Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

  1. Ramachandran H, Iqbal MA, Amirul AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2014 Sep;174(2):461-70.
    PMID: 25099372 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1080-2
    Microbial pigments are gaining intensive attention due to increasing awareness of the toxicity of synthetic colours. In this study, a novel polymer-producing bacterium designated as Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 was also found to produce yellow pigment when cultivated in nutrient broth. Various parameters such as temperature, pH and ratio of culture volume to flask volume were found to influence the yellow pigment production. UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that the crude yellow pigment might probably represent new bioactive compound in the carotenoid family. The crude yellow pigment also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with their inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 25 to 38 mm and from 0.63 to 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification and characterization of yellow pigment produced by bacterium belonging to the genus Cupriavidus.
  2. Abbasi M, Yaqoob M, Haque RA, Iqbal MA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(1):69-78.
    PMID: 32767935 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200807130721
    Development of novel metallodrugs with pharmacological profile plays a significant role in modern medicinal chemistry and drug design. Metal complexes have shown remarkable clinical results in current cancer therapy. Gold complexes have attained attention due to their high antiproliferative potential. Gold-based drugs are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Gold-containing compounds with selective and specific targets are capable to assuage the symptoms of a range of human diseases. Gold (I) species with labile ligands (such as Cl in TEPAuCl) interact with isolated DNA; therefore, this biomolecule has been considered as a target for gold drugs. Gold (I) has a high affinity towards sulfur and selenium. Due to this, gold (I) drugs readily interact with cysteine or selenocysteine residue of the enzyme to form protein-gold(I) thiolate or protein-gold (I) selenolate complexes that lead to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Au(III) compounds due to their square-planner geometriesthe same as found in cisplatin, represent a good source for the development of anti-tumor agents. This article aims to review the most important applications of gold products in the treatment of human colon cancer and to analyze the complex interplay between gold and the human body.
  3. Haque RA, Choo SY, Budagumpi S, Iqbal MA, Al-Ashraf Abdullah A
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Jan 27;90:82-92.
    PMID: 25461313 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.11.005
    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.
  4. Iqbal MA, Haque RA, Ahamed SA, Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Med Chem, 2015;11(5):473-81.
    PMID: 25553509
    Azolium (imidazolium and benzimidazolium) salts are known as stable precursors for the synthesis of Metal-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (M-NHC) complexes. Recently, some reports have been compiled indicating that benzimidazolium salts have anticarcinogenic properties. The current research is the further investigation of this phenomenon. Three ortho-xylene linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1-3) with octyl, nonyl and decyl terminal chain lengths have been synthesized. Each of the compounds was characterized using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular geometries of two of the salts (1-2) have been established using X-ray crystallographic technique. The compounds were tested for their cytotoxic properties against three cancerous cell lines namely, human colon cancer (HCT 116), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT- 29) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Mouse embryonic fibroblast (3T3-L1) was used as the model cell line of normal cells. The compounds showed selective anti-proliferative activities against the colorectal carcinoma cells. For HCT 116 and HT-29 cells, the IC50 values ranged 0.9-2.6 µM and 4.0-10.0 µM, respectively. The salts 1 and 3 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the breast cancer (MCF-7) cells with IC50 58.2 and 13.3 µM, respectively. However, the salt 2 produced strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells with IC50 4.4 µM. Interestingly, the compounds demonstrated poor cytotoxic effects towards the normal cells (3T3-L1) as the IC50 was found to be as high as 48.0 µM. Salts 2 and 3 demonstrated more pronounced anti-proliferative effect than the standard drugs used (5-Flourouracil and Tamoxifen).
  5. Iqbal MA, Haque RA, Nasri SF, Majid AA, Ahamed MB, Farsi E, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):27.
    PMID: 23391345 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-27
    Since the first successful synthesis of Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complex in 1993, this class of compounds has been extensively used for transmetallation reactions where the direct synthesis using other metal ions was either difficult or impossible. Initially, silver(I)-NHC complexes were tested for their catalytic potential but could not get fame because of lower potential compare to other competent compounds in this field; however, these compounds proved to have vital antimicrobial activities. These encouraging biomedical applications further convinced researchers to test these compounds against cancer. The current work has been carried out with this aim.
