Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 256 in total

  1. Li H, Khang TF
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e16126.
    PMID: 37790621 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.16126
    BACKGROUND: Pathological conditions may result in certain genes having expression variance that differs markedly from that of the control. Finding such genes from gene expression data can provide invaluable candidates for therapeutic intervention. Under the dominant paradigm for modeling RNA-Seq gene counts using the negative binomial model, tests of differential variability are challenging to develop, owing to dependence of the variance on the mean.

    METHODS: Here, we describe clrDV, a statistical method for detecting genes that show differential variability between two populations. We present the skew-normal distribution for modeling gene-wise null distribution of centered log-ratio transformation of compositional RNA-seq data.

    RESULTS: Simulation results show that clrDV has false discovery rate and probability of Type II error that are on par with or superior to existing methodologies. In addition, its run time is faster than its closest competitors, and remains relatively constant for increasing sample size per group. Analysis of a large neurodegenerative disease RNA-Seq dataset using clrDV successfully recovers multiple gene candidates that have been reported to be associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Li H, Cheong JPG
    Front Public Health, 2023;11:1201228.
    PMID: 37809003 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1201228
    INTRODUCTION: Good physical fitness is the foundation of a healthy lifestyle. For students, the school becomes the main place to improve their physical fitness. The traditional physical education class places little emphasis on improving physical fitness and students' physical fitness have continued to decline. To address these challenges, this study aimed to design and develop a functional training program that can be incorporated into existing physical education lessons to improve students' physical fitness levels.

    METHODS: This study adopted the instructional design framework of the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation (ADDIE) model to guide the design and development of the functional training program. After development, the program was implemented and evaluated.

    RESULTS: The results showed the program aroused students' interest and significantly improved students' physical fitness.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed the usefulness of functional training in improving the physical fitness of primary school students. In addition, it provided a reference for how to use functional training in conjunction with the physical education syllabus.

