During induction of general anaesthesia, the act of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation stimulates the sympathetic
nervous system resulting in an increase in blood pressure and heart rate which may be harmful especially in elderly
patients with pre-existing ischaemic heart disease. Several drugs have therefore been used to obtund this increase
including esmolol, nicardipine, magnesium sulphate and lignocaine. This prospective, double blind randomised
clinical trial compared the efficacy of magnesium sulphate and esmolol in attenuating haemodynamic responses to
laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. One hundred and twenty six ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective surgery
requiring general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation were enrolled and randomised into two groups: Group 1 (n =
67) received MgSO4 40 mg/kg diluted in 100 ml normal saline administered over ten minutes, whereas Group 2 (n =
59) received a bolus of esmolol 1.0 mg/kg diluted to 10 ml. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were
recorded every minute for subsequent 10 minutes following laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Attenuation of the
mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures following laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was significantly larger
in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Patients in Group 2 had significantly better suppression of heart rate response
compared to Group 1 during the first four minutes after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (p
INTRODUCTION: Anaesthesia and surgery promote significant thermal disorder in the human body. Spinal anaesthesia causes lower limb vasodilation and redistribution of body heat from central to the peripheral compartments.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind clinical study to compare the effectiveness of IV ketamine and tramadol in the prevention of shivering associated with spinal anaesthesia. We prospectively studied 150 ASA classification I and II patients between 18 and 70 years old scheduled for any elective surgery performed under spinal anaesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either prophylactic IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K), IV tramadol 0.5 mg/kg (Group T) or normal saline as control (Group P) after intrathecal injection of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) and 25 mcg fentanyl. The frequency and degree of shivering, haemodynamic parameters, core body temperature and side effects of the studied drugs were recorded for the first 30 minutes.
RESULTS: The incidence of shivering was 8% in Group K, 16% in Group T and 24% in Group P. This result was statistically significant between Groups K and P. Patients from Group K also exhibited significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate at 5 and 15 minutes post intrathecal injection while their mean core temperature was also significantly higher. Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hallucination, agitation and sweating were comparable between all three groups. Patients from Group K however, had significant higher incidence of behavioural changes (blunted affect or catatonic state) and nystagmus.
CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic use of IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg significantly reduced the frequency and the intensity of perioperative shivering associated with spinal anaesthesia but also exhibited some side effects of the drug. Lower doses of prophylactic ketamine should be studied.
KEYWORDS: ketamine; shivering; spinal anaesthesia; tramadol
Levobupivacaine is the S(-)enantiomer of bupivacaine, a long acting amino-ester local anaesthetic agent. Cocktail mixture of levobupivacaine and fentanyl infusion is commonly given via epidural for post-operative analgesia. The concentration of levobupivacaine for optimal pain relief with least side effects remained uncertain.
This prospective study aimed to determine the extent of contamination of fentanyl solutions used for central neuraxial injection by wiping the neck of the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs (Kendall) before breaking open the ampoules and aspiration of fentanyl solutions using a 5 microm Filter Straw (B. Braun). In Group A, fifty fentanyl ampoules were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab prior to opening and the contents were aspirated immediately using a 21G needle and a 5 microm filter straw for culture. The same steps were repeated on the remaining solutions after two hours. In Group B, all the above steps were repeated but without wiping the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. None of the samples from the wiped ampoules or aspiration using filter straw grew microorganisms. Six percent of the samples from unwiped group grew microorganisms when fentanyl were aspirated using a 21G needle and the contamination increased to 16% when repeated after two hours. Wiping the outsides of the fentanyl ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs before opening or aspirating the contents using a 5 pm filter straw has been shown to be equally effective in avoiding bacterial contamination and should be practiced routinely when performing regional anaesthesia.
KEY WORDS: Fentanyl solution, Isopropyl alcohol swab, Filter straw, Contamination, Regional anaesthesia, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airway (Classic LMA) is an autoclavable and reusable laryngeal mask airway with strong evidence supporting its efficacy and safety. Due to the concern of infection risk particularly of prion disease, various single-use laryngeal mask devices were developed. The Ambu AuraOnce LMA (Ambu LMA) is a single use disposable laryngeal mask airway with special design that conforms better to the anatomy of the airway.