  6. Hassan LEA, Iqbal MA, Dahham SS, Tabana YM, Ahamed MBK, Majid AMSA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017;17(4):590-598.
    PMID: 27671298 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160926113711
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division caused by dysregulation of cell proliferation. Therefore, agents that impair cancer cell proliferation could have potential therapeutic value. Higher plants are considered to be a good source of anticancer agents, and several clinically tested chemotherapeutic agents have been isolated from plants or derived from constituents of plant origin.

    METHODS: In the present study, a prenylated flavone (isoglabratephrin) was isolated from aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea using a bioassay-guided technique. Chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and LC-MC), elemental analysis and confirmed by using single crystal X-ray analysis. The antiproliferative effect of isoglabratephrin was tested using three human cancer cell lines (prostate (PC3), pancreatic (PANC-1), and colon (HCT-116) and one normal cell line (human fibroblast).

    RESULTS: Isoglabratephrin displayed selective inhibitory activity against proliferation of PC3 and PANC-1 cells with median inhibitory concentration values of 20.4 and 26.6 μg/ml, respectively. Isoglabratephrin demonstrated proapoptotic features, as it induced chromatin dissolution, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation. It also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cancer cells.

    CONCLUSION: Isoglabratephrin could be a new lead to treat human prostate (PC3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) malignancies.

  7. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
  8. Kamal A, Nazari V M, Yaseen M, Iqbal MA, Ahamed MBK, Majid ASA, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 09;90:103042.
    PMID: 31226469 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103042
    Three benzimidazolium salts (III-V) and respective selenium adducts (VI-VIII) were designed, synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques (FT-IR and NMR 1H, 13C). Selected salts and respective selenium N-Heterocyclic carbenes (selenium-NHC) adducts were tested in vitro against Cervical Cancer Cell line (Hela), Breast Adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), Retinal Ganglion Cell line (RGC-5) and Mouse Melanoma Cell line (B16F10) using MTT assay and the results were compared with standard drug 5-Fluorouracil. Se-NHC compounds and azolium salts showed significant anticancer potential. Molecular docking studies of compounds (VI, VII and VIII) showed strong binding energies and ligand affinity toward following angiogenic factors: VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A), EGF (human epidermal growth factor), HIF (Hypoxia-inducible factor) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1) suggesting that the anticancer activity of adducts (VI, VII and VIII) may be due to their strong anti-angiogenic effect. In addition, compounds III-VIII were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal potential. Adduct VI was found to be potent anti-fungal agent against A. Niger with zone of inhibition (ZI) value 27.01 ± 0.251 mm which is better than standard drug Clotrimazole tested in parallel.
  9. Atif M, Bhatti HN, Haque RA, Iqbal MA, Ahamed Khadeer MB, Majid AMSA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2020 Jul;191(3):1171-1189.
    PMID: 32002729 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-019-03186-9
    Synthesis and anticancer studies of three symmetrically and non-symmetrically substituted silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic carbene complexes of type [(NHC)2-Ag]PF6 (7-9) and their respective (ligands) benzimidazolium salts (4-6) are described herein. Compound 5 and Ag-NHC-complex 7 were characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Structural studies for 7 showed that the silver(I) center has linear C-Ag-C coordination geometry (180.00(10)o). Other azolium and Ag-NHC analogues were confirmed by H1 and C13-NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized analogues were biologically characterized for in vitro anticancer activity against three cancer cell lines including human colorectal cancer (HCT 116), breast cancer (MCF-7), and erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562) cell lines and in terms of in vivo acute oral toxicity (IAOT) in view of agility and body weight of female rats. In vitro anticancer activity showed the values of IC50 in range 0.31-17.9 μM in case of K-562 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines and 15.1-35.2 μM in case of MCF-7 while taking commercially known anticancer agents 5-fluorouracil, tamoxifen, and betulinic acid which have IC50 values 5.2, 5.5, and 17.0 μM, respectively. In vivo study revealed vigor and agility of all test animals which explores the biocompatibility and non-toxicity of the test analogues.