  3. Li H, Cheong JPG
    Front Psychol, 2022;13:896046.
    PMID: 35846611 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.896046
    After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, nation lockdown became an effective way to isolate the spread of the virus. Schools were postponed, students had to stay at home and opportunities for physical activity amongst school children were severely affected. This research sought to determine the impact of the pandemic on the physical fitness of primary school students. In total, 1,235 students from grades one to five in a primary school in Beijing took part in this research. Using the Chinese National Student Physical Fitness Standard as a guide, the students were subjected to BMI, vital capacity, 50 m sprint, sit and reach, timed rope-skipping, timed sit-ups, and 50m × 8 shuttle run measurements. These tests were administered once before and once after the lockdown period. The results showed that the overall physical fitness of the participants was better after the lockdown [p = 0.000, r = -0.14, 95% CI (-0.219, -0.061)]. Specifically, vital capacity, sit and reach, timed rope-skipping and timed sit-ups had improved after the lockdown. Meanwhile, 50m × 8 shuttle run dropped slightly but not significantly whereas 50 m sprint dropped sharply after the lockdown. The proportion of overweight and obese students increased, but the difference before and after the lockdown was small. It appeared that during the pandemic, through the intervention of many comprehensive factors, home-based fitness was normalized and promoted the healthy development of students.
  4. Li H, Teo YY, Tan EK
    Mov Disord, 2015 Sep;30(10):1335-42.
    PMID: 25758099 DOI: 10.1002/mds.26176
    Reproducing genomewide association studies findings in different populations is challenging, because the reproducibility fundamentally relies on the similar patterns of linkage disequilibrium between the unknown causal variants and the genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
  5. Lim KP, Li H, Nathan S
    J Microbiol, 2004 Jun;42(2):126-32.
    PMID: 15357306
    A single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific towards B. pseudomallei exotoxin had previously been generated from an existing hybridoma cell line (6E6AF83B) and cloned into the phage display vector pComb3H. In this study, the scFv was subcloned into the pComb3X vector to facilitate the detection and purification of expressed antibodies. Detection was facilitated by the presence of a hemagglutinin (HA) tag, and purification was facilitated by the presence of a histidine tag. The culture was grown at 30 degrees C until log phase was achieved and then induced with 1 mM IPTG in the absence of any additional carbon source. Induction was continued at 30 degrees C for five h. The scFv was discerned by dual processes-direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and Western blotting. When compared to E. coli strains ER2537 and HB2151, scFv expression was observed to be highest in the E. coli strain Top10F'. The expressed scFv protein was purified via nickel-mediated affinity chromatography and results indicated that two proteins a 52 kDa protein, and a 30 kDa protein were co-purified. These antibodies, when blotted against immobilized exotoxin, exhibited significant specificity towards the exotoxin, compared to other B. pseudomallei antigens. Thus, these antibodies should serve as suitable reagents for future affinity purification of the exotoxin.
  6. Wang S, Du Z, Li H
    Zootaxa, 2013;3669:401-55.
    PMID: 26312350
    The genus Proinalactis Meyrick, 1908 is reviewed in Southeast Asia. Twenty-seven new species are described based on the specimens collected in Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Burma, Philippines. The new species include P. alveiformis sp. nov., P. angusta sp. nov., P. bruneiensis sp. nov., P. conicispinalis sp. nov., P. ellipsoidea sp. nov., P. exiliprocessa sp. nov., P. extumida sp. nov., P. fascisetacea sp. nov., P. flagellaris sp. nov., P. foraininulata sp. nov., P. fortijuxtalis sp. nov., P. lancea sp. nov., P. latuncata sp. nov., P. longisaccata sp. nov., P. lophacantha sp. nov., P. medispinata sp. nov., P. palmifolia sp. nov., P. pectinifera sp. nov., P.sectoralis sp. nov., P. semiovata sp. nov., P. sinualis sp. nov., P. spinosicostalis sp. nov., P. strena sp. nov., P. superimposita sp. nov., P. truncatapicalis sp. nov., P. undulata sp. nov. and P. vulvida sp. nov. Promalactis parasuzukiella Wang, 2006 and P. simniliflora Wang, 2006 are recorded from Southeast Asia for the first time. Three species described by Lvovsky are fully redescribed. Images of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a check list of 71 species from Southeast Asia.
  7. Nathan S, Li H, Mohamed R, Embi N
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Feb;6(1):45-53.
    PMID: 12186782
    We have used the phagemid pComb3H to construct recombinant phages displaying the single chain variable fragment (ScFv) towards exotoxin of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Variable heavy and light chain fragments were amplified from the hybridoma 6E6A8F3B line, with a wide spectrum of primers specific to mouse antibody genes. Through overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction, the heavy and light chain fragments were linked to form the ScFv which was subsequently cloned into the phage display vector and transformed into ER2537 cells to yield a complexity of 10(8) clones. The transformants were screened by four rounds of biopanning against the exotoxin and resulted in selective enrichment of exotoxin-binding antibodies by 301 fold. The phage pool from the final round of selection displayed antibodies of high-affinity to the exotoxin as demonstrated by ELISA. Several clones were selected randomly from this pool and analysed by restriction enzyme digestion, fingerprinting and sequencing. Restriction analysis confirmed that all clones carried a 700-800 bp insert whose sequences, in general, corresponded to that of mouse IgG. Fingerprinting profiles delineated the antibodies into two families with different CDR sequences.
  8. Li H, Turkoz I, Zhang F
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2016;12:15-24.
    PMID: 26730193 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S83651
    INTRODUCTION: This single-group, open-label, prospective, noncomparative, multicenter, Phase IV study explored the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate (PP) in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    METHODS: Asian patients of either sex, between 18 and 65 years of age, diagnosed with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) with acute exacerbations within the previous 4 weeks, were enrolled. Intramuscular PP was initiated at doses of 150 milligram equivalent (mg eq) (day 1) and 100 mg eq (day 8), followed by a monthly maintenance dose between 75 mg eq and 150 mg eq (days 36 and 64). Primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (last-observation-carried-forward) at week 13.

    RESULTS: Of the 212 enrolled patients, 152 (71.7%) completed the 13-week treatment; withdrawal of consent (24 [11.3%] patients) was the most common reason for study discontinuation. Mean (standard deviation) PANSS total score from baseline (90.0 [17.41]) improved significantly at day 4 (-6.1 [9.27]; 95% confidence interval: -7.38, -4.85; P<0.001) and week 13 endpoint (-23.9 [23.24]; 95% confidence interval: -27.10, -20.78; P<0.001). Similarly, the secondary endpoints (Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Physical and Social Performance, each PANSS subscale, and Marder factor scores) improved significantly from baseline to week 13 endpoint (P<0.001 for all). At week 13, 112/210 (53.3%) patients had a 40% improvement in the PANSS total score (responder rate), and 133/212 (62.7%) patients were ready for hospital discharge. Overall, 139 (65.6%) patients experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). Most common (>5%) TEAEs were hyperprolactinemia, constipation, nasopharyngitis, insomnia, increased weight, and tremor. Worsening of schizophrenia (3.3%) and sinus bradycardia (2.0%) were serious TEAEs; no deaths were reported.