For elucidation of the taxonomic status of the Japanese Fasciola species, whole mitochondrial DNA of Fasciola hepatica from Australia, F. gigantica from Malaysia, and Fasciola sp. from Japan was digested with three four-base-cutting endonucleases: HinfI, MspI, and RsaI. The resulting digestion patterns showed that for each enzyme there were some bands specific for each geographical isolate and that the Japanese Fasciola sp. shared more bands with F. gigantica than with F. hepatica. Nucleotide sequences of two regions, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA cluster and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), were also compared among them. The ITS2 sequence was highly conserved among the three isolates. F. gigantica and the Japanese Fasciola sp. were identical, but they differed from the Australian F. hepatica at six sites, one of which was a deletion. The COI sequence was less conserved but implied a similar relationship between the isolates. There seems no reason to regard the Japanese Fasciola sp. as anything other than a strain of F. gigantica.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is grown on approximately 20,000 ha in Taiwan. It is an economically important crop and the income of many fruit farmers comes primarily from mango production. During 2006 and 2007, a stem-end rot disease was observed 1 week after harvest on 28 to 36% of stored mangoes picked from six orchards in the Pingtung, Tainan, and Kaoshiung regions. Two popular mango cultivars, Keitt and Irwin, showed greater susceptibility to this disease, while 'Haden' was found to be moderately susceptible. In storage, symptoms initially appeared as light-to-dark brown lesions surrounding peduncles. Rot symptoms advanced slowly but eventually penetrated the mesocarp, which consequently reduced the commercial value of fruits. The fungus formed abundant pycnidia (0.1 to 0.6 mm in diameter) on infected fruits in advanced stages of symptom development. Pieces of symptomatic fruits plated on acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25 ± 1°C consistently yielded the same fungus. A single conidial isolate was cultured. Pycnidia developed on PDA after continuous exposure to light for 9 to 14 days. On the basis of morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Phomopsis mangiferae L. (2,3). Pycnidia released two types of conidia: α-conidia (5 to 10 × 2.3 to 4.0 μm) were hyaline and oval to fusoid; and β-conidia (15.0 to 37.5 × 1.3 to 2.5 μm) were hyaline and filiform with characteristic curves. Conidiophores were hyaline, filiform, simple or branched, septate, and 15 to 75 μm long. Cultures incubated under continuous fluorescent light (185 ± 35 μE·m-2·s-1) at 25°C for 3 days were used as inoculum for pathogenicity tests. Five fruits from 'Keitt' were wounded with a sterilized scalpel and each wound (2 × 2 × 2 mm) was inoculated with either a 5-mm mycelium agar plug or a 0.5-ml spore suspension (105 conidia per ml) of the fungus. Five wounded fruits inoculated with 5-mm PDA plugs or sterile water alone served as controls. Inoculated areas were covered with moist, sterile cotton. Fruits were enclosed in plastic bags and incubated at 24°C for 3 days. The test was performed three times. The same symptoms were observed on all inoculated fruits, whereas no decay was observed on control fruits. Reisolations from the inoculated fruits consistently yielded P. mangiferae, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. This disease has previously been reported in Australia, Brazil, China, Cuba, India, Malaysia, and the United States (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. mangiferae causing stem-end rot disease on mangoes in Taiwan. Our report necessitates taking preventive strategies in the field, prior to or after harvest, to contain postharvest losses in mangoes. References: (1) G. I. Johnson. Page 39 in: Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. R. C. Ploetz et al., eds. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1994. (2) R. C. Ploetz, ed. Page 354 in: Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, UK, 2003. (3) E. Punithalingam. No. 1168 in: Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. CMI, Kew, Surrey, UK, 1993.
Hand hygiene is the most important measure in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). Adherence to hand hygiene protocols in hospital by nurses enables in prevention and control the HCAI. The main aim of the present study was to assess nurses' compliance to hand hygiene practice and knowledge in a hospital.