  10. Chen XY, Low HR, Loi XY, Merel L, Mohd Cairul Iqbal MA
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2019 08;107(6):2140-2151.
    PMID: 30758129 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34309
    Graphene oxide (GO) is a potential material for wound dressing due to its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effects of GO concentration on the synthesis of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC)-grafted poly(acrylic acid) (AA)-graphene oxide (BNC/P(AA)/GO) composite hydrogel and its potential as wound dressing. Hydrogels were successfully synthesized via electron-beam irradiation. The hydrogels were characterized by their mechanical properties, bioadhesiveness, water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs), water retention abilities, water absorptivity, and biocompatibility. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the successful incorporation of GO into hydrogel. Thickness, gel fraction determination and morphological study revealed that increased GO concentration in hydrogels leads to reduced crosslink density and larger pore size, resulting in increased WVTR. Thus, highest swelling ratio was found in hydrogel with higher amount of GO (0.09 wt %). The mechanical properties of the composite hydrogel were maintained, while its hardness and bioadhesion were reduced with higher GO concentration in the hydrogel, affirming the durable and easy removable properties of a wound dressing. Human dermal fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation studies showed that biocompatibility of hydrogel was improved with the inclusion of GO in the hydrogel. Therefore, BNC/P(AA)/GO composite hydrogel has a potential application as perdurable wound dressing. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 2140-2151, 2019.
  11. Asif M, Iqbal MA, Hussein MA, Oon CE, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Jan 27;108:177-187.
    PMID: 26649905 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.11.034
    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
  12. Dahham SS, Tabana YM, Iqbal MA, Ahamed MB, Ezzat MO, Majid AS, et al.
    Molecules, 2015;20(7):11808-29.
    PMID: 26132906 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200711808
    The present study reports a bioassay-guided isolation of β-caryophyllene from the essential oil of Aquilaria crassna. The structure of β-caryophyllene was confirmed using FT-IR, NMR and MS. The antimicrobial effect of β-caryophyllene was examined using human pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Its anti-oxidant properties were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP scavenging assays. The cytotoxicity of β-caryophyllene was tested against seven human cancer cell lines. The corresponding selectivity index was determined by testing its cytotoxicity on normal cells. The effects of β-caryophyllene were studied on a series of in vitro antitumor-promoting assays using colon cancer cells. Results showed that β-caryophyllene demonstrated selective antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC 3 ± 1.0 µM) and more pronounced anti-fungal activity than kanamycin. β-Caryophyllene also displayed strong antioxidant effects. Additionally, β-caryophyllene exhibited selective anti-proliferative effects against colorectal cancer cells (IC50 19 µM). The results also showed that β-caryophyllene induces apoptosis via nuclear condensation and fragmentation pathways including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further, β-caryophyllene demonstrated potent inhibition against clonogenicity, migration, invasion and spheroid formation in colon cancer cells. These results prompt us to state that β-caryophyllene is the active principle responsible for the selective anticancer and antimicrobial activities of A. crassnia. β-Caryophyllene has great potential to be further developed as a promising chemotherapeutic agent against colorectal malignancies.
  13. Khan MS, Majid AM, Iqbal MA, Majid AS, Al-Mansoub M, Haque RS
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2016 Oct 10;93:304-18.
    PMID: 27552907 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.08.032
    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly malignant, heterogenic, and drug resistant tumor. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), systemic cytotoxicity, and limited specificity are the main obstacles in designing brain tumor drugs. In this study a computational approach was used to design brain tumor drugs that could downregulate VEGF and IL17A in glioblastoma multiforme type four. Computational screening tools were used to evaluate potential candidates for antiangiogenic activity, target binding, BBB permeability, and ADME physicochemical properties. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxicity, migration, invasion, tube formation, apoptosis, ROS and ELISA assays were conducted for molecule 6 that was deemed most likely to succeed. The efflux ratio of membrane permeability and calculated docking scores of permeability to glycoproteins (P-gps) were used to determine the BBB permeability of the molecules. The results showed BBB permeation for molecule 6, with the predicted efficiency of 0.55kcal/mol and binding affinity of -37kj/mol corresponding to an experimental efflux ratio of 0.625 and predicted -15kj/mol of binding affinity for P-gps. Molecule 6 significantly affected the angiogenesis pathways by 2-fold downregulation of IL17A and VEGF through inactivation of active sites of HSP90 (predicted binding: -37kj/mol, predicted efficiency: 0.55kcal/mol) and p23 (predicted binding: 12kj/mol, predicted efficiency: 0.17kcal/mol) chaperon proteins. Additionally, molecule 6 activated the 17.38% relative fold of ROS level at 18.3μg/mL and upregulated the caspase which lead the potential synergistic apoptosis through the antiangiogenic activity of molecule 6 and thereby the highly efficacious anticancer upshot. The results indicate that the binding of the molecules to the therapeutic target is not essential to produce a lethal effect on cancer cells of the brain and that antiangiogenic efficiency is much more important.
