Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

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  1. Salman M, Jahan S, Kanwal S, Mansoor F
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Jul;26(21):21065-21084.
    PMID: 31124071 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05428-z
    The demand for high-quality safe and clean water supply has revolutionized water treatment technologies and become a most focused subject of environmental science. Water contamination generally marks the presence of numerous toxic and harmful substances. These contaminants such as heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants, oil wastes, and chemical dyes are discharged from various industrial effluents and domestic wastes. Among several water treatment technologies, the utilization of silica nanostructures has received considerable attention due to their stability, sustainability, and cost-effective properties. As such, this review outlines the latest innovative approaches for synthesis and application of silica nanostructures in water treatment, apart from exploring the gaps that limit their large-scale industrial application. In addition, future challenges for improved water remediation and water quality technologies are keenly discussed.
  2. Kuang TK, Kang YB, Segarra I, Kanwal U, Ahsan M, Bukhari NI
    Turk J Pharm Sci, 2021 04 20;18(2):167-175.
    PMID: 33902255 DOI: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2020.48902
    Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the effect of microwave heating on the preparation of paracetamol cross-linked gelatin matrices by using the design of experiment (DoE) approach and explore the influence of the duration of microwave irradiation, the concentrations of crosslinker, and the amount of sodium bicarbonate (salt) on paracetamol release. These parameters were also compared with those of the matrices prepared via conventional heating.

    Materials and Methods: Twenty gel matrices were prepared with different durations of microwave irradiation, amounts of maize, and concentrations of sodium bicarbonate as suggested by Design Expert (DX®). The percentage drug release, the coefficient of variance (CV) in release, and the mean dissolution time (MDT) were the properties explored in the designed experimentation.

    Results: Target responses were dependent on microwave irradiation time, cross-linker amount, and salt concentration. Classical and microwave heating did not demonstrate statistically significant difference in modifying the percentage of drug released from the matrices. However, the CVs of microwave-assisted formulations were lower than those of the gel matrices prepared via classical heating. Thus, microwave heating produced lesser variations in drug release. The optimized gel matrices demonstrated that the observed percentage of drug release, CV, and MDT were within the prediction interval generated by DX®. The release mechanism of the matrix formulations followed the Peppas-Korsmeyer anomalous transport model.

    Conclusion: The DoE-supported microwave-assisted approach could be applied to optimize the critical factors of drug release with less variation.

  3. Jahan S, Salman M, Alias YB, Abu Bakar AFB, Mansoor F, Kanwal S
    Dalton Trans, 2020 Jun 23;49(24):8265-8273.
    PMID: 32463410 DOI: 10.1039/d0dt01274b
    Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal route to the one-pot synthesis of polymeric mesoporous silica microcubes (P@MSMCs) for the adsorption of heavy metal ions. During the synthesis of P@MSMCs from column silica gel, the roles and combination of the polymer and an etchant were characterized. Moreover, the porosity of P@MSMCs was tailored by adjusting the reaction temperature between 75 °C and 200 °C. The characterization through UV, FTIR, FESEM, XRD, BET, and EDX techniques exhibited that P@MSMCs have a well-ordered mesoporous structure with cubic morphology. The P@MSMCs had a diameter of 2 μm, with an average pore volume and pore size of 0.69 cm3 g-1 and 10.08 nm, respectively. The results indicated that the P@MSMCs have excellent adsorption capacity for Ag(i), Ti(iv), and Zn(ii) due to the formation of an aggregated complex. These aggregations led to affordable density difference-based separation of these metal ions through centrifugation, filtration or simple decantation. The removal efficiencies for Ag(i), Ti(iv), and Zn(ii) were observed to be 520, 720, and 850 mg g-1, respectively. The kinetic studies demonstrated that the adsorption performance fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The as-synthesized P@MSMCs were stable in the wide pH range of 4-8. Significantly, the recycling or reuse results displayed effective adsorption performance of these P@MSMCs for up to 5 cycles. The adsorption results obtained herein will promote the development of similar strategies for the removal of heavy metal ions from natural water.
  4. Mustafa ZU, Kow CS, Salman M, Kanwal M, Riaz MB, Parveen S, et al.
    Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm, 2022 Mar;5:100101.
    PMID: 34977851 DOI: 10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101
    Purpose: In Pakistan, a wide range of repurposed drugs are recommended to manage hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of utilization of repurposed drugs and other potential therapeutic options among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Pakistan.

