Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 91 in total

  1. Xian LJ, Chowdhury SR, Bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Cytotherapy, 2015 Mar;17(3):293-300.
    PMID: 25456581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.10.005
    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found to contain a high concentration of growth factors that are present during the process of healing. Studies conducted found that application of PRP accelerates wound healing. In this study, we characterized the skin cell suspension harvested using the co-isolation technique and evaluated the effects of PRP (10% and 20%, v/v) on co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in terms of wound healing.
  2. Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2012 May;50(5):332-9.
    PMID: 22803323
    In the present study in vitro expansion of human keratinocytes by supplementing dermal fibroblasts conditioned medium (DFCM) has been reported. Effect of two different DFCM acquired by culturing fibroblasts in keratinocyte-specific medium (defined keratinocytes serum free medium, DFCM-DKSFM) and fibroblast-specific serum free medium (F12: DMEM nutrient mix, DFCM-FD) have been compared. Growth kinetics of keratinocytes in terms of efficiency of cell attachment, expansion index, apparent specific growth rate and growth potential at the end of culture was evaluated in culture supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD in comparison with control i.e. DKSFM only. Results indicated that supplementation of DFCM caused significant increase in keratinocyte attachment. Efficiency of keratinocyte attachment in culture supplemented with bFCM-DKSFM was significantly higher compared to those cultured in DFCM-FD and DKSFM. In addition, the expansion index of keratinocytes in cultures supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD were 3.7 and 2.2 times higher than that of control condition even though the apparent growth rate and proliferative potential was found significantly lower. These results suggested that supplementation of DFCM enhanced expansion of keratinocyte by increasing efficiency of cell attachment, and DFCM-DKSFM provided suitable condition for in vitro expansion of keratinocytes compared to DFCM-FD and control condition.
  3. Busra FM, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Dec;32(12):1311-2.
    PMID: 22159390
  4. Maarof M, Lokanathan Y, Ruszymah HI, Saim A, Chowdhury SR
    Protein J, 2018 12;37(6):589-607.
    PMID: 30343346 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9800-z
    Growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are involved in wound healing. Human dermal fibroblasts secrete wound-healing mediators in culture medium known as dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). However, the composition and concentration of the secreted proteins differ with culture conditions and environmental factors. We cultured human skin fibroblasts in vitro using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (EpiLife™ Medium [KM1] and defined keratinocyte serum-free medium [KM2]) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. We identified and compared their proteomic profiles using bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), 1-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS/MS). DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 had higher protein concentrations than DFCM-FM but not statistically significant. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS identified the presence of fibronectin, serotransferrin, serpin and serum albumin. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis identified 59, 46 and 58 secreted proteins in DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. The most significant biological processes identified in gene ontology were cellular process, metabolic process, growth and biological regulation. STRING® analysis showed that most secretory proteins in the DFCMs were associated with biological processes (e.g. wound healing and ECM organisation), molecular function (e.g. ECM binding) and cellular component (e.g. extracellular space). ELISA confirmed the presence of fibronectin and collagen in the DFCMs. In conclusion, DFCM secretory proteins are involved in cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation and migration, which were demonstrated to have potential wound-healing effects by in vitro and in vivo studies.
  5. Lim WL, Chowdhury SR, Ng MH, Law JX
    PMID: 33947053 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18094764