  14. Hayat K, Tariq U, Wong QA, Quah CK, Majid ASA, Nazari V M, et al.
    Comput Biol Chem, 2021 Oct;94:107567.
    PMID: 34500323 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107567
    Benzimidazolium salts (3-6) were synthesized as stable N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) precursors and their selenium-NHC compounds/Selenones (7-10) were prepared using water as a solvent. Characterization of each of the synthesized compounds was carried out by various analytical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H-, 13C NMR) methods. X-ray crystallographic analyses of single crystals obtained for salts 3 and 5 were carried out. Synthesized salts and their Se-NHCs were tested in-vitro for their anticancer potential against Cervical Cancer Cell line from Henrietta Lacks (HeLa), Breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231), Adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human normal endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). MTT assay was used for analysis and compared with standard drug 5-flourouracil. Benzimidazolium salts (3-6) and their selenium counter parts (7-10) were found potent anticancer agents. Salt 3-5 were found to be potent anticancer against HeLa with IC50 values 0.072, 0.017 and 0.241 μM, respectively, which are less than standard drug (4.9 μM). The Se-NHCs (7-10) had also shown significant anticancer potential against HeLa with IC50 values less than standard drug. Salts 3, 4 against EA.hy926, compounds 3,5,6, and 10 against MDA-MB-321, and compounds 4, 10 against A-549 cell line were found more potent anticancer agents with IC50 values less than standard drug. Molecular docking for (7-10) showed their good anti-angiogenic potential having low binding energy and significant inhibition constant values with VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor), EGF (human epidermal growth factor), COX1 (cyclooxygenase-1) and HIF (hypoxia inducible factor).
  15. Ahmed Hassan LE, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AS, Iqbal MA, Al Suede FS, Haque RA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e90806.
    PMID: 24608571 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090806
    Tephrosia apollinea is a perennial shrublet widely distributed in Africa and is known to have medicinal properties. The current study describes the bio-assay (cytotoxicity) guided isolation of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin from the aerial parts of T. apollinea. The structural and stereochemical features have been described using spectral and x-ray crystallographic techniques. The cytotoxicity of isolated compound was evaluated against nine cancer cell lines. In addition, human fibroblast was used as a model cell line for normal cells. The results showed that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on most of the tested cancer cell lines. Selectively, the compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of leukemia, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Further studies revealed that, the compound exhibited proapoptotic phenomenon of cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the compound did not display toxicity against the normal human fibroblast. It can be concluded that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin is worthy for further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent.
  16. Tabana YM, Hassan LE, Ahamed MB, Dahham SS, Iqbal MA, Saeed MA, et al.
    Microvasc Res, 2016 09;107:17-33.