    Methods: This retrospective, multicenter, descriptive study enrolled consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were admitted between March 1, 2021, and April 30, 2021, from three District Headquarter Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan. We described patient and clinical characteristics and medications, stratified by COVID-19 severity during hospitalization: mild, moderate, and severe. In addition, an analytical study of drug utilization was conducted.

    Findings: A total of 444 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Remdesvir, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and antithrombotics were administered to 45.0%, 93.9%, 84.9%, and 60.1% of patients, respectively. Specifically, dexamethasone was the most commonly used corticosteroid among the included patients (n = 405; 91.2%), irrespective of their clinical severity. Only 60.1% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in our cohort received antithrombotic therapy, and the prevalence of use was especially low (27.8%) in patients with mild illness. Of 444 patientsscreened, 399 (89.9%) patients had been discharged, and 45 patients (10.1%) died.

    Implications: We provided an important glimpse into the utilization patterns of several medications of interest for the treatment of COVID-19 in Pakistan, which had not been entirely evidence-based, especially concerning systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics.

  5. Mubarak N, Raja SA, Khan AS, Kanwal S, Saif-Ur-Rehman N, Aziz MM, et al.
    Risk Manag Healthc Policy, 2021;14:1615-1627.
    PMID: 33907479 DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S296113
    Background: There is a growing global interest in formulating such policies and strategic plans that help devise collaborative working models for community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) in primary care settings.

    Objective: To conceptualize a stakeholder-driven framework to improve collaboration between CPs and GPs in Malaysian primary care to effectively manage medicines in chronic diseases.

    Design and Setting: A qualitative study that involved individual semi-structured interviews of the leadership of various associations, guilds, and societies representing CPs, GPs, and Nurses in Malaysia.

    Methods: This study collected and reported data in accordance with the guidelines of the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting of Qualitative Studies. Key informants were recruited based on purposive (expert) sampling. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were coded based on the principles of thematic analysis in NVivo.

    Results: A total of 12 interviews (5 CPs, 5 GPs, and 2 nurses) were conducted. Five themes emerged: Theme 1 highlighted a comparison of community pharmacy practice in Malaysia and developed countries; Theme 2 involved current practices in Malaysian primary care; Theme 3 encompassed the advantages of CP-GP collaboration in chronic diseases; Theme 4 highlighted the barriers which impede collaboration in Malaysian primary care; and Theme 5 delineated the way forward for CP-GP collaboration in Malaysia.

    Conclusion: The actionable insights obtained from the Malaysian stakeholders offered an outline of a framework to enhance collaboration between CPs and GPs in primary care. Generally, stakeholders were interested in CP-GP collaboration in primary care and identified many positive roles performed by CPs, including prescription review, adherence support, and patient education. The framework of the way forward includes: separation of CP and GP roles through a holistic revision of relevant legislation to grant an active role to CPs in chronic care; definition of protocols for collaborative practices; incentivization of both stakeholders (CPs and GPs); and design and implementation of an effective regulatory mechanism whereby the Malaysian Ministry of Health may take a leading role.