    Tissue-engineered substitutes have shown great promise as a potential replacement for current tissue grafts to treat tendon/ligament injury. Herein, we have fabricated aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (GT) nanofibers and further evaluated their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. PCL and GT were mixed at a ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, 0:100, and electrospun to generate aligned nanofibers. The PCL/GT nanofibers were assessed to determine the diameter, alignment, water contact angle, degradation, and surface chemical analysis. The effects on cells were evaluated through Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) viability, alignment and tenogenic differentiation. The PCL/GT nanofibers were aligned and had a mean fiber diameter within 200-800 nm. Increasing the GT concentration reduced the water contact angle of the nanofibers. GT nanofibers alone degraded fastest, observed only within 2 days. Chemical composition analysis confirmed the presence of PCL and GT in the nanofibers. The WJ-MSCs were aligned and remained viable after 7 days with the PCL/GT nanofibers. Additionally, the PCL/GT nanofibers supported tenogenic differentiation of WJ-MSCs. The fabricated PCL/GT nanofibers have a diameter that closely resembles the native tissue's collagen fibrils and have good biocompatibility. Thus, our study demonstrated the suitability of PCL/GT nanofibers for tendon/ligament tissue engineering applications.
  6. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RBH
    J Tissue Viability, 2017 Aug;26(3):208-215.
    PMID: 28615133 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtv.2017.05.003
    Advances in tissue engineering led to the development of various tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESS) for the treatment of skin injuries. The majority of the autologous TESS required lengthy and costly cell expansion process to fabricate. In this study, we determine the possibility of using a low density of human skin cells suspended in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-enriched medium to promote the healing of full-thickness skin wounds. To achieve this, full-thickness wounds of size 1.767 cm2 were created at the dorsum part of nude mice and treated with keratinocytes (2 × 104 cells/cm2) and fibroblasts (3 × 104 cells/cm2) suspended in 10% PRP-enriched medium. Wound examination was conducted weekly and the animals were euthanized after 2 weeks. Gross examination showed that re-epithelialization was fastest in the PRP+cells group at both day 7 and 14, followed by the PRP group and NT group receiving no treatment. Only the PRP+cells group achieved complete wound closure by 2 weeks. Epidermal layer was presence in the central region of the wound of the PRP+cells and PRP groups but absence in the NT group. Comparison between the PRP+cells and PRP groups showed that the PRP+cells-treated wound was more mature as indicated by the presence of thinner epidermis with single cell layer thick basal keratinocytes and less cellular dermis. In summary, the combination of low cell density and diluted PRP creates a synergistic effect which expedites the healing of full-thickness wounds. This combination has the potential to be developed as a rapid wound therapy via the direct application of freshly harvested skin cells in diluted PRP.
  7. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BHI
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2017 Dec;18(4):585-595.
    PMID: 28748415 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-017-9645-2
    Fibrin has excellent biocompatibility and biological properties to support tissue regeneration and promote wound healing. However, the role of diluted fibrin in wound healing has yet to be elucidated as it is commonly used in high concentration. This study was aimed to examine the effects of diluted plasma-derived fibrin (PDF) on keratinocyte and fibroblast wound healing in term of cell proliferation, migration, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and soluble factor secretion. Two PDF concentrations, 10 and 20% (v/v) were tested on keratinocytes and fibroblasts indirectly co-cultured in the transwell system. The control group was cultured with 5% FBS. Results showed that PDF reduced the keratinocyte growth rate and fibroblast migration, and increased the fibroblast ECM gene expression whereby significant differences were found between the 20% PDF group and the 5% FBS group. Similar trend was seen for the 10% PDF