Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

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  1. Hashim NA, Yusof ZYM, Saub R
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2019 02;47(1):24-31.
    PMID: 30187941 DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12417
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sensitivity and responsiveness of the Malay version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (Malay-ECOHIS) to dental treatment of early childhood caries (ECC) under general anaesthesia (GA) and determine the minimally important difference (MID) for the Malay-ECOHIS.

    METHODS: A sample of 158 preschool children with ECC awaiting dental treatment under GA was recruited over an 8-month period. Parents self-completed the Malay-ECOHIS before and 4 weeks after their child's dental treatment. At 4 weeks follow-up, parents also responded to a global health transition judgement item. Data were analysed using independent and paired samples t tests, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficients.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 87.3%. The final sample comprised 76 male (55.1%) and 62 female (44.9%) preschool children with mean age of 4.5 (SD = 1.0) years. Following treatment, there were significant reductions in mean scores for total Malay-ECOHIS, child impact section (CIS), family impact section (FIS) and all domains, respectively (P 

  2. Esa R, Hashim NA, Ayob Y, Yusof ZY
    BMC Oral Health, 2015 Mar 10;15:28.
    PMID: 25886943 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0013-y
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) Malay version in 5-6 and 9-12 year-old children.
    METHODS: The MCDASf was cross culturally adapted from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity in 3 studies. In the Study 1, to determine test-retest reliability of MCDASf scale, 166 preschool children aged 5-6 years were asked to rank orders five cartoons faces depicting emotions from 'very happy' to 'very sad' faces on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart. A total of 87 other 5-6 year-old children completed the Malay-MCDASf on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart to determine test-retest reliability for Study 2. In study 3, 239 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years completed the Malay-MCDASf and the Malay-Dental Subscale of the Children Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) at the same sitting to determine the criterion and construct validity.
    RESULTS: In study 1, Kendall W test showed a high degree of concordance in ranking the cartoon faces picture cards on each of the 2 occasions (time 1, W = 0.955 and time 2, W = 0.954). The Malay-MCDASf demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63, p <0.001) and acceptable internal consistency for all the 6 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77) and 8 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The highest MCDASf scores were observed for the items 'injection in the gum' and 'tooth taken out' for both age groups. The MCDASf significantly correlated with the CFSS-DS (Pearson r = 0.67, p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: These psychometric findings support for the inclusion of a cartoon faces rating scale to assess child dental anxiety and the Malay-MCDASf is a reliable and valid measure of dental anxiety in 5-12 year-old children.
  3. Nikmat AW, Al-Mashoor SH, Hashim NA
    Int Psychogeriatr, 2015 May;27(5):815-24.
    PMID: 25497589 DOI: 10.1017/S1041610214002609
    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) among older adults has become increasingly important, and living arrangements play a pivotal role in determining the QoL of people with cognitive impairment (PWCI). Although informal care (home-based) is favored, transition to formal care (residential care) often becomes necessary, especially in the later stages of cognitive impairment. The primary objective was to compare the QoL of PWCI in the community and nursing homes. Additionally, factors differentiate the QoL of PWCI in these two settings were identified.
  4. Hashim NA, Ariaratnam S, Salleh MR, Said MA, Sulaiman AH
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2016 Jun;26(2):77-82.
    PMID: 27377489
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder and its association with socio-demographic and clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended the hospital-based primary care clinics at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The patients were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression based on the DSM-IV criteria. The socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and subsequently verified against their respective case notes.

    RESULTS: A total of 204 patients were recruited. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 15.7%. Major depressive disorder was significantly associated with younger age of patients (mean ± standard deviation, 57.8 ± 15.1 years, p = 0.04), younger age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (46.2 ± 13.0 years, p = 0.01), having secondary education (p = 0.02), and having a history of depression (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that current age (p = 0.04), duration of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.04), age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01), and secondary education (p = 0.01) were significant factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of major depressive disorder was high among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Screening of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for depression should be performed periodically or routinely, especially in the primary care setting.
  5. Hashim NA, Abd Razak NA, Abu Osman NA, Gholizadeh H
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2018 Jan;232(1):3-11.