    CONCLUSION: PP was generally tolerable and efficacious in a hospital setting for the treatment of acute exacerbated schizophrenia with significant improvements in psychotic symptoms, social functioning, and severity of illness.
  9. Li H, Khoo S, Yap HJ
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 Nov 02;20(21).
    PMID: 33147851 DOI: 10.3390/s20216258
    This study aimed to evaluate the motion accuracy of novice and senior students in Baduanjin (a traditional Chinese sport) using an inertial sensor measurement system (IMU). Study participants were nine novice students, 11 senior students, and a teacher. The motion data of all participants were measured three times with the IMU. Using the motions of the teacher as the standard motions, we used dynamic time warping to calculate the distances between the motion data of the students and the teacher to evaluate the motion accuracy of the students. The distances between the motion data of the novice students and the teacher were higher than that between senior students and the teacher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). These initial results showed that the IMU and the corresponding mathematical methods could effectively distinguish the differences in motion accuracy between novice and senior students of Baduanjin.
  10. Wang J, Li H, Cai W
    Zootaxa, 2016 Sep 12;4162(3):550-8.
    PMID: 27615990 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4162.3.8
    A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus weiweii, is described and figured from Sabah, East Malaysia. The new species represents the second angel insect from Borneo. Z. caudelli Karny was also collected near the type locality of Z. weiweii. Methods of specimen collection and a brief note of angel insects in Malaysia were provided based on new materials and biological observations.
  11. Song Y, Cheng W, Li H, Liu X
    Cancer Med, 2022 Nov;11(22):4310-4320.
    PMID: 35475595 DOI: 10.1002/cam4.4783
    We aim to report the latest incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, sociodemographic index (SDI), and provide predictions to 2035. We use estimates from Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 to analyze the incidence, mortality, and DALYs. All the estimates were shown as counts and age-standardized rates (ASR). In 2019, there were more than 176,501 (156,046 to 199,917) incidence cases, with ASRs of 2.1 (1.9 to 2.4). Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) accounted for 71,610 (65,442 to 77,625) deaths, with ASRs of 0.9 (0.8 to 0.9). NPC was also responsible for 2.34 million (2,139,753 to 2,536,657) DALYs, with ASRs of 28.0 (25.7 to 30.4). The count of all the new cases increased from 1990 to 2019. At the regional level, the highest age-standardized incidence rates were found in East Asia, the highest age-standardized death and DALY rates were shown in Southeast Asia. At the national level, the age-standardized incidence rates were highest in Singapore, and the age-standardized death and DALY rates were highest in Malaysia. The total numbers and rates of all the estimates were significantly higher among males than females across most of the age groups. The considerable burden of NPC was attributable to alcohol use, smoking, and occupational exposure to formaldehyde. A total of six GBD regions and 88 countries are projected to experience an increase in NPC ASRs between 2019 and 2035, respectively. Despite the current decline in age-standardized mortality and DALY rates globally, the age-standardized incidence rate has increased from 1990 to 2019, and continues to increase between 2020 and 2035, indicating that nasopharyngeal cancer remains a major health challenge worldwide. Prevention strategies should focus on modifiable risk factors, especially among males in East Asia.
  12. Li H, Cheong JPG, Hussain B
    PMID: 36900937 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20053926
    Children have received much attention in recent years, as many studies have shown that their physical fitness level is on the decline. Physical education, as a compulsory curriculum, can play a monumental role in contributing to students' participation in physical activities and the enhancement of their physical fitness. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 12-week physical functional training intervention program on students' physical fitness. A total of 180 primary school students (7-12 years) were invited to participate in this study, 90 of whom participated in physical education classes that included 10 min of physical functional training, and the remaining 90 were in a control group that participated in traditional physical education classes. After 12 weeks, the 50-m sprint (F = 18.05, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.09), timed rope skipping (F = 27.87, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.14), agility T-test (F = 26.01, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.13), and standing long jump (F = 16.43, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.08) were all improved, but not the sit-and-reach (F = 0.70, p = 0.405). The results showed that physical education incorporating physical functional training can effectively promote some parameters of students' physical fitness, while at the same time providing a new and alternative idea for improving students' physical fitness in physical education.