group but the differences were not significant. Comparison of the soluble factors between the PDF groups demonstrated that the level of growth-related oncogene alpha, interleukin-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 were significantly higher in the 10% PDF group, whilst interleukin-1 alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor were significantly more concentrated in the 20% PDF group. Our results suggested that PDF selectively elevated the expression of collagen type 1 and collagen type 3 in fibroblasts but slowed down the migration in concentration-dependent manner. These novel findings provide new insight into the role of PDF in wound healing and may have important implications for the use of fibrin in skin tissue engineering.
  8. Nordin A, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Bt Hj Idrus R
    PMID: 32384749 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093229
    Over-induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ) in keratinocytes is a key feature in keloid scar. The present work seeks to investigate the effect of Kelulut honey (KH) on TGFβ-induced EMT in human primary keratinocytes. Image analysis of the real time observation of TGFβ-induced keratinocytes revealed a faster wound closure and individual migration velocity compared to the untreated control. TGFβ-induced keratinocytes also have reduced circularity and display a classic EMT protein expression. Treatment of 0.0015% (v/v) KH reverses these effects. In untreated keratinocytes, KH resulted in slower initial wound closure and individual migration velocity, which sped up later on, resulting in greater wound closure at the final time point. KH treatment also led to greater directional migration compared to the control. KH treatment caused reduced circularity in keratinocytes but displayed a partial EMT protein expression. Taken together, the findings suggest the therapeutic potential of KH in preventing keloid scar by attenuating TGFβ-induced EMT.
  9. Zahari NK, Idrus RBH, Chowdhury SR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Oct 30;18(11).
    PMID: 29084180 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18112242
    Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber (PM) scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h-1) and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min), while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h-1) and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min). Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.
  10. Ullah S, Zainol I, Chowdhury SR, Fauzi MB
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 May;111:158-168.
    PMID: 29305219 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.136
    The various composition multicomponent chitosan/fish collagen/glycerin 3D porous scaffolds were developed and investigated the effect of various composition chitosan/fish collagen/glycerin on scaffolds morphology, mechanical strength, biostability and cytocompatibility. The scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The effects of various compositions consisting in 3D scaffolds were investigated via FT-IR analysis, porosity, swelling and mechanical tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds investigated microscopically. The biostability and cytocompatibility tests were used to explore the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The average pore sizes of scaffolds were in range of 100.73±27.62-116.01±52.06, porosity 71.72±3.46-91.17±2.42%, tensile modulus in dry environment 1.47±0.08-0.17±0.03MPa, tensile modulus in wet environment 0.32±0.03-0.14±0.04MPa and biodegradation rate (at day 30) 60.38±0.70-83.48±0.28%. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the various composition multicomponent 3D scaffolds were good cytocompatibility however, the scaffolds contained high amount of fish collagen excellently facilitated cell proliferation and adhesion. It was found that the high amount fish collagen and glycerin scaffolds have high porosity, enough mechanical strength and biostability, and excellent cytocompatibility.
  11. Shamsul BS, Chowdhury SR, Hamdan MY, Ruszymah BHI
    Indian J Med Res, 2019 05;149(5):641-649.
    PMID: 31417032 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_45_17
    Background & objectives: Seeding density is one of the major parameters affecting the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate different seeding densities of osteoarthritis chondrocytes (OACs) to obtain the highest quality cartilage.

