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  1. Adam F, Arafath MA, Haque RA, Razali MR
    PMID: 26594544 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015018113
    The mol-ecule of the title Schiff base compound, C14H14N2O2, displays an E conformation with respect the imine C=N double bond. The mol-ecule is approximately planar, with the dihedral angle formed by the planes of the pyridine and benzene rings being 5.72 (6)°. There is an intra-molecular hydrogen bond involving the phenolic H and imine N atoms.
  2. Abbasi M, Yaqoob M, Haque RA, Iqbal MA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020 Aug 07.
    PMID: 32767935 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200807130721
    Development of novel metallodrugs with pharmacological profile plays a significant role in modern medicinal chemistry and drug design. Metal complexes have shown remarkable clinical results in current cancer therapy. Gold complexes have attained attention due to their high antiproliferative potential. Gold-based drugs are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Gold-containing compounds with selective and specific targets are capable to assuage the symptoms of a range of human diseases. Gold (I) species with labile ligands (such as Cl in TEPAuCl) interact with isolated DNA, therefore, this biomolecule has been considered as a target for gold drugs. Gold (I) has a high affinity towards sulfur and selenium, due to this gold (I) drugs readily interact with cysteine or selenocysteine residue of the enzyme to form protein-gold(I) thiolate or protein-gold (I) selenolate complexes that lead to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Au(III) compounds due to their square-planner geometries same as found in cisplatin, representing a good source for the development of anti-tumor agents. This article aims to review the most important applications of gold products in the treatment of human colon cancer and to analyze the complex interplay between gold and the human body.
  3. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
  4. Hussein MA, Guan TS, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2015 Feb 05;136 Pt C:1335-48.
    PMID: 25456676 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.021
    Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reacting [MoO2(acac)2] with N-ethyl-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (1), N-ethyl-2-(5-allyl-3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (2), N-methyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3), and N-ethyl-2-(3-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4). The molecular structures of 1, 2, and all the synthesized complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The binding properties of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated via UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurement. Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes cleave pBR 322 plasmid DNA. The cytotoxicity of the complexes were studied against the HCT 116 human colorectal cell line. All the complexes exhibited more pronounced activity than the standard reference drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3μM). These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes could be potentially useful in chemotherapy.
  5. Iqbal MA, Haque RA, Ahamed SA, Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Med Chem, 2015;11(5):473-81.
    PMID: 25553509
    Azolium (imidazolium and benzimidazolium) salts are known as stable precursors for the synthesis of Metal-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (M-NHC) complexes. Recently, some reports have been compiled indicating that benzimidazolium salts have anticarcinogenic properties. The current research is the further investigation of this phenomenon. Three ortho-xylene linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1-3) with octyl, nonyl and decyl terminal chain lengths have been synthesized. Each of the compounds was characterized using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular geometries of two of the salts (1-2) have been established using X-ray crystallographic technique. The compounds were tested for their cytotoxic properties against three cancerous cell lines namely, human colon cancer (HCT 116), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT- 29) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Mouse embryonic fibroblast (3T3-L1) was used as the model cell line of normal cells. The compounds showed selective anti-proliferative activities against the colorectal carcinoma cells. For HCT 116 and HT-29 cells, the IC50 values ranged 0.9-2.6 µM and 4.0-10.0 µM, respectively. The salts 1 and 3 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the breast cancer (MCF-7) cells with IC50 58.2 and 13.3 µM, respectively. However, the salt 2 produced strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells with IC50 4.4 µM. Interestingly, the compounds demonstrated poor cytotoxic effects towards the normal cells (3T3-L1) as the IC50 was found to be as high as 48.0 µM. Salts 2 and 3 demonstrated more pronounced anti-proliferative effect than the standard drugs used (5-Flourouracil and Tamoxifen).
  6. Haque RA, Choo SY, Budagumpi S, Iqbal MA, Al-Ashraf Abdullah A
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Jan 27;90:82-92.
    PMID: 25461313 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.11.005
    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.
