diabetes mellitus in ten patients, leukaemia in seven patients, human immunodeficiency virus infection in five patients, intravenous drug abuse in six patients, and steroid therapy in two patients. No risk factors could be identified in seven patients.
    RESULTS: Splenic abscess was diagnosed in 28 patients. A range of infecting organisms was isolated but the most frequent were Staphylococcus aureus (eight), tuberculosis (four), Streptococcus (four), fungal (four) and melioidosis (four). No infecting organism could be identified in ten cases though in patients with leukaemia with multiple low attenuation areas, the cause was presumed to be fungal. Six patients were diagnosed to have splenic infarcts though differentiation from splenic abscess could be difficult; these patients were treated for an abscess and all had endocarditis. Three patients were subsequently diagnosed with lymphoma. Percutaneous abscess drainage was performed in five patients and splenectomy was carried out in six patients.
    CONCLUSION: CT proved to be very useful as it not only revealed the size and extent of any splenic abnormality but it assisted with guidance for percutaneous drainage, determined the site for biopsy, and provided follow-up after treatment.
  7. Mat Ariffin N, Islahudin F, Kumolosasi E, Makmor-Bakry M
    BMC Infect Dis, 2017 12 08;17(1):759.
    PMID: 29216842 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2868-9
    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates of Plasmodium vivax infections differ across various geographic regions. Interestingly, South-East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region are documented to exhibit the most frequent recurrence incidences. Identifying patients at a higher risk for recurrences gives valuable information in strengthening the efforts to control P. vivax infections. The aim of the study was to develop a tool to identify P. vivax- infected patients that are at a higher risk of recurrence in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Patient data was obtained retrospectively through the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, from 2011 to 2016. Patients with incomplete data were excluded. A total of 2044 clinical P. vivax malaria cases treated with primaquine were included. Data collected were patient, disease, and treatment characteristics. Two-thirds of the cases (n = 1362) were used to develop a clinical risk score, while the remaining third (n = 682) was used for validation.

    RESULTS: Using multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.03), gametocyte sexual count (p = 0.04), indigenous transmission (p = 0.04), type of treatment (p = 0.12), and incomplete primaquine treatment (p = 0.14) were found to be predictors of recurrence after controlling for other confounding factors; these predictors were then used in developing the final model. The beta-coefficient values were used to develop a clinical scoring tool to predict possible recurrence. The total scores ranged between 0 and 8. A higher score indicated a higher risk for recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.971; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.562-2.487; p ≤ 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the developed (n = 1362) and validated model (n = 682) was of good accuracy (ROC: 0.728, 95% CI: 0.670-0.785, p value 

  8. Ram SP, Noor AR, Ariffin WA, Ariffin NA
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Apr;35(2):205-7.
    PMID: 7939823
    A 37-week gestation male boy was born to a gravida seven para six mother by spontaneous vertex delivery at home. The baby cried at birth. On day 3 of life, he was admitted for respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed ectrodactyly, thin dry skin, anomalous tear duct with cardiomegaly. X-ray revealed absent radii, cardiomegaly and hemivertebra at L1. Echocardiogram revealed perimembranous type of ventricular septal defect. A diagnosis of Ectodermal Dysplasia Ectrodactyly Clefting Syndrome with ventricular septal defect was made. He was managed conservatively in the nursery. However, he expired on day 27 of life following short spell of fever apnoeic episode due to neonatal sepsis.
  9. Hanapi MS, Ghani SI, Sonny Teo KS, Wan-Embong WZ, Ariffin N, Wan Hitam WH
    Cureus, 2018 Nov 03;10(11):e3539.
    PMID: 30648072 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.3539
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) manifestations in a child are varied. We report a unique and rare presentation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a child who presented with frontal swelling involving bilateral upper lids. A previously healthy one-year-old girl presented with progressively increasing frontal swelling of seven months duration. An examination revealed erythematous, firm, nontender forehead swelling that extended up to the medial part of bilateral upper eye lids. The extraocular muscle movement was normal. The anterior segment and fundus examination were also normal in both eyes. Other systemic examination revealed multiple leukemic cutis on the scalp. The cervical lymph nodes were also palpable with hepatosplenomegaly. A full blood picture (FBP) showed the presence of leucoerythroblastic blood film with 62% blast cells. Flow cytometry and bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan images revealed multiple well-defined hyperdense lesions at the subcutaneous skull with the largest lesion at the anterior glabella. Upon diagnosis, the patient was started on chemotherapy and the swelling resolved after one month post treatment. Extensive forehead swelling is a rare manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A high index of suspicion aided with diagnostic investigations could help the doctors arrive at a correct diagnosis and treatment.
