OBJECTIVE: To examine the presence of HHV-6 in cervical carcinoma.
STUDY DESIGN: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma tissues were examined for the presence of HHV-6 by immunohistochemistry using two monoclonal antibodies that react to HHV-6-encoded p41/38 and gp116/64/54. In situ hybridization with variant-specific probes were used to type the HHV-6 DNA sequences present.
RESULTS: A total of 14/26 (53.9%) carcinoma tissue specimens and 5/8 (62.5%) normal tissue specimens were positive for viral antigens. In situ hybridization studies revealed the presence of HHV-6 DNA sequences in 10/26 (38.5%) carcinoma tissue specimens and 1/8 (12.5%) normal tissue specimens. In the normal tissue, the HHV-6 was present in the endocervical ciliated columnar-epithelial cells and some cells in the subepithelial mucosa but in the carcinoma, the transformed cells were positive for the virus.
CONCLUSIONS: HHV-6 viral proteins and DNA were found in more than one third of the cervical tissue examined suggesting possible viral expression in these tumours. The significance of the distribution and role of the HHV-6 in cervical tissue remains unclear. Since HHV-6 has an oncogenic potential, the virus may cooperate with other transforming agents for the progression of the disease.
METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.