  7. Nanjundan N, Selvakumar P, Narayanasamy R, Haque RA, Velmurugan K, Nandhakumar R, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2014 Dec;141:176-85.
    PMID: 25463665 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.10.009
    Two nickel(II) complexes with formula NiL1 and NiL2 (HL1 = S-allyl-4-methoxybenzylidene hydrazinecarbodithioate, HL2 = S-allyl-1-napthylidenehydrazinecarbodithioate) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of complex 1 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Both HL1 and HL2 ligands are coordinated to the metal in thiolate form. In complexes, squareplanar geometry of the nickel is coordinated with two bidentate ligand units acting through azomethine nitrogen and thiolato sulfur atoms. To explore the potential medicinal value of the complexes with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied at normal physiological conditions using fluorescence spectral techniques. The DNA binding constant values of the complexes were found in the range from 5.02 × 10(4), 3.54 × 10(4), and the binding affinities are in the following order 1 > 2. In addition, nickel complexes 1 and 2 shows better binding propensity to the bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein, giving a Ksv value 5.8 × 10(4), 4.47 × 10(4) respectively. From the oxidative cleavage of the complexes with pBR322 DNA, it is inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose-dependent. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity of the complexes assayed against Vero and HeLa cell lines have shown higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing cancer cells even at various concentrations.
  8. Haque RA, Salman AW, Budagumpi S, Abdullah AA, Majid AM
    Metallomics, 2013 Jun;5(6):760-9.
    PMID: 23645390 DOI: 10.1039/c3mt00051f
    Unsymmetrically substituted sterically tuned Pd(II)–NHC complexes of the general formula [PdCl2(NHC)2] (NHC = 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene, 7; 1-allyl-3-butylimidazol-2-ylidene, 8; 1-benzyl-3-butyl imidazolin-2-ylidene, 9) were prepared through transmetallation from their corresponding Ag(I)–NHC complexes. The Pd complexes were structurally characterized by different spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction methods. Complexes 7 and 9 adopted a trans–anti arrangement of the NHC ligands, whereas complex 8 adopted a cis–syn arrangement. Preliminary antibiogram studies using Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria showed that Ag(I)–NHC complexes demonstrate higher activity compared with Pd(I)–NHC complexes. Furthermore, Pd(II)–NHC complexes were evaluated for their anticancer potential using the human colorectal cancer cell line. A higher anticancer activity was observed for complexes 8 and 9, with 26.5 and 6.6 mM IC50 values, respectively.
  9. Iqbal MA, Haque RA, Nasri SF, Majid AA, Ahamed MB, Farsi E, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):27.
    PMID: 23391345 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-27
    Since the first successful synthesis of Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complex in 1993, this class of compounds has been extensively used for transmetallation reactions where the direct synthesis using other metal ions was either difficult or impossible. Initially, silver(I)-NHC complexes were tested for their catalytic potential but could not get fame because of lower potential compare to other competent compounds in this field; however, these compounds proved to have vital antimicrobial activities. These encouraging biomedical applications further convinced researchers to test these compounds against cancer. The current work has been carried out with this aim.
  10. Asekunowo PO, Haque RA, Razali MR, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Apr 25;150:601-615.
    PMID: 29550733 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.03.029
    A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag2O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial evaluation was conducted for all the compounds against two standard bacteria; gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. Most of the Ag(I)-NHC complexes (5b-8b) showed moderate to good antibacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 μg/mL. Especially, compound 8b exhibited promising anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with a low MIC value (12.5 μg/mL). However, all the hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) were inactive against the bacteria strains. The preliminary interactive investigation revealed that the most active compound, 8b, could effectively intercalate into DNA to form 8b-DNA complex which shows a better binding ability for DNA (Kb = 3.627 × 106) than the complexes 5b-7b (2.177 × 106, 8.672 × 105 and 6.665 × 105, respectively). Nuclease activity of the complexes on plasmid DNA and Aedes albopictus genomic DNA was time-dependent, although minimal. The complexes were larvicidal to the mosquito, with 5b, 6b and 8b being highly active. Developmental progression from the larval to the adult stage was affected by the complexes, progressively being toxic to the insect's development with increasing concentration. These indicate the potential use of these complexes as control agents against bacteria and the dengue mosquito Ae. albopictus.