  13. Li H, Kim JV, Pickering BS
    Front Microbiol, 2023;14:1167085.
    PMID: 37529329 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1167085
    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are biosafety level 4 zoonotic pathogens causing severe and often fatal neurological and respiratory disease. These agents have been recognized by the World Health Organization as top priority pathogens expected to result in severe future outbreaks. HeV has caused sporadic infections in horses and a small number of human cases in Australia since 1994. The NiV Malaysia genotype (NiV-M) was responsible for the 1998-1999 epizootic outbreak in pigs with spillover to humans in Malaysia and Singapore. Since 2001, the NiV Bangladesh genotype (NiV-B) has been the predominant strain leading to outbreaks almost every year in Bangladesh and India, with hundreds of infections in humans. The natural reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are fruit bats, which carry the viruses without clinical manifestation. The transmission pathways of henipaviruses from bats to humans remain poorly understood. Transmissions are often bridged by an intermediate animal host, which amplifies and spreads the viruses to humans. Horses and pigs are known intermediate hosts for the HeV outbreaks in Australia and NiV-M epidemic in Malaysia and Singapore, respectively. During the NiV-B outbreaks in Bangladesh, following initial spillover thought to be through the consumption of date palm sap, the spread of infection was largely human-to-human transmission. Spillover of NiV-B in recent outbreaks in India is less understood, with the primary route of transmission from bat reservoir to the initial human infection case(s) unknown and no intermediate host established. This review aims to provide a concise update on the epidemiology of henipaviruses covering their previous and current outbreaks with emphasis on the known and potential role of livestock as intermediate hosts in disease transmission. Also included is an up-to-date summary of newly emerging henipa-like viruses and animal hosts. In these contexts we discuss knowledge gaps and new challenges in the field and propose potential future directions.
  14. Li H, Liu L, Dang M, Zhang W, Liu J
    Int J Neurosci, 2020 Jun;130(6):533-540.
    PMID: 31516045 DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1667797
    Aim of the Study: This study was designed to explore the relative susceptibility of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived mice to global cerebral ischemic injury with the possible role of hydrogen sulphide and enzymes responsible for its production.Materials and Methods: IVF was carried to obtain pups, which were allowed to grow to the age of eight weeks. Thereafter, male mice were subjected to 20 min of global ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. The mice obtained from other groups including normal mating, superovulation but normal mating and normal mating but embryo implantation were also subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.Results: IVF-derived mice exhibited significant more injury in response to I/R injury in comparison to other groups assessed in terms of impairment in locomotor activity, development of motor in coordination, neurological severity score, cerebral infarction and apoptosis markers (caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, there was a relative decrease in the brain levels of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and its biosynthetic enzymes viz. cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase. Interestingly, the levels of H2S and cystathionine-γ-lyase were significantly low in IVF-derived mice in basal conditions also, i.e. before subjecting to I/R injury and these biochemical alterations were associated with the behavioural deficits in mice, even before subjecting to I/R injury.Conclusion: It is concluded that in vitro fertilization-derived mice are more susceptible to global cerebral I/R injury, which may be possibly due to decreased levels of hydrogen sulphide and its biosynthetic enzymes viz., cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase.
  15. Lau YS, Zhao L, Zhang C, Li H, Han R
    Life Sci, 2020 Jul 10.
    PMID: 32659370 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118069
    AIM: Up-regulation of inflammasome proteins was reported in dystrophin-deficient muscles. However, it remains to be determined whether inflammasome activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study was therefore set out to investigate whether genetic disruption of the inflammasome pathway impacts the disease progression in mdx mice.