  6. Iqbal K, Abdalla SAO, Anwar A, Iqbal KM, Shah MR, Anwar A, et al.
    Antibiotics (Basel), 2020 May 25;9(5).
    PMID: 32466210 DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9050276
    The pathogenic free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii, is responsible for a rare but deadly central nervous system infection, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and a blinding eye disease called Acanthamoeba keratitis. Currently, a combination of biguanides, amidine, azoles and antibiotics are used to manage these infections; however, the host cell cytotoxicity of these drugs remains a challenge. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba species are capable of transforming to the cyst form to resist chemotherapy. Herein, we have developed a nano drug delivery system based on iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with isoniazid, which were further loaded with amphotericin B (ISO-NPs-AMP) to cause potent antiamoebic effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The IC50 of isoniazid conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles and loaded with amphotericin B was found to be 45 μg/mL against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and 50 μg/mL against cysts. The results obtained in this study have promising implications in drug discovery as these nanomaterials exhibited high trophicidal and cysticidal effects, as well as limited cytotoxicity against rat and human cells.
  7. Shabbir MS, Aslam E, Irshad A, Bilal K, Aziz S, Abbasi BA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Nov;27(31):39164-39179.
    PMID: 32642899 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-09972-x
    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) as proxy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate firm's performance (CFP) in the context of Pakistani financial and non-financial firms sectors. This study comprises two main firm's performance indicators such as market base (excess stock returns) and accounting base (returns on assets and returns on capital). The data set starts from 2011 to 2017 and consists of three hundred and fifty (350) firms on equal numbers of financial and non-financial firms. This study uses a non-linear and disaggregated approach for data analysis. The results of the linear model indicate that CSP and returns on capital have a negative relationship, while the non-linear model of CSP and accounting base performance as CFP have positive association in the domain of long run. There is a significant relationship that exist among environmental social governance (ESG) disclosure score, government sub-components score, and social performance. However, a U-shaped association found between CFP and government sub-components, which further suggest that governance has a vital role toward CSP and CFP components.
  8. Rasool N, Kanwal A, Rasheed T, Ain Q, Mahmood T, Ayub K, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016;17(7).
    PMID: 27367666 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17070912
    Synthesis of 2,5-bisarylthiophenes was accomplished by sequential Suzuki cross coupling reaction of 2-bromo-5-chloro thiophenes. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) level of theory to compare the geometric parameters of 2,5-bisarylthiophenes with those from X-ray diffraction results. The synthesized compounds are screened for in vitro bacteria scavenging abilities. At the concentration of 50 and 100 μg/mL, compounds 2b, 2c, 2d, 3c, and 3f with IC50-values of 51.4, 52.10, 58.0, 56.2, and 56.5 μg/mL respectively, were found most potent against E. coli. Among all the synthesized compounds 2a, 2d, 3c, and 3e with the least values of IC50 77, 76.26, 79.13 μg/mL respectively showed significant antioxidant activities. Almost all of the compounds showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas 2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyphenyl) thiophene (2b) was found most active among all synthesized compound with an IC50 value of 51.4 μg/mL. All of the synthesized compounds were screened for nitric oxide scavenging activity as well. Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and molecular electrostatic potentials of the target compounds were also studied theoretically to account for their relative reactivity.
  9. Ranjha MMAN, Kanwal R, Shafique B, Arshad RN, Irfan S, Kieliszek M, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 12;26(16).
    PMID: 34443475 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164893
    Different parts of a plant (seeds, fruits, flower, leaves, stem, and roots) contain numerous biologically active compounds called "phytoconstituents" that consist of phenolics, minerals, amino acids, and vitamins. The conventional techniques applied to extract these phytoconstituents have several drawbacks including poor performance, low yields, more solvent use, long processing time, and thermally degrading by-products. In contrast, modern and advanced extraction nonthermal technologies such as pulsed electric field (PEF) assist in easier and efficient identification, characterization, and analysis of bioactive ingredients. Other advantages of PEF include cost-efficacy, less time, and solvent consumption with improved yields. This review covers the applications of PEF to obtain bioactive components, essential oils, proteins, pectin, and other important materials from various parts of the plant. Numerous studies compiled in the current evaluation concluded PEF as the best solution to extract phytoconstituents used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PEF-assisted extraction leads to a higher yield, utilizes less solvents and energy, and it saves a lot of time compared to traditional extraction methods. PEF extraction design should be safe and efficient enough to prevent the degradation of phytoconstituents and oils.
  10. Bano B, Arshia, Khan KM, Kanwal, Fatima B, Taha M, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2017 Oct 20;139:849-864.