    Methods: The OACs were expanded from passage 0 (P0) to P3, and cells in each passage were analyzed for gross morphology, growth rate, RNA expression and immunochemistry (IHC). The harvested OACs were assigned into two groups: low (1×10[7] cells/ml) and high (3×10[7] cells/ml) cell density. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs for each group were created using polymerised fibrin and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using chondrocyte growth medium. OAC constructs were analyzed with gross assessments and microscopic evaluation using standard histology, IHC and immunofluorescence staining, in addition to gene expression and biochemical analyses to evaluate tissue development.

    Results: Constructs with a high seeding density of 3×10[7] cells/ml were associated with better quality cartilage-like tissue than those seeded with 1×10[7] cells/ml based on overall tissue formation, cell association and extracellular matrix distribution. The chondrogenic properties of the constructs were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding aggrecan core protein and collagen type II.

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results confirmed that cell density was a significant factor affecting cell behaviour and aggregate production, and this was important for establishing good quality cartilage.

  12. Ruszymah BH, Chowdhury SR, Manan NA, Fong OS, Adenan MI, Saim AB
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Mar 27;140(2):333-8.
    PMID: 22301444 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.023
    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing.
  13. Chowdhury SR, Ng MH, Hassan NS, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Hum. Cell, 2012 Sep;25(3):69-77.
    PMID: 22968953
    This study was undertaken in order to identify the best culture strategy to expand and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) for subsequent bone tissue engineering. In this regard, the experiment was designed to evaluate whether it is feasible to bypass the expansion phase during hBMSCs differentiation towards osteogenic lineages by early induction, if not identification of suitable culture media for enhancement of hBMSCs expansion and osteogenic differentiation. It was found that introduction of osteogenic factors in alpha-minimum essential medium (αMEM) during expansion phase resulted in significant reduction of hBMSCs growth rate and osteogenic gene expressions. In an approach to identify suitable culture media, the growth and differentiation potential of hBMSCs were evaluated in αMEM, F12:DMEM (1:1; FD), and FD with growth factors. It was found that αMEM favors the expansion and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs compared to that in FD. However, supplementation of growth factors in FD, only during expansion phase, enhances the hBMSCs growth rate and significantly up-regulates the expression of CBFA-1 (the early markers of osteogenic differentiation) during expansion, and, other osteogenic genes at the end of induction compared to the cells in αMEM and FD. These results suggested that the expansion and differentiation phase of the hBMSCs should be separately and carefully timed. For bone tissue engineering, supplementation of growth factors in FD only during the expansion phase was sufficient to promote hBMSCs expansion and differentiation, and preferably the most efficient culture condition.
  14. Rabiatul AR, Lokanathan Y, Rohaina CM, Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2015;26(17):1297-311.
    PMID: 26335265 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2015.1088183
    Scaffold design is an important aspect of in vitro model development. In this study, nanoscaffold surface modification, namely UV radiation and genipin cross-linking to immobilize collagen on the surface of electrospun poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber sheet was investigated. Samples were divided into four groups; PMMA nanofibers (PMMA), collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMACOL), genipin cross-linked collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAGEN), and UV-irradiated collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAUV). 6 h of UV radiation significantly reduced the hydrophobicity of PMMA nanofibers from (131.88° ± 1.33°) to (110.04° ± 0.27°) (p 
  15. Busra MF, Chowdhury SR, bin Ismail F, bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2016 Mar;29(3):120-9.
    PMID: 26866868 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000480556.78111.e4
    OBJECTIVE: When given in conjunction with surgery for treating cancer, radiation therapy may result in impaired wound healing, which, in turn, could cause skin ulcers. In this study, bilayer and monolayer autologous skin substitutes were used to treat an irradiated wound.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single dose of 30 Gy of linear electron beam radiation was applied to the hind limb of nude mice before creating the skin lesion (area of 78.6 mm). Monolayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (MTESSs) were prepared by entrapping cultured keratinocytes in fibrin matrix, and bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (BTESSs) were prepared by entrapping keratinocytes and fibroblasts in separate layers. Bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitute and MTESS were implanted to the wound area. Gross appearance and wound area were analyzed to evaluate wound healing efficiency. Skin regeneration and morphological appearance were observed via histological and electron microscopy. Protein expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skin regeneration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

    RESULTS: Macroscopic observation revealed that at day 13, treatments with BTESS completely healed the irradiated wound, whereas wound sizes of 1.1 ± 0.05 and 6.8 ± 0.14 mm were measured in the MTESS-treated and untreated control groups, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) analysis showed formation of compact and organized epidermal and dermal layers in the BTESS-treated group, as compared with MTESS-treated and untreated control groups. Ultrastructural analysis indicates maturation of skin in BTESS-treated wound evidenced by formation of intermediate filament bundles in the dermal layer and low intercellular space in the epidermal layer. Expressions of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and VEGF were also higher in BTESS-treated wounds, compared with MTESS-treated wounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that BTESS is the preferred treatment for irradiated wound ulcers.