  10. Phang DSK, Ariffin N, Abd Aziz H, Vendargon FM, Sonny Teo KS
    Cureus, 2022 Oct;14(10):e30019.
    PMID: 36348857 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.30019
    Serous retinal detachment is a rare complication of pregnancy. A 30-year-old primigravida with preeclampsia presented with bilateral blurring of vision and metamorphopsia for a one-week duration. She was referred by the Obstetrics and Gynecology department for visual assessment. Her best corrected visual acuity was 6/7.5 in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed bilateral serous retinal detachment involving maculae. She was treated conservatively and her blood pressure normalized after delivery. There was a partial resolution of subretinal fluid one-month post-delivery and a complete resolution of subretinal fluid three months later. Her final best corrected visual acuity was 6/6 and N5 in both eyes. The management of serous retinal detachment is conservative with a good visual outcome.
  11. Abdullah SNF, Ismail A, Juahir H, Lananan F, Hashim NM, Ariffin N, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jul;28(27):35613-35627.
    PMID: 33666850 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12772-6
    Rainwater harvesting is an effective alternative practice, particularly within urban regions, during periods of water scarcity and dry weather. The collected water is mostly utilized for non-potable household purposes and irrigation. However, due to the increase in atmospheric pollutants, the quality of rainwater has gradually decreased. This atmospheric pollution can damage the climate, natural resources, biodiversity, and human health. In this study, the characteristics and physicochemical properties of rainfall were assessed using a qualitative approach. The three-year (2017-2019) data on rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia were analysed via multivariate techniques. The physicochemical properties of the rainfall yielded six significant factors, which encompassed 61.39% of the total variance as a result of industrialization, agriculture, transportation, and marine factors. The purity of rainfall index (PRI) was developed based on subjective factor scores of the six factors within three categories: good, moderate, and bad. Of the 23 variables measured, 17 were found to be the most significant, based on the classification matrix of 98.04%. Overall, three different groups of similarities that reflected the physicochemical characteristics were discovered among the rain gauge stations: cluster 1 (good PRI), cluster 2 (moderate PRI), and cluster 3 (bad PRI). These findings indicate that rainwater in Peninsular Malaysia was suitable for non-potable purposes.
  12. Ariffin N, Juahir H, Umar R, Makhtar M, Hanapi NHM, Ismail A, et al.
    PMID: 37052834 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-26665-3
    This study aimed to classify the spatiotemporal analysis of rainwater quality before and during the Movement Control Order (MCO) implementation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Chemometric analysis was carried out on rainwater samples collected from 24-gauge stations throughout Malaysia to determine the samples' chemical content, pH, and conductivity. Other than that, hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were used to classify the quality of rainwater at each location into four clusters, namely good, satisfactory, moderate, and bad clusters. Note that DA was carried out on the predefined clusters. The reduction in acidity levels occurred in 11 stations (46% of overall stations) after the MCO was implemented. Chemical content and ion abundance followed a downward trend, indicating that Cl- and Na+ were the most dominant among the anions and cations. Apart from that, NH4+, Ca2+, NO3-, and SO42- concentrations were evident in areas with significant anthropogenic activity, as there was a difference in the total chemical content in rainwater when compared before and during the MCO. Based on the dataset before the MCO, 75% of gauge stations were in the good cluster, 8.3% in the satisfactory cluster, 12.5% in the moderate cluster, and 4.2% in the bad cluster. Meanwhile, the dataset during the MCO shows that 72.7% of gauge stations were in the good cluster, 9.1% in the satisfactory cluster, 9.1% in the moderate, and 4.5% in the bad cluster. From this study, the chemometric analysis of the year 2020 rainwater chemical composite dataset strongly indicates that reduction of human activities during MCO affected the quality of rainwater.
  13. Azmi NE, Ramli NI, Abdullah J, Abdul Hamid MA, Sidek H, Abd Rahman S, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 May 15;67:129-33.