    PMID: 28865280 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.08.052
    In this study synthesis and β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential of 3/5/8 sulfonamide and 8-sulfonate derivatives of quinoline (1-40) are discussed. Studies reveal that all the synthetic compounds were found to have good inhibitory activity against β-glucuronidase. Nonetheless, compounds 1, 2, 5, 13, and 22-24 having IC50 values in the range of 1.60-8.40 μM showed superior activity than the standard saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50 = 48.4 ± 1.25 μM). Moreover, molecular docking studies of selected compounds were also performed to see interactions between active compounds and binding sites. Structures of all the synthetic compounds were confirmed through (1)H NMR, EI-MS and HREI-MS spectroscopic techniques.
  11. Anwar A, Shahbaz MS, Saad SM, Kanwal, Khan KM, Siddiqui R, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2019 Nov 15;182:111575.
    PMID: 31415900 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.111575
    We report one-pot synthesis of a series of new 3-aryl-8-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones (QNZ) and their antimicrobial activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to T4 genotype. A library of fifteen synthetic derivatives of QNZs was synthesized, and their structural elucidation was performed by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Elemental analyses and high-resolution mass spectrometry data of all derivatives were found to be in agreeable range. Amoebicidal assays performed at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 μg/mL revealed that all derivatives of QNZ significantly decreased the viability of A. castellanii and QNZ 2, 5, 8, and 13 were found to have efficient antiamoebic effects. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) imaging of amoeba treated with compounds 5 and 15 showed that these compounds cause structural alterations on the walls of A. castellanii. Furthermore, several QNZs inhibited the encystation and excystationas as well as abolished A. castellanii-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity in human cells. Whereas, these QNZs showed negligible cytotoxicity when tested against human cells in vitro. Hence, this study identified potential lead molecules having promising properties for drug development against A. castellanii. A brief structure-activity relationship is also developed to optimize the hit of most potent compounds from the library. To the best of our knowledge, it is first of its kind medicinal chemistry approach on a single class of compounds i.e., quinazolinone against keratitis and brain infection causing free-living amoeba, A. castellanii.
  12. Anwar A, Mungroo MR, Khan S, Fatima I, Rafique R, Kanwal, et al.
    Antibiotics (Basel), 2020 Apr 17;9(4).
    PMID: 32316387 DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9040188
    Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleriafowleri are opportunistic protozoan pathogens capable of producing infection of the central nervous system with more than 95% mortality rate. Previously, we have synthesized several compounds with antiamoebic properties; however, synthesis of compounds that are analogues of clinically used drugs is a highly desirable approach that can lead to effective drug development against these devastating infections. In this regard, compounds belonging to the azole class possess wide range of antimicrobial properties and used clinically. In this study, six novel benzimidazole, indazole, and tetrazole derivatives were synthesized and tested against brain-eating amoebae. These compounds were tested for their amoebicidal and static properties against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris. Furthermore, the compounds were conjugated with silver nanoparticles and characterized. The synthetic heterocyclic compounds showed up to 72% and 65% amoebicidal activities against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris respectively, while expressing up to 75% and 70% amoebistatic activities, respectively. Following conjugation with silver nanoparticles, amoebicidal activities of the drugs increased by up to 46 and 36% versus B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri. Minimal effects were observed when the compounds were evaluated against human cells using cytotoxicity assays. In summary, azole compounds exhibited potent activity against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris. Moreover, conjugation of the azole compounds with silver nanoparticles further augmented the capabilities of the compounds against amoebae.
  13. Shahbaz MS, Anwar A, Saad SM, Kanwal, Anwar A, Khan KM, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2020 Jul;119(7):2327-2335.
    PMID: 32476058 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-020-06710-7
    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoeba which can cause a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is challenging due to formation of cyst. Quinazolinones are medicinally important scaffold against parasitic diseases. A library of nineteen new 3-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives was synthesized to evaluate their antiamoebic activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii. One-pot synthesis of 3-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin-4(3H)-ones (1-19) was achieved by reaction of 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid, trimethoxymethane, and different substituted anilines. These compounds were purified and characterized by standard chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Antiacanthamoebic activity of these compounds was determined by amoebicidal, encystation, excystation and host cell cytopathogenicity in vitro assays at concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL. The IC50 was found to be between 100 and 50 μg/mL for all the compounds except compound 5 which did not exhibit amoebicidal effects at these concentrations. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase assay was also performed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds against human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The results revealed that eighteen out of nineteen derivatives of quinazolinones significantly decreased the viability of A. castellanii. Furthermore, eighteen out of nineteen tested compounds inhibited the encystation and excystation, as well as significantly reduced the A. castellanii-mediated cytopathogenicity against human cells. Interestingly, while tested against human normal cell line HaCaT keratinocytes, all compounds did not exhibit any overt cytotoxicity. Furthermore, a detailed structure-activity relationship is also studied to optimize the most potent hit from these synthetic compounds. This report presents several potential lead compounds belonging to 3-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives for drug discovery against infections caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii.
  14. Kanwal, Mungroo MR, Anwar A, Ali F, Khan S, Abdullah MA, et al.
    Exp Parasitol, 2020 Nov;218:107979.
    PMID: 32866583 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107979
    Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri are free-living amoebae that can cause life-threatening infections involving the central nervous system. The high mortality rates of these infections demonstrate an urgent need for novel treatment options against the amoebae. Considering that indole and thiazole compounds possess wide range of antiparasitic properties, novel bisindole and thiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against the amoebae. The antiamoebic properties of four synthetic compounds i.e., two new bisindoles (2-Bromo-4-(di (1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (denoted as A1) and 2-Bromo-4-(di (1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol (A2)) and two known thiazole (4-(3-Nitrophenyl)-2-(2-(pyridin-3-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)thiazole (A3) and 4-(Biphenyl-4-yl)-2-(2-(1-(pyridin-4-yl)ethylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole (A4)) were evaluated against B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri. The ability of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) conjugation to enrich antiamoebic activities of the compounds was also investigated. The synthetic heterocyclic compounds demonstrated up to 53% and 69% antiamoebic activities against B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri respectively, while resulting in up to 57% and 68% amoebistatic activities, respectively. Antiamoebic activities of the compounds were enhanced by up to 71% and 51% against B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri respectively, after conjugation with AgNPs. These compounds exhibited potential antiamoebic effects against B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri and conjugation of synthetic heterocyclic compounds with AgNPs enhanced their activity against the amoebae.
  15. Kanwal, Khan KM, Chigurupati S, Ali F, Younus M, Aldubayan M, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2021 Jan 26;6(3):2264-2275.
    PMID: 33521466 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c05581
    Indole-3-acetamides (1-24) were synthesized via coupling of indole-3-acetic acid with various substituted anilines in the presence of coupling reagent 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole. The structures of synthetic molecules were elucidated through different spectroscopic techniques including electron ionization-mass spectroscopy (EI-MS), 1H-, 13C NMR, and high-resolution EI-MS (HREI-MS). These compounds were screened for their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials. All compounds displayed good to moderate inhibition against α-amylase enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 1.09 ± 0.11 and 2.84 ± 0.1 μM compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 0.92 ± 0.4 μM). Compound 15 (IC50 = 1.09 ± 0.11 μM) was the most active compound of the series and exhibited good inhibition against α-amylase; in addition, this compound also exhibited good antioxidant potential with IC50 values of 0.35 ± 0.1 and 0.81 ± 0.25 μM in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, respectively. The binding interactions of synthetic molecules with the enzyme's active site were confirmed via in silico studies. The current study had identified a number of lead molecules as potential antihyperglycemic and antioxidant agents.
  16. Adegboye AA, Khan KM, Salar U, Aboaba SA, Kanwal, Chigurupati S, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Apr 25;150:248-260.
    PMID: 29533872 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.03.011
    Despite of many diverse biological activities exhibited by benzimidazole scaffold, it is rarely explored for the α-amylase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, 2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives 1-45 were synthesized and screened for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity. Structures of all synthetic compounds were deduced by various spectroscopic techniques. All compounds revealed inhibition potential with IC50 values of 1.48 ± 0.38-2.99 ± 0.14 μM, when compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.46 ± 0.26 μM). Limited SAR suggested that the variation in the inhibitory activities of the compounds are the result of different substitutions on aryl ring. In order to rationalize the binding interactions of most active compounds with the active site of α-amylase enzyme, in silico study was conducted.
  17. Solangi M, Kanwal, Mohammed Khan K, Saleem F, Hameed S, Iqbal J, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2020 Nov 01;28(21):115605.
    PMID: 33065441 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115605