Surveillance data on the burden of pertussis in Asian adults are limited. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of serologically confirmed pertussis in adults with prolonged cough in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Adults (⩾19 years) with cough lasting for ⩾14 days without other known underlying cause were enrolled from outpatient clinics of seven public and/or private hospitals. Single blood samples for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) were analysed and economic impact and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaires assessed. Sixteen (5·13%) of the 312 chronically coughing adults had serological evidence of pertussis infection within the previous 12 months (anti-PT IgG titre ⩾62·5 IU/ml). Three of them were teachers. Longer duration of cough, paroxysms (75% seroconfirmed, 48% non-seroconfirmed) and breathlessness/chest pain (63% seroconfirmed, 36% non-seroconfirmed) were associated with pertussis (P < 0·04). Of the seroconfirmed patients, the median total direct medical cost per pertussis episode in public hospitals (including physician consultations and/or emergency room visits) was US$13 in Malaysia, US$83 in Taiwan (n = 1) and US$26 in Thailand. The overall median EQ-5D index score of cases was 0·72 (range 0·42-1·00). Pertussis should be considered in the aetiology of adults with a prolonged or paroxysmal cough, and vaccination programmes considered.
Study site in Malaysia: Klinik Kesihatan Seremban, Negeri Sembilan; Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain A-11-3(T), which was isolated from an oil-enriched consortia from the surface seawater of Hong-Deng dock in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. Cells were aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming irregular rods. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-negative. It grew on a restricted spectrum of organic compounds, including some organic acids and alkanes. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain A-11-3(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Alcanivorax jadensis (96.8 % sequence similarity), Alcanivorax borkumensis (96.8 %), Alcanivorax dieselolei (94.8 %), Alcanivorax venustensis (94.2 %) and Alcanivorax balearicus (94.0 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0) (31.2 %), C(18 : 1)omega7c (24.8 %), C(18 : 0) (9.6 %), C(12 : 0) (8.3 %), C(16 : 1)omega7c (8.3 %) and C(16 : 0) 3-OH (5.1 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.7 mol%. Moreover, the strain produced lipopeptides as its surface-active compounds. According to physiological and biochemical tests, DNA-DNA hybridization results and sequence comparisons of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, the gyrB gene and the alkane hydroxylase gene alkB1, strain A-11-3(T) was affiliated with the genus Alcanivorax but could be readily distinguished from recognized Alcanivorax species. Therefore strain A-11-3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Alcanivorax for which the name Alcanivorax hongdengensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A-11-3(T) (=CGMCC 1.7084(T)=LMG 24624(T)=MCCC 1A01496(T)).
The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) evidence has identified the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) gene as a potential harbor for schizophrenia risk variants. However, previous meta-analyses have refuted the association between GRM3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizophrenia risk. To reconcile these conflicting findings, we conducted the largest and most comprehensive meta-analysis of 14 SNPs in GRM3 from a total of 11 318 schizophrenia cases, 13 820 controls and 486 parent-proband trios. We found significant associations for three SNPs (rs2237562: odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.11, P=0.017; rs13242038: OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.85-0.96, P=0.016 and rs917071: OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.91-0.97, P=0.003). Two of these SNPs (rs2237562, rs917071) were in strong-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium with the top GRM3 GWAS significant SNP (rs12704290) reported by the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We also found evidence for population stratification related to rs2237562 in that the 'risk' allele was dependent on the population under study. Our findings support the GWAS-implicated link between GRM3 genetic variation and schizophrenia risk as well as the notion that alleles conferring this risk may be population specific.
AIM: The attitudes of neonatologists towards the active management of extremely premature infants in a developing country like China are uncertain.
METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to neonatologists from 16 provinces representing 59.6% (824.2 million) of the total population of China on October 2015 and December 2017.
RESULTS: A total of 117 and 219 responses were received in 2015 and 2017, respectively. Compared to 2015, respondents in 2017 were more likely to resuscitate infants <25 weeks of gestation (86% vs. 72%; p < 0.05), but few would resuscitate infants ≤23 weeks of gestation in either epoch (10% vs. 6%). In both epochs, parents were responsible for >50% of the costs of intensive care, but in 2017, significantly fewer clinicians would cease intensive care (75% vs. 88%; p < 0.05) and more would request for economic aid (40% vs. 20%; p < 0.05) if parents could not afford to pay. Resource availability (e.g. ventilators) was not an important factor in either initiation or continuation of intensive care (~60% in both epochs).
CONCLUSION: Cost is an important factor in the initiation and continuation of neonatal intensive care in a developing country like China. Such factors need to be taken into consideration when interpreting outcome data from these regions.
