METHODS: Data from a retrospective review of 13-year S.suis patient records in a tertiary hospital in Chiang Mai, Northern, Thailand was obtained. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed to develop a predictive model. The clinical risk score was constructed from the coefficients of significant predictors. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AuROC) was identified to verify the model discriminative performance. Bootstrap technique with 1000-fold bootstrapping was used for internal validation.
KEY RESULTS: Among 133 patients, the incidence of hearing loss was 31.6% (n = 42). Significant predictors for S. suis hearing loss were meningitis, raw pork consumption, and vertigo. The predictive score ranged from 0-4 and correctly classified 81.95% patients as being at risk of S.suis hearing loss. The model showed good power of prediction (AuROC: 0.859; 95%CI 0.785-0.933) and calibration (AuROC: 0.860; 95%CI 0.716-0.953).
CONCLUSIONS: To our best knowledge, this is the first risk scoring system development for S.suis hearing loss. We identified meningitis, raw pork consumption and vertigo as the main risk factors of S.suis hearing loss. Future studies are needed to optimize the developed scoring system and investigate its external validity before recommendation for use in clinical practice.
Patients and methods: S. suis positive cases were derived from those with positive S. suis isolates from microbiological culture results and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). Potential risk factors of mortality were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Of 133 patients with culture-proven S. suis infection identified, there were 92 males and 41 females. The mean age was 56.47 years. Septicemia (55.64%) was the most common clinical manifestation followed by meningitis (37.59%) and infective endocarditis (25.56%). Alcohol drinking and raw pork consumption were documented in 66 (49.62%) and 49 (36.84%) cases respectively. The overall mortality rate was 12.03% (n=16). According to the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for mortality were prolonged bacteremia ≥ 6 days (OR = 43.57, 95% CI = 2.46-772.80, P =0.010), septic shock (OR = 13.34, 95% CI = 1.63-109.03, P =0.016), and direct bilirubin > 1.5 mg/dL (OR = 12.86, 95% CI = 1.91-86.59, P =0.009).
Conclusion: S. suis is not infrequent in Northern Thailand, where the cultural food habit of raw pork eating is still practiced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series focusing on risk factors of S. suis mortality which has been conducted in Thailand. Prolonged bacteremia ≥ 6 days, septic shock, and direct bilirubin > 1.5 mg/dL were strong predictors associated with S. suis mortality. The mortality risk factors identified may be further utilized in clinical practice and future research to improve patient outcomes.