  11. Selvarajoo PD, Haque RA, Haziz UFM, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Razali MR
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2017 10;175:232-238.
    PMID: 28800547 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.07.030
    New synthesized bis-imidazolium salts that are linked by xylyl derivatives moiety, 1-4 was reacted with Ag2O to facilitate the formation of dinuclear Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, 5-8, respectively. All the synthesized ligand salts and complexes were characterized by1H and13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Molecular structures of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Larvicidal studies against the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out on all synthesized compounds following the World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test. All the imidazolium salts were found inactive while the activity of the dinuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes on mosquito larvae are varies with the nature of the ligands. Complex 7 has high activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, emphasising its potential as a larvicidal compound.
  12. Atif M, Bhatti HN, Haque RA, Iqbal MA, Ahamed Khadeer MB, Majid AMSA
    PMID: 32002729 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-019-03186-9
    Synthesis and anticancer studies of three symmetrically and non-symmetrically substituted silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic carbene complexes of type [(NHC)2-Ag]PF6 (7-9) and their respective (ligands) benzimidazolium salts (4-6) are described herein. Compound 5 and Ag-NHC-complex 7 were characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Structural studies for 7 showed that the silver(I) center has linear C-Ag-C coordination geometry (180.00(10)o). Other azolium and Ag-NHC analogues were confirmed by H1 and C13-NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized analogues were biologically characterized for in vitro anticancer activity against three cancer cell lines including human colorectal cancer (HCT 116), breast cancer (MCF-7), and erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562) cell lines and in terms of in vivo acute oral toxicity (IAOT) in view of agility and body weight of female rats. In vitro anticancer activity showed the values of IC50 in range 0.31-17.9 μM in case of K-562 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines and 15.1-35.2 μM in case of MCF-7 while taking commercially known anticancer agents 5-fluorouracil, tamoxifen, and betulinic acid which have IC50 values 5.2, 5.5, and 17.0 μM, respectively. In vivo study revealed vigor and agility of all test animals which explores the biocompatibility and non-toxicity of the test analogues.
  13. Asif M, Iqbal MA, Hussein MA, Oon CE, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Jan 27;108:177-187.
    PMID: 26649905 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.11.034
    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
  14. Ahmed Hassan LE, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AS, Iqbal MA, Al Suede FS, Haque RA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e90806.
    PMID: 24608571 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090806
    Tephrosia apollinea is a perennial shrublet widely distributed in Africa and is known to have medicinal properties. The current study describes the bio-assay (cytotoxicity) guided isolation of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin from the aerial parts of T. apollinea. The structural and stereochemical features have been described using spectral and x-ray crystallographic techniques. The cytotoxicity of isolated compound was evaluated against nine cancer cell lines. In addition, human fibroblast was used as a model cell line for normal cells. The results showed that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on most of the tested cancer cell lines. Selectively, the compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of leukemia, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Further studies revealed that, the compound exhibited proapoptotic phenomenon of cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the compound did not display toxicity against the normal human fibroblast. It can be concluded that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin is worthy for further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent.
  15. Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Iqbal MA, Al Suede FS, Khalid SH, Haque RA, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2014 Oct;66(10):1394-409.
    PMID: 25039905 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12272
    Recently, we have isolated koetjapic acid (KA) from Sandoricum koetjape and identified its selective anticancer potentiality against colorectal carcinoma. KA is quite likely to be useful as a systemic anticancer agent against colorectal malignancy. However, with extremely low solubility, KA has to be converted into a biocompatible solubilized form without compromising the bioefficacy. Objective of this study is to enhance solubility of KA and to evaluate anticancer efficacy of potassium koetjapate in human colorectal cancer cells.
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