This work studied the influences of water blanching pretreatment (30 s), surface contacting ultrasound (492.3 and 1131.1 W/m2) assisted air drying, and their combination on drying kinetics and quality of white cabbage. Contacting sonication was performed by placing samples on an ultrasonic vibration plate, and the drying temperature was 60 °C. Through drying kinetic analysis and numerical simulation considering internal and external resistances and shrinkage, it was found that both blanching pretreatment and contacting sonication during drying intensified internal water diffusion and external water exchange to shorten cabbage drying time. Meanwhile, blanching pretreatment was more effective to enhance the drying process. The largest reduction of drying time (from 145 min to 24 min) was obtained when sequential blanching and contacting sonication at 1131.1 W/m2 were conducted. Dehydrated cabbages with blanching pretreatment were characterized by green color and high retention of vitamin C, while a severe loss of vitamin C was found in dried cabbages without blanching pretreatment. Moreover, although both blanching and contacting sonication shortened the drying time, the losses of phenolics, glucosinolates and resulting breakdown products were not alleviated. Contents of total phenolics, one glucosinolates (sinigrin) and one glucobrassicin breakdown product (indole-3-acetoritrile) in only air dried cabbages were significantly (p
Radiotherapy (RT) treats cancer effectively with high doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to killing cancer cells and shrinking tumors while bearing the risk of developing different side effects, including secondary cancer, which is most concerning for long-term health consequences. Genomic instability (GI) is a characteristic of most cancer cells, and IR-induced GI can manifest as delayed homologous recombination (HR). Radioadaptive response (RAR) is capable of reducing genotoxicity, cell transformation, mutation, and carcinogenesis, but the rational evidence describing its contributions to the reduction of radiation risk, in particular, carcinogenesis, remains fragmented. In this work, to investigate the impact of RAR on high-dose, IR-induced GI measured as delayed HR, the frequency of recombinant cells was comparatively studied under RAR-inducible and -uninducible conditions in the nucleated cells in hematopoietic tissues (bone marrow and spleen) using the Rosa26 Direct Repeat-green fluorescent protein (RaDR-GFP) homozygote mice. Results demonstrated that the frequency of recombinant cells was significantly lower in hematopoietic tissues under RAR-inducible condition. These findings suggest that reduction in delayed HR may be at least a part of the mechanisms underlying decreased carcinogenesis by RAR, and application of RAR would contribute to a more rigorous and scientifically grounded system of radiation protection in RT.
In March 2005, a fruit rot disease was found in several commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) fields at Fongyuan, 24.25°N, 120.72°E, in Taichung County in central Taiwan. The disease was rare and was negligible in most cultivated areas. However, disease incidence has increased by 4 to 5% over the last 2 years and causes significant postharvest losses. In storage, symptoms on berries include light brown-to-black, sunken, irregularly shaped lesions. The lesions gradually enlarge and become firm with a dark green-to-black, velvety surface composed of mycelia, conidiophores, and conidia. Twelve single conidial isolates (AF-1 to AF-12) of a fungus were isolated by placing portions of symptomatic fruit from four locations onto acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubating at 24 ± 1°C. One isolate from each of the four locations, AF-2, 6, 9, and 12, was selected for identification and pathogenicity studies. The fungus was identified as an Alternaria sp. according to the morphological descriptions of A. tenuissima (2,3). Conidiophores were simple or branched, straight or flexuous, septate, pale to light brown, 3.0 to 5.0 μm in diameter, and bore two to six conidia in a chain. Conidia were dark brown, obclavate or oval, and multicellular with seven transverse (in most cases) and numerous longitudinal septa. Conidia were 15.5 to 56.5 μm (average 35.0 μm) long × 6.0 to 15.0 μm (average 11.0 μm) wide at the broadest point. The pathogen was consistently isolated from berries in the field or in storage. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by inoculating 12 surface-sterilized berries with each of the four isolates. Approximately 300 μl of a spore suspension (2 × 105 conidia per ml) was placed at two points on the uninjured surface of each fruit and allowed to dry for 5 min. Control fruits were treated with sterile water. The berries were then enclosed in a plastic bag and incubated at 24 ± 1°C for 2 days. Disease symptoms similar to those described above were observed on 95% of inoculated berries 3 days after inoculation, while no symptoms developed in control berries. Reisolation from the inoculated berries consistently yielded the Alternaria sp. described above. Pathogenicity tests were performed three times. Previously, strawberry fruit rot caused by A. tenuissima was reported from Florida (2) and Malaysia (1), however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot of strawberry caused by a species of Alternaria in Taiwan. References: (1) W. D. Cho et al. List of Plant Diseases in Korea. Korean Society of Plant Pathology, 2004. (2) C. M. Howard and E. E. Albregts. Phytopathology 63:938, 1973. (3) R. D. Milholland. Phytopathology 63:1395, 1973.