    PMID: 29199518 DOI: 10.1177/0954411917744585
    Body-powered prostheses are known for their advantages of cost, reliability, training period, maintenance, and proprioceptive feedback. This study primarily aims to analyze the work related to the improvement of upper limb body-powered prostheses prior to 2016. A systematic review conducted via the search of the Web of Science electronic database, Google Scholar, and Google Patents identified 155 papers from 1921 to 2016. Sackett's initial rules of evidence were used to determine the levels of evidence, and only papers categorized in the design and development category and patents were analyzed. A total of 40 papers in the sixth level of "Design and Development" of an upper limb body-powered prosthesis were found. Approximately 81% were categorized under mechanical alteration. Most papers were patent-type documents (48%), with the Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development publishing most of the articles related to the design and development of body-powered prostheses. Papers in the scope of the study were published once every 3 years in almost a century, proving that only a few studies were conducted to improve body-powered arms compared with myoelectric technology. Further research should be carried out mainly in areas that have received less attention.
  6. Salleh WM, Hashim NA, Ahmad F, Heng Yen K
    Adv Pharm Bull, 2014 Dec;4(Suppl 2):527-31.
    PMID: 25671185 DOI: 10.5681/apb.2014.078
    The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum.
  7. Teng CL, Nurjahan MI, Hashim NA, Punithambigai P, Leong KC, Mihat O
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Jun;58(2):159-66.
    PMID: 14569735 MyJurnal
    Over a 2-week period, the management of upper respiratory tract infection by 24 medical officers and medical assistants in Seremban District was studied. Each practitioner recorded clinical data and prescription for twenty consecutive patients using a structured questionnaire. The extent to which the practitioners used "predictive features" (fever, absence of cough, cervical adenopathy, enlarged tonsils and exudates on tonsils) in clinical decision-making was analysed. The mean antibiotic prescription rate was 28.7% (95% CI: 24.6%, 33.0%). The antibiotic prescription rate of medical officers and medical assistants were similar. Five features were independently associated with antibiotic prescription (phlegm, fever, cervical adenopathy, red throat and tonsillar exudates). Antibiotics were prescribed for 22.1% of patients with 0-1 predictive features. High prescribers were 5 times more likely to prescribe antibiotics in this group of patients than low prescribers. To a large extent the clinical decision-making of practitioners in this study was evidence based. However, they were unduly influenced by purulent manifestation (phlegm) and redness of throat. The antibiotic prescription rate in these government health clinics is potentially reducible by means of educational intervention.
  8. Hashim NA, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Tahir NA, Basari N
    PMID: 18567442
    Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p < 0.05). Total cohort mortality was correlated with total development time (r = 0.713, p < 0.05) but not temperature (r = -0.477, p > 0.05). Rainfall was correlated with neither development time (r = 0.554, p > 0.05) nor mortality (r = 0.322, p > 0.05). There was a significant difference among the total mortality that occurred in the twelve cohorts (H = 119.783, df = 11, p < 0.05). There was also a significant difference in mortality among the different stages (H = 274.00, df = 4, p < 0.05).
  9. Hashim NA, Ahmad AH, Talib A, Athaillah F, Krishnan KT
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2018 Mar;29(1):213-227.
    PMID: 29644025 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2018.29.1.14
    The occurrence of major outbreaks of dengue, and other vector borne diseases such as chikungunya and zika in tropical and subtropical regions has rendered control of the diseases a top-priority for many affected countries including Malaysia. Control of the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus through the reduction of breeding sites and the application of insecticides to kill immature forms and adults are the main control efforts to combat these diseases. The present study describes the association between Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in shared breeding sites. This study is important given that any measure taken against one species may affect the other. A yearlong larval survey was conducted in four dengue endemic areas of Penang Island. Sorenson's coefficient index indicated that no association between number of the immatures of the two species regardless of container size and study location. Therefore, the mean number Ae. albopictus immature was not decreased in the presence of Ae. aegypti in shared breeding container. However Ae. aegypti appeared to prefer breeding in habitats not occupied by Ae. albopictus, the two species sharing breeding sites only where available containers were limited. In control efforts, eliminating the preferred breeding containers for one species might not affect or reduce the population of the other species.