    One of the most prevailing metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus has become the global health issue that has to be addressed and cured. Different marketed drugs have been made available for the treatment of diabetes but there is still a need of introducing new therapeutic agents that are economical and have lesser or no side effects. The current study deals with the synthesis of indole acrylonitriles (3-23) and the evaluation of these compounds for their potential for α-glucosidase inhibition. The structures of these synthetic molecules were deduced by using different spectroscopic techniques. Acarbose (IC50 = 2.91 ± 0.02 μM) was used as standard in this study and the synthetic molecules (3-23) have shown promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 4, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, and 21 displayed superior inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme in the range of (IC50 = 0.53 ± 0.01-1.36 ± 0.04 μM) as compared to the standard acarbose. Compound 10 (IC50 = 0.53 ± 0.01 μM) was the most effective inhibitor of this library and displayed many folds enhanced activity in contrast to the standard. Molecular docking of synthetic compounds was performed to verify the binding interactions of ligand with the active site of enzyme. This study had identified a number of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors that can be used for further research to identify a potent therapeutic agent against diabetes.
  18. Hameed S, Kanwal, Seraj F, Rafique R, Chigurupati S, Wadood A, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2019 Dec 01;183:111677.
    PMID: 31514061 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.111677
    Benzotriazoles (4-6) were synthesized which were further reacted with different substituted benzoic acids and phenacyl bromides to synthesize benzotriazole derivatives (7-40). The synthetic compounds (7-40) were characterized via different spectroscopic techniques including EI-MS, HREI-MS, 1H-, and 13C NMR. These molecules were examined for their anti-hyperglycemic potential hence were evaluated for α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. All benzotriazoles displayed moderate to good inhibitory activity in the range of IC50 values of 2.00-5.6 and 2.04-5.72 μM against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes, respectively. The synthetic compounds were divided into two categories "A" and "B", in order to understand the structure-activity relationship. Compounds 25 (IC50 = 2.41 ± 1.31 μM), (IC50 = 2.5 ± 1.21 μM), 36 (IC50 = 2.12 ± 1.35 μM), (IC50 = 2.21 ± 1.08 μM), and 37 (IC50 = 2.00 ± 1.22 μM), (IC50 = 2.04 ± 1.4 μM) with chloro substitution/s at aryl ring were found to be most active against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Molecular docking studies on all compounds were performed which revealed that chloro substitutions are playing a pivotal role in the binding interactions. The enzyme inhibition mode was also studied and the kinetic studies revealed that the synthetic molecules have shown competitive mode of inhibition against α-amylase and non-competitive mode of inhibition against α-glucosidase enzyme.
  19. Tajudeen Bale A, Mohammed Khan K, Salar U, Chigurupati S, Fasina T, Ali F, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2018 09;79:179-189.
    PMID: 29763804 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.05.003
    Despite of a diverse range of biological activities associated with chalcones and bis-chalcones, they are still neglected by the medicinal chemist for their possible α-amylase inhibitory activity. So, the current study is based on the evaluation of this class for the identification of new leads as α-amylase inhibitors. For that purpose, a library of substituted chalcones 1-13 and bis-chalcones 14-18 were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques EI-MS and 1H NMR. CHN analysis was carried out and found in agreement with the calculated values. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and demonstrated good activities in the range of IC50 = 1.25 ± 1.05-2.40 ± 0.09 µM as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.04 ± 0.3 µM). Limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established by considering the effect of different groups attached to aryl rings on varying inhibitory activity. SMe group in chalcones and OMe group in bis-chalcones were found more influential on the activity than other groups. However, in order to predict the involvement of different groups in the binding interactions with the active site of α-amylase enzyme, in silico studies were also conducted.
  20. Rafique R, Khan KM, Arshia, Kanwal, Chigurupati S, Wadood A, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2020 01;94:103195.
    PMID: 31451297 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103195
    The current study describes the discovery of novel inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. For that purpose, new hybrid analogs of N-hydrazinecarbothioamide substituted indazoles 4-18 were synthesized and fully characterized by EI-MS, FAB-MS, HRFAB-MS, 1H-, and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Stereochemistry of the imine double bond was established by NOESY measurements. All derivatives 4-18 with their intermediates 1-3, were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibition. It is worth mentioning that all synthetic compounds showed good inhibition potential in the range of 1.54 ± 0.02-4.89 ± 0.02 µM for α-glucosidase and for α-amylase 1.42 ± 0.04-4.5 ± 0.18 µM in comparison with the standard acarbose (IC50 value of 1.36 ± 0.01 µM). In silico studies were carried out to rationalize the mode of binding interaction of ligands with the active site of enzymes. Moreover, enzyme inhibitory kinetic characterization was also performed to understand the mechanism of enzyme inhibition.
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