  16. Maarof M, Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Khairoji KA, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Cytotechnology, 2016 Oct;68(5):1873-84.
    PMID: 26768914 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-015-9940-3
    Limitations of current treatments for skin loss caused by major injuries leads to the use of skin substitutes. It is assumed that secretion of wound healing mediators by these skin substitutes plays a role in treating skin loss. In our previous study, single layer keratinocytes (SK), single layer fibroblast (SF) and bilayer (BL; containing keratinocytes and fibroblasts layers) skin substitutes were fabricated using fibrin that had shown potential to heal wounds in preclinical studies. This study aimed to quantify the secretion of wound healing mediators, and compare between single and bi-layer skin substitutes. Skin samples were digested to harvest fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and expanded to obtain sufficient cells for the construction of skin substitutes. Acellular fibrin (AF) construct was used as control. Substitutes i.e. AF, SK, SF and BL were cultured for 2 days, and culture supernatant was collected to analyze secretion of wound healing mediators via multiplex ELISA. Among 19 wound healing mediators tested, BL substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL1 and GCSF compared to SF and AF substitute but this was not significant with respect to SK substitute. The BL substitute also secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL5 and IL-6 compared to other substitutes. In contrast, the SK substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of VCAM-1 compared to other substitutes. However, all three skin substitutes also secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, GM-CSF, IL8, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, FGF-β, TGF-β, HGF, VEGF-α and PDGF-BB factors, but no significant difference was seen. Secretion of these mediators after transplantation may play a significant role in promoting wound healing process for the treatment of skin loss.
  17. Maarof M, Mh Busra MF, Lokanathan Y, Bt Hj Idrus R, Rajab NF, Chowdhury SR
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 02;9(1):144-161.
    PMID: 30547385 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-00612-z
    Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Thus, we aimed to develop an acellular three-dimensional (3D) skin patch with dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) and collagen hydrogel for immediate treatment of skin loss. Fibroblasts from human skin samples were cultured using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (KM1 or KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively. The acellular 3D skin patch was soft, semi-solid, and translucent. Collagen mixed with DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 showed higher protein release compared to collagen plus DFCM-FM. In vitro and in vivo testing revealed that DFCM and collagen hydrogel did not induce an immune response. The implantation of the 3D skin patch with or without DFCM on the dorsum of BALB/c mice demonstrated a significantly faster healing rate compared to the no-treatment group 7 days after implantation, and all groups had complete re-epithelialization at day 17. Histological analysis confirmed the structure and integrity of the regenerated skin, with positive expression of cytokeratin 14 and type I collagen in the epidermal and dermal layer, respectively. These findings highlight the possibility of using fibroblast secretory factors together with collagen hydrogel in an acellular 3D skin patch that can be used allogeneically for immediate treatment of full-thickness skin loss.
  18. Maarof M, Mohd Nadzir M, Sin Mun L, Fauzi MB, Chowdhury SR, Idrus RBH, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;13(4).
    PMID: 33567703 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040508
    The current strategy for rapid wound healing treatment involves combining a biomaterial and cell-secreted proteins or biomolecules. This study was aimed at characterizing 3-dimensional (3D) collagen hydrogels fortified with dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium (DFCM) as a readily available acellular skin substitute. Confluent fibroblasts were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (KM1 and KM2) and fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM. Subsequently, the DFCM was mixed with collagen (Col) hydrogel and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) to fabricate 3D constructs termed Col/C4S/DFCM-KM1, Col/C4S/DFCM-KM2, and Col/C4S/DFCM-FM. The constructs successfully formed soft, semi-solid and translucent hydrogels within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C with strength of <2.5 Newton (N). The Col/C4S/DFCM demonstrated significantly lower turbidity compared to the control groups. The Col/C4S/DFCM also showed a lower percentage of porosity (KM1: 35.15 ± 9.76%; KM2: 6.85 ± 1.60%; FM: 14.14 ± 7.65%) compared to the Col (105.14 ± 11.87%) and Col/C4S (143.44 ± 27.72%) constructs. There were no changes in both swelling and degradation among all constructs. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that all groups consisted of oxygen-hydrogen bonds (O-H) and amide I, II, and III. In conclusion, the Col/C4S/DFCM constructs maintain the characteristics of native collagen and can synergistically deliver essential biomolecules for future use in skin therapeutic applications.
  19. Busra FM, Lokanathan Y, Nadzir MM, Saim A, Idrus RBH, Chowdhury SR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):33-43.
    PMID: 28894402 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.5
    INTRODUCTION: Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds.

    METHODS: This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions.

    RESULTS: The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions.

    CONCLUSION: OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

  20. Maarof M, Chowdhury SR, Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 22;21(8).
    PMID: 32331278 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21082929
    Fibroblasts secrete many essential factors that can be collected from fibroblast culture medium, which is termed dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). Fibroblasts isolated from human skin samples were cultured in vitro using the serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (Epilife (KM1), or define keratinocytes serum-free medium, DKSFM (KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to collect DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively). We characterised and evaluated the effects of 100-1600 µg/mL DFCM on keratinocytes based on attachment, proliferation, migration and gene expression. Supplementation with 200-400 µg/mL keratinocyte-specific DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 enhanced the attachment, proliferation and migration of sub-confluent keratinocytes, whereas 200-1600 µg/mL DFCM-FM significantly increased the healing rate in the wound healing assay, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM was suitable to enhance keratinocyte attachment and proliferation. A real-time (RT2) profiler polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that 42 genes in the DFCM groups had similar fold regulation compared to the control group and most of the genes were directly involved in wound healing. In conclusion, in vitro keratinocyte re-epithelialisation is supported by the fibroblast-secreted proteins in 200-400 µg/mL DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM, which could be useful for treating skin injuries.
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