  10. Mohtor NH, Othman MHD, Ismail AF, Rahman MA, Jaafar J, Hashim NA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jul;24(19):15905-15917.
    PMID: 28620856 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9341-6
    Despite its extraordinary price, ceramic membrane can still be able to surpass polymeric membrane in the applications that require high temperature and pressure conditions, as well as harsh chemical environment. In order to alleviate the high cost of ceramic material that still becomes one of the major factors that contributes to the high production cost of ceramic membrane, various attempts have been made to use low cost ceramic materials as alternatives to well-known expensive ceramic materials such as alumina, silica, and zirconia in the fabrication of ceramic membrane. Thus, local Malaysian kaolin has been chosen as the ceramic material in this study for the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane since it is inexpensive and naturally abundant in Malaysia. Due to the fact that the sintering process plays a prominent role in obtaining the desired morphology, properties, and performances of prepared ceramic membrane, the aim of this work was to study the effect of different sintering temperatures applied (ranging from 1200 to 1500 °C) in the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane via dry/wet phase inversion-based spinning technique and sintering process. The morphology and properties of membrane were then characterised by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XRD, and three-point bending test, while the performances of membrane were investigated by conducting water permeation and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye rejection tests. From the experimental results obtained, the sintering temperature of 1400 °C could be selected as the optimum sintering temperature in preparing the kaolin hollow fibre membrane with the dense sponge-like structure of separation layer that resulted in the good mechanical strength of 70 MPa with the appreciable water permeation of 75 L/h m(2) bar and RB5 rejection of 68%.
  11. Chahil JK, Munretnam K, Samsudin N, Lye SH, Hashim NA, Ramzi NH, et al.
    Indian J Clin Biochem, 2015 Apr;30(2):134-9.
    PMID: 25883419 DOI: 10.1007/s12291-013-0414-0
    Genome-wide association studies have discovered multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of common diseases. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the replication of previously published SNPs that showed statistical significance for breast cancer in the Malaysian population. In this case-control study, 80 subjects for each group were recruited from various hospitals in Malaysia. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and protective alleles. A total of three SNPs were found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer while six SNPs showed protective effect. All nine were statistically significant SNPs (p ≤ 0.01), five SNPs from previous studies were successfully replicated in our study. Significant modifiable (diet) and non-modifiable (family history of breast cancer in first degree relative) risk factors were also observed. We identified nine SNPs from this study to be either conferring susceptibility or protection to breast cancer which may serve as potential markers in risk prediction.
  12. Munretnam K, Alex L, Ramzi NH, Chahil JK, Kavitha IS, Hashim NA, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2014;41(4):2501-8.
    PMID: 24443231 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3107-8
    There is growing global interest to stratify men into different levels of risk to developing prostate cancer, thus it is important to identify common genetic variants that confer the risk. Although many studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic variants which are highly associated with prostate cancer, none have been done in Malaysian population. To determine the association of such variants in Malaysian men with prostate cancer, we evaluated a panel of 768 SNPs found previously associated with various cancers which also included the prostate specific SNPs in a population based case control study (51 case subjects with prostate cancer and 51 control subjects) in Malaysian men of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnicity. We identified 21 SNPs significantly associated with prostate cancer. Among these, 12 SNPs were strongly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer while remaining nine SNPs were associated with reduced risk. However, data analysis based on ethnic stratification led to only five SNPs in Malays and 3 SNPs in Chinese which remained significant. This could be due to small sample size in each ethnic group. Significant non-genetic risk factors were also identified for their association with prostate cancer. Our study is the first to investigate the involvement of multiple variants towards susceptibility for PC in Malaysian men using genotyping approach. Identified SNPs and non-genetic risk factors have a significant association with prostate cancer.
  13. Nor Hashim NA, Ramzi NH, Velapasamy S, Alex L, Chahil JK, Lye SH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(12):6005-10.