    PMID: 27133199 DOI: 10.1016/j.mvr.2016.04.009
    We recently reported the antineovascularization effect of scopoletin on rat aorta and identified its potential anti-angiogenic activity. Scopoletin could be useful as a systemic chemotherapeutic agent against angiogenesis-dependent malignancies if its antitumorigenic activity is investigated and scientifically proven using a suitable human tumor xenograft model. In the present study, bioassay-guided (anti-angiogenesis) phytochemical investigation was conducted on Nicotiana glauca extract which led to the isolation of scopoletin. Further, anti-angiogenic activity of scopoletin was characterized using ex vivo, in vivo and in silico angiogenesis models. Finally, the antitumorigenic efficacy of scopoletin was studied in human colorectal tumor xenograft model using athymic nude mice. For the first time, an in vivo anticancer activity of scopoletin was reported and characterized using xenograft models. Scopoletin caused significant suppression of sprouting of microvessels in rat aortic explants with IC50 (median inhibitory concentration) 0.06μM. Scopoletin (100 and 200mg/kg) strongly inhibited (59.72 and 89.4%, respectively) vascularization in matrigel plugs implanted in nude mice. In the tumor xenograft model, scopoletin showed remarkable inhibition on tumor growth (34.2 and 94.7% at 100 and 200mg/kg, respectively). Tumor histology revealed drastic reduction of the extent of vascularization. Further, immunostaining of CD31 and NG2 receptors in the histological sections confirmed the antivascular effect of scopoletin in tumor vasculature. In computer modeling, scopoletin showed strong ligand affinity and binding energies toward the following angiogenic factors: protein kinase (ERK1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). These results suggest that the antitumor activity of scopoletin may be due to its strong anti-angiogenic effect, which may be mediated by its effective inhibition of ERK1, VEGF-A, and FGF-2.
  17. Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Iqbal MA, Al Suede FS, Khalid SH, Haque RA, et al.
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2014 Oct;66(10):1394-409.
    PMID: 25039905 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12272
    Recently, we have isolated koetjapic acid (KA) from Sandoricum koetjape and identified its selective anticancer potentiality against colorectal carcinoma. KA is quite likely to be useful as a systemic anticancer agent against colorectal malignancy. However, with extremely low solubility, KA has to be converted into a biocompatible solubilized form without compromising the bioefficacy. Objective of this study is to enhance solubility of KA and to evaluate anticancer efficacy of potassium koetjapate in human colorectal cancer cells.
  18. Salam MA, Paul SC, Zain RAMM, Bhowmik S, Nath MR, Siddiqua SA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0241320.
    PMID: 33104734 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241320
    The rapid growth of industrial and agricultural activities in Malaysia are leading to the impairment of most of the rivers in recent years through realising various trace metals. This leads to toxicity, particularly when the toxic has entered the food chain. Perak River is one of the most dynamic rivers for the Malaysian population. Therefore, in consideration of the safety issue, this study was conducted to assess the concentration of such metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Pb) in the muscles of most widely consumed fish species (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Puntius bulum, Puntius daruphani, Hexanematichthys sagor, Channa striatus, Mystacoleucus marginatus, and Devario regina) from different locations of Perak River, Malaysia by employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Among the trace metals, Fe and Cd were found to be the highest (29.33-148.01 μg/g) and lowest (0.16-0.49 μg/g) concentration in all of the studied species, respectively. Although the estimated daily intakes (μg/kg/day) of Cd (0.65-0.85), Fe (79.27-352.00) and Pb (0.95-12.17) were higher than their reference, the total target hazard quotients values suggested that the local residents would not experience any adverse health effects from its consumption. In contrast, the target cancer risk value suggested that all fish species posed a potential cancer risk due to Cd and cumulative cancer risk values, strongly implying that continuous consumption of studied fish species would cause cancer development to its consumers.
  19. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Oct 09;125(15):152001.
    PMID: 33095627 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.152001
    Using a data sample of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 140  fb^{-1} collected by the CMS experiment in 2016-2018, the B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ decay is observed. Decays into J/ψπ^{+}π^{-} and K^{+}K^{-} are used to reconstruct, respectively, the X(3872) and ϕ. The ratio of the product of branching fractions B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]B[X(3872)→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}] to the product B[B_{s}^{0}→ψ(2S)ϕ]B[ψ(2S)→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}] is measured to be [2.21±0.29(stat)±0.17(syst)]%. The ratio B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]/B[B^{0}→X(3872)K^{0}] is found to be consistent with one, while the ratio B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]/B[B^{+}→X(3872)K^{+}] is two times smaller. This suggests a difference in the production dynamics of the X(3872) in B^{0} and B_{s}^{0} meson decays compared to B^{+}. The reported observation may shed new light on the nature of the X(3872) particle.
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