During March 2007, a fruit rot disease was observed in several loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunberg) Lindley) fields located in Taichung, Nantou, and Miaoli counties. Loquat is a valuable fruit crop grown predominantly in central Taiwan, and hence, even a minor yield loss by this new disease is economically significant. Symptoms on fruits initially appeared as small lesions (<1 mm) that later developed into light-to-dark brown, circular, larger (7 mm), sunken lesions, indicating invasion of a pathogen into the fruit. Pieces of rotted fruit tissue (1 × 1 × 1 mm) were immersed for 1 min in 3% commercial bleach, followed by 70% ethanol, cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated under constant fluorescent light (185 ± 35 μE·m-2·s-1) at 24°C for 2 days. Three single conidial isolates (AS1 to AS3) were selected and used in morphological and pathogenicity studies. All three isolates were identified as an Alternaria sp. (1-3) and formed abundant, dark brown mycelium when cultured on PDA with light at 24°C. Conidiophores were 60 to 89 × 3 to 5 μm, densely fasciculate, cylindrical, simple or branched, and had distinct conidial scars. Conidia were 12 to 74 × 6 to 14 μm, golden brown, straight or curved, obclavate with beaks measuring half the length of the conidium, and observed in chains of 10 or more spores with four to seven transverse septa and several longitudinal septa. Pathogenicity tests were conducted twice by inoculating eight surface-sterilized wounded or unwounded fruits with each of the three isolates in each experiment. Two cuts (1 × 1 × 1 mm) were made on each fruit 3 cm apart with a sterile scalpel, and a 300-μl spore suspension (2 × 105 conidia per ml) was placed on each wound. Similarly, a 300-μl spore suspension was placed on unwounded fruits and air dried for 5 min. Control fruits were similarly treated with sterile water. Inoculated fruits were enclosed in a plastic bag and kept at 24 ± 1°C. Symptoms of soft rot were observed on 60% (unwounded) and 100% (wounded) of inoculated fruits 5 days after inoculation, while control fruits did not develop disease symptoms. Reisolation from the symptomatic fruits consistently yielded an Alternaria sp. This fungus previously has been reported as the causal agent of fruit rot or black spot of papaya, mango, kiwifruit, pear, and carambola from Australia, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and the United States (1-3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot of loquat caused by an Alternaria sp. in Taiwan. To manage this disease, growers may resort to fungicidal sprays followed by bagging of fruits to reduce pre- and postharvest losses. References: (1) A. L. Jones and H. S. Aldwinckle. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1990. (2) R. C. Ploetz. Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2003. (3) R. C. Ploetz et al. Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1994.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) may provide a non-invasive index of brain function for a range of clinical applications. However, as a lab-based technique, ERPs are limited by technical challenges that prevent full integration into clinical settings.
An artificial magnetotactic microbot was created by integrating the microalgal cell with magnetic microbead for its potential application as biomotor in microscale environment. Here, we demonstrate the remote magnetotactic control of the microbot under a low gradient magnetic field (<100 T/m). We characterize the kinematic behavior of the microbots carrying magnetic microbeads of two different sizes, with diameter of 2 and 4.5 μm, in the absence and presence of magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic field, we observed the microbot showed a helical motion as a result of the misalignment between the thrust force and the symmetry axis after the attachment. The microbot bound with a larger magnetic microbead moved with higher translational velocity but rotated slower about its axis of rotation. The viscous force was balanced by the thrust force of the microbot, resulting in a randomized swimming behavior of the microbot at its terminal velocity. Meanwhile, under the influence of a low gradient magnetic field, we demonstrated that the directional control of the microbot was based on following principles: (1) magnetophoretic force was insignificant on