    PMID: 23464394
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Geographical and ethnic clustering of the cancer is due to genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. This case-control study aimed to identify or confirm both genetic and non-genetic risk factors for NPC in one of the endemic countries, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with various cancers and known non-genetic risk factors for NPC were selected and analyzed for their associations with NPC in a case-control study.

    RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified 40 SNPs associated with NPC risk in our population, including 5 documented previously by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control studies; the associations of the remaining 35 SNPs with NPC were novel. In addition, consistent with previous studies, exposure to occupational hazards, overconsumption of salt-cured foods, red meat, as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables were also associated with NPC risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study confirmed and/or identified genetic, environmental and dietary risk factors associated with NPC susceptibility in a Southeast Asian population.

  14. Hasan SW, Said SM, Sabri MF, Bakar AS, Hashim NA, Hasnan MM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 07 06;6:29328.
    PMID: 27381946 DOI: 10.1038/srep29328
    Thermo-Electrochemical cells (Thermocells/TECs) transform thermal energy into electricity by means of electrochemical potential disequilibrium between electrodes induced by a temperature gradient (ΔT). Heat conduction across the terminals of the cell is one of the primary reasons for device inefficiency. Herein, we embed Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in thermocells to mitigate the heat transfer effects - we refer to these membrane-thermocells as MTECs. At a ΔT of 12 K, an improvement in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the TEC from 1.3 mV to 2.8 mV is obtained by employment of the membrane. The PVDF membrane is employed at three different locations between the electrodes i.e. x = 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm where 'x' defines the distance between the cathode and PVDF membrane. We found that the membrane position at x = 5 mm achieves the closest internal ∆T (i.e. 8.8 K) to the externally applied ΔT of 10 K and corresponding power density is 254 nWcm(-2); 78% higher than the conventional TEC. Finally, a thermal resistivity model based on infrared thermography explains mass and heat transfer within the thermocells.
  15. Dieng H, The CC, Satho T, Miake F, Wydiamala E, Kassim NFA, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2019 Jun;194:93-99.
    PMID: 30922800 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.03.027
    Sound and its reception are crucial for reproduction, survival, and population maintenance of many animals. In insects, low-frequency vibrations facilitate sexual interactions, whereas noise disrupts the perception of signals from conspecifics and hosts. Despite evidence that mosquitoes respond to sound frequencies beyond fundamental ranges, including songs, and that males and females need to struggle to harmonize their flight tones, the behavioral impacts of music as control targets remain unexplored. In this study, we examined the effects of electronic music (Scary Monsters and Nice Sprites by Skrillex) on foraging, host attack, and sexual activities of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Adults were presented with two sound environments (music-off or music-on). Discrepancies in visitation, blood feeding, and copulation patterns were compared between environments with and without music. Ae. aegypti females maintained in the music-off environment initiated host visits earlier than those in the music-on environment. They visited the host significantly less often in the music-on than the music-off condition. Females exposed to music attacked hosts much later than their non-exposed peers. The occurrence of blood feeding activity was lower when music was being played. Adults exposed to music copulated far less often than their counterparts kept in an environment where there was no music. In addition to providing insight into the auditory sensitivity of Ae. aegypti to sound, our results indicated the vulnerability of its key vectorial capacity traits to electronic music. The observation that such music can delay host attack, reduce blood feeding, and disrupt mating provides new avenues for the development of music-based personal protective and control measures against Aedes-borne diseases.
  16. Aljumaily MM, Alsaadi MA, Binti Hashim NA, Mjalli FS, Alsalhy QF, Khan AL, et al.
    Biotechnol Prog, 2020 05;36(3):e2963.
    PMID: 31943942 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2963
    To overcome the biofouling challenge which faces membrane water treatment processed, the novel superhydrophobic carbon nanomaterials impregnated on/powder activated carbon (CNMs/PAC) was utilized to successfully design prepare an antimicrobial membrane. The research was conducted following a systematic statistical design of experiments technique considering various parameters of composite membrane fabrication. The impact of these parameters of composite membrane on Staphylococcus aureus growth was investigated. The bacteria growth was analyzed through spectrophotometer and SEM. The effect of CNMs' hydrophobicity on the bacterial colonies revealed a decrease in the abundance of bacterial colonies and an alteration in structure with increasing the hydrophobicity. The results revealed that the optimum preparative conditions for carbon loading CNMs/PAC was 363.04 mg with a polymer concentration of 22.64 g/100 g, and a casting knife thickness of 133.91 μm. These conditions have resulted in decreasing the number of bacteria colonies to about 7.56 CFU. Our results provided a strong evidence on the antibacterial effect and consequently on the antibiofouling potential of CNMs/PAC in membrane.