    MAIN METHODS: Mice deficient in both dystrophin and ASC (encoded by Pycard [PYD And CARD Domain Containing]) were generated. The impact of ASC deficiency on muscular dystrophy of mdx mice were assessed by measurements of serum cytokines, Western blot, real-time PCR and histopathological staining.

    KEY FINDINGS: The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, KC/GRO and IL-10 were markedly increased in the sera of 8-week-old mdx mice compared to WT. Western blotting showed that P2X7, caspase-1, ASC and IL-18 were upregulated. Disruption of ASC and dystrophin expression in the mdx/ASC-/- mice was verified by Western blot analysis. Histopathological analysis did not find significant alterations in the muscular dystrophy phenotype in mdx/ASC-/- mice as compared to mdx mice.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show that disruption of the central adaptor ASC of the inflammasome is insufficient to alleviate muscular dystrophy phenotype in mdx mice.

  16. Li H, Yang C, Yusoff NM, Yahaya BH, Lin J
    Neuroscience, 2017 09 01;358:269-276.
    PMID: 28687312 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.06.053
    Few researchers have investigated the direction of commissural axon projections on the contralateral side of the vertebrate embryonic spinal cord, especially for comparison between its different regions. In this study, pCAGGS-GFP plasmid expression was limited to different regions of the chicken embryonic spinal cord (cervical, anterior limb, anterior thorax, posterior thorax and posterior limb) at E3 using in ovo electroporation with modified electrodes and optimal electroporation conditions. Then open-book technique was performed at E6 to analyze the direction of axon projections in different spinal cord regions. The results show that in the five investigated regions, most axons projected rostrally after crossing the floor plate while a minority projected caudally. And there was a significant difference between the rostral and caudal projection quantities (P<0.01). The ratio of rostral and caudal projections was significantly different between the five investigated regions (P<0.05), except between the cervical region and the anterior limb (P>0.05). The projections were most likely to be rostral for the posterior limb followed by the posterior thorax, cervical region, anterior limb and anterior thorax. Our data for the direction of the commissural axon projections will be helpful in the future analyses of axon projection mechanisms and spinal cord-brain circuit formation.
  17. Lam SM, Sin JC, Lin H, Li H, Zeng H
    Chemosphere, 2020 Apr;245:125565.
    PMID: 31855765 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125565
    An approach that can recuperate of energy from wastewater treatment process is highly necessitate and would help to surmount the both environmental pollution and energy crisis issues. A photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) employing an anodic TiO2/ZnO/Zn and a cathodic CuO/Cu has been applied to degrade the raw greywater, which realized advanced organics destruction, bacteria disinfection, and synchronously electricity production. The improved photocatalytic performance has been observed when the cell was incorporated with anodic TiO2/ZnO/Zn under UV and sunlight irradiation due to the enhanced electric field conductivity of the catalysts and heterojunction interface of TiO2. In the constructed UV-activated PFC system, the electricity production capability was observed with the measured voltage and power density of 868 mV and 0.0172 mW cm-2, respectively. Advanced chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of greywater achieved a 100% completion within 60 min of light irradiation. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonies decreased significantly and accounted ∼99% disinfection efficiency. Moreover, the photoelectrochemical and photoluminescence (PL) experiments elucidated that the charge carrier separation efficiency were higher when TiO2 was coupled to ZnO. The organic matter elimination principle was assessed by radical trapping experiment, and the findings indicated that the hydroxyl (OH) radical and hole (h+) appeared as major functions in the reaction. The stable cycle operation of the cell has been also obtained owing to the stable and film-type materials of anodic material. This performance was among the highest documented for PFC using real wastewater effluent as the fuel source.
  18. Li H, Zhao L, Lau YS, Zhang C, Han R
    Oncogene, 2021 01;40(1):177-188.
    PMID: 33110234 DOI: 10.1038/s41388-020-01523-5
    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the third most common cancer in men and women. Around 20% colon cancer cases are closely linked with colitis. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to colon inflammation and tumor development. However, the genetic factors regulating colitis and colon tumorigenesis remain elusive. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) is vitally involved in tissue inflammation and tumorigenesis, here we employed a genome-wide CRISPR knockout screening approach to systemically identify the genetic factors involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. Next generation sequencing (NGS) showed that over 600 gRNAs including the ones targeting LGALS2 were highly enriched in cells survived after sublethal H2O2 challenge. LGALS2 encodes the glycan-binding protein Galectin 2 (Gal2), which is predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and downregulated in human colon tumors. To examine the role of Gal2 in colitis, we employed the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis model in mice with (WT) or without Lgals2 (Gal2-KO) and showed that Gal2 deficiency ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. We further demonstrated that Gal2-KO mice developed significantly larger tumors than WT mice using Azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colorectal cancer model. We found that STAT3 phosphorylation was significantly increased in Gal2-deficient tumors as compared to those in WT mice. Gal2 overexpression decreased the proliferation of human colon tumor epithelial cells and blunted H2O2-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Overall, our results demonstrate that Gal2 plays a suppressive role in colon tumor growth and highlights the therapeutic potential of Gal2 in colon cancer.
  19. Tan P, Li H, Wang J, Gopinath SCB
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2021 Dec;68(6):1236-1242.
    PMID: 33043496 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2045
    Recent developments in nanotechnology promoted the production of nanomaterials with various shapes and sizes by utilizing interdisciplinary researches of biology, chemistry, and material science toward the clinical perspectives. In particular, gold and silver (Ag) are noble metals that exhibit tunable and unique plasmonic properties for the downstream applications. Ag exhibits higher thermal and electrical conductivities, and more efficient in the electron transfer than gold with sharper extinction bands. In addition, modified Ag nanoparticle is more stable in water and air. With all these above features, Ag is an attractive tool in various fields, including diagnosis, drug delivery, environmental, electronics, and as antimicrobial agent. In particular, applications of Ag nanoparticle in the fields of biosensor and imaging are prominent in recent days. Enhancing the specific detection of clinical markers with Ag nanoparticle has been proved by several studies. This review discussed the constructive application of Ag nanoparticle in biosensor and bioimaging for the detection of small molecule to larger whole cell in the perspectives of diagnosing diseases.
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