    PMID: 25113659 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.07.056
    A novel optical detection system consisting of combination of uricase/HRP-CdS quantum dots (QDs) for the determination of uric acid in urine sample is described. The QDs was used as an indicator to reveal fluorescence property of the system resulting from enzymatic reaction of uricase and HRP (horseradish peroxidase), which is involved in oxidizing uric acid to allaintoin and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide produced was able to quench the QDs fluorescence, which was proportional to uric acid concentration. The system demonstrated sufficient activity of uricase and HRP at a ratio of 5U:5U and pH 7.0. The linearity of the system toward uric acid was in the concentration range of 125-1000 µM with detection limit of 125 µM.
  14. Ariffin N, Hasan H, Ramli N, Ibrahim NR, Taib F, Rahman AA, et al.
    Am J Infect Control, 2012 Aug;40(6):572-5.
    PMID: 22854380 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2012.02.032
    Intrahospital variations in antimicrobial profiles may be related to many factors. This study compared causative agents of nosocomial bloodstream infections between a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that adopted a ward-tailored antibiotic policy and adult intensive care units (ICUs). Data on organisms from blood cultures obtained from the respective wards between 2005 and 2009 were analyzed. Compared with the adult ICUs, the NICU had a higher frequency of Enterobacteriacae and lower frequencies of typical hospital-acquired pathogens (eg, Klebsiella pneumoniae, 17.4% vs 10.0% [P < .001]; Acinetobacter baumannii, 3.9% vs 11.6% [P < .001]). Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative organisms was also significantly lower in the NICU, including resistance to imipenem (5.7% vs 32.1%; P < .001), amikacin (8.8% vs 30.3%), and ceftriaxone (36.1% vs 74.6%; P < .001). This could possibly be due to the ward-tailored antibiotic policy adopted by the NICU but not by the other ICUs.
  15. Hughes AJ, Ariffin N, Huat TL, Abdul Molok H, Hashim S, Sarijo J, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2005 Jan;26(1):100-4.
    PMID: 15693416
    Most reports of nosocomial infection (NI) prevalence have come from developed countries with established infection control programs. In developing countries, infection control is often not as well established due to lack of staff and resources. We examined the rate of NI in our institution.
  16. Abd Rahman S, Ariffin N, Yusof NA, Abdullah J, Mohammad F, Ahmad Zubir Z, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Jul 01;17(7).
    PMID: 28671559 DOI: 10.3390/s17071537
    A semiconducting water-soluble core-shell quantum dots (QDs) system capped with thiolated ligand was used in this study for the sensitive detection of glucose in aqueous samples. The QDs selected are of CdSe-coated ZnS and were prepared in house based on a hot injection technique. The formation of ZnS shell at the outer surface of CdSe core was made via a specific process namely, SILAR (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction). The distribution, morphology, and optical characteristics of the prepared core-shell QDs were assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrofluorescence, respectively. From the analysis, the results show that the mean particle size of prepared QDs is in the range of 10-12 nm and that the optimum emission condition was displayed at 620 nm. Further, the prepared CdSe/ZnS core shell QDs were modified by means of a room temperature ligand-exchange method that involves six organic ligands, L-cysteine, L-histidine, thio-glycolic acid (TGA or mercapto-acetic acid, MAA), mercapto-propionic acid (MPA), mercapto-succinic acid (MSA), and mercapto-undecanoic acid (MUA). This process was chosen in order to maintain a very dense water solubilizing environment around the QDs surface. From the analysis, the results show that the CdSe/ZnS capped with TGA (CdSe/ZnS-TGA) exhibited the strongest fluorescence emission as compared to others; hence, it was tested further for the glucose detection after their treatment with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. Here in this study, the glucose detection is based on the fluorescence quenching effect of the QDs, which is correlated to the oxidative reactions occurred between the conjugated enzymes and glucose. From the analysis of results, it can be inferred that the resultant GOx:HRP/CdSe/ZnS-TGA QDs system can be a suitable platform for the fluorescence-based determination of glucose in the real samples.
  17. Rozitah R, Nizam MZ, Nur Shafawati AR, Nor Atifah MA, Dewi M, Kannan TP, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Dec;49(12):1046-9.
    PMID: 19122960
    Beta-thalassaemia major is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in severe microcytic, hypochromic, haemolytic anaemia among affected patients. Beta-thalassaemia has emerged as one of the most common public health problems in Malaysia, particularly among Malaysian Chinese and Malays. This study aimed to observe the spectrum of mutations found in Kelantan Malay beta-thalassaemia major patients who attended the Paediatrics Daycare Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, the data of which was being used in establishing the prenatal diagnosis in this Human Genome Centre.