  17. Ramzi NH, Chahil JK, Lye SH, Munretnam K, Sahadevappa KI, Velapasamy S, et al.
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2014 Jun;139(6):873-82.
    PMID: 25109722
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. In the Asia-Pacific area, it is the highest emerging gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and environmental factors associated with CRC risk in Malaysia from a panel of cancer associated SNPs.
  18. Velapasamy S, Alex L, Chahil JK, Lye SH, Munretnam K, Hashim NA, et al.
    Genet Test Mol Biomarkers, 2013 Jan;17(1):62-8.
    PMID: 23113749 DOI: 10.1089/gtmb.2012.0223
    The identification of high-risk individuals can help to improve early cancer detection and patient survival. Risk assessment, however, can only be accomplished if the risk factors are known. To date, the genetic risk factors for ovarian cancer, other than mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes, have never been systematically explored in Malaysia. The present study aims to identify from a panel of cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), those associated with ovarian cancer risk in Malaysia.
  19. Aljumaily MM, Alsaadi MA, Das R, Hamid SBA, Hashim NA, AlOmar MK, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 09;8(1):2778.
    PMID: 29426860 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21051-3
    Demand is increasing for superhydrophobic materials in many applications, such as membrane distillation, separation and special coating technologies. In this study, we report a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to fabricate superhydrophobic carbon nanomaterials (CNM) on nickel (Ni)-doped powder activated carbon (PAC). The reaction temperature, reaction time and H2/C2H2 gas ratio were optimized to achieve the optimum contact angle (CA) and carbon yield (CY). For the highest CY (380%) and CA (177°), the optimal reaction temperatures were 702 °C and 687 °C, respectively. However, both the reaction time (40 min) and gas ratio (1.0) were found to have similar effects on CY and CA. Based on the Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images, the CNM could be categorized into two main groups: a) carbon spheres (CS) free carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and b) CS mixed with CNFs, which were formed at 650 and 750 °C, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also support this finding. The hydrophobicity of the CNM, expressed by the CA, follows the trend of CS-mixed CNFs (CA: 177°) > CS-free CNFs (CA: 167°) > PAC/Ni (CA: 65°). This paves the way for future applications of synthesized CNM to fabricate water-repellent industrial-grade technologies.
  20. Dieng H, Hassan RB, Hassan AA, Ghani IA, Abang FB, Satho T, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2015 May;145:68-78.
    PMID: 25617636 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.01.004
    Even with continuous vector control, dengue is still a growing threat to public health in Southeast Asia. Main causes comprise difficulties in identifying productive breeding sites and inappropriate targeted chemical interventions. In this region, rural families keep live birds in backyards and dengue mosquitoes have been reported in containers in the cages. To focus on this particular breeding site, we examined the capacity of bird fecal matter (BFM) from the spotted dove, to support Aedes albopictus larval growth. The impact of BFM larval uptake on some adult fitness traits influencing vectorial capacity was also investigated. In serial bioassays involving a high and low larval density (HD and LD), BFM and larval standard food (LSF) affected differently larval development. At HD, development was longer in the BFM environment. There were no appreciable mortality differences between the two treatments, which resulted in similar pupation and adult emergence successes. BFM treatment produced a better gender balance. There were comparable levels of blood uptake and egg production in BFM and LSF females at LD; that was not the case for the HD one, which resulted in bigger adults. BFM and LSF females displayed equivalent lifespans; in males, this parameter was shorter in those derived from the BFM/LD treatment. Taken together these results suggest that bird defecations successfully support the development of Ae. albopictus. Due to their cryptic aspects, containers used to supply water to encaged birds may not have been targeted by chemical interventions.
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