  18. Mohamed Ibrahim N, Lau YH, Ariffin N, Md Desa SH, Azizan E, Chin LK, et al.
    PMID: 32922823 DOI: 10.1186/s40673-020-00120-2
    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are highly heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases causing progressive cerebellar dysfunction. We report the first description of relative frequencies of the common SCA mutations and of phenotypic characteristics of SCA3 patients among Malaysians. Pooled data from adult Malaysian patients who had undergone genetic testing for SCA 1,2,3,6 and 7 at UKM Medical Centre and Institute for Medical Research from 2017 to 2020 were analysed. Fifteen patients with SCA 3 had detailed clinical phenotype evaluation using Inventory for Non -Ataxia Signs (INAS) and Ataxia Severity evaluation using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Out of 152 adults patients who were tested for common SCA mutations, 64(42.1%) patients were tested positive for either SCA 1,2,3,6 or 7. Of the 64 positive cases, 44 (68.9%) patients were diagnosed with SCA 3 followed by SCA 2 in 13(20.3%) patients and SCA 1 in 5 (7.8%) patients. Our findings suggest that Malay race had the highest frequency of SCA (n = 34, 50%), followed by the Chinese (n = 16, 23.5%) and approximately 60 (93.8%) SCA patients had first degree family history. In conclusion, SCA 3 is the commonest SCA in Malaysia, followed by SCA 2 and SCA 1. It is important to develop a proper registry of SCA patients to further understand the true prevalence and local impact of the disease in Malaysia.
  19. Ariffin N, Abdullah MMAB, Postawa P, Zamree AbdRahim S, Mohd Arif Zainol MRR, Jaya RP, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;14(4).
    PMID: 33567736 DOI: 10.3390/ma14040814
    This current work focuses on the synthesis of geopolymer-based adsorbent which uses kaolin as a source material, mixed with alkali solution consisting of 10M NaOH and Na2SiO3 as well as aluminium powder as a foaming agent. The experimental range for the aluminium powder was between 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2wt%. The structure, properties and characterization of the geopolymer were examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Adsorption capacity and porosity were analysed based on various percentages of aluminium powder added. The results indicate that the use of aluminium powder exhibited a better pore size distribution and higher porosity, suggesting a better heavy metal removal. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cu2+ approached approximately 98%. The findings indicate that 0.8% aluminium powder was the optimal aluminium powder content for geopolymer adsorbent. The removal efficiency was affected by pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The optimum removal capacity of Cu2+ was obtained at pH 6 with 1.5 g geopolymer adsorbent and 4 h contact time. Therefore, it can be concluded that the increase in porosity increases the adsorption of Cu2+.
  20. Ariffin N, Abdullah R, Rashdan Muad M, Lourdes J, Emran NA, Ismail MR, et al.
    Plasmid, 2011 Sep;66(3):136-43.
    PMID: 21827784 DOI: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2011.07.002
    Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bioplastic group with thermoplastic properties is thus high in quality and can be degradable. PHBV can be produced by bacteria, but the process is not economically competitive with polymers produced from petrochemicals. To overcome this problem, research on transgenic plants has been carried out as one of the solutions to produce PHBV in economically sound alternative manner. Four different genes encoded with the enzymes necessary to catalyze PHBV are bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB. All the genes came with modified CaMV 35S promoters (except for the tdcB gene, which was promoted by the native CaMV 35S promoter), nos terminator sequences and plastid sequences in order to target the genes into the plastids. Subcloning resulted in the generation of two different orientations of the tdcB, pLMIN (left) and pRMIN (right), both 17.557 and 19.967 kb in sizes. Both plasmids were transformed in immature embryos (IE) of oil palm via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Assays of GUS were performed on one-week-old calli and 90% of the calli turned completely blue. This preliminary test showed positive results of integration. Six-months-old calli were harvested and RNA of the calli were isolated. RT-PCR was used to confirm the transient expression of PHBV transgenes in the calli. The bands were 258, 260, 315 and 200 bp in size for bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB transgenes respectively. The data obtained showed that the bktB, phaB, phaC and tdcB genes were successfully integrated and expressed in the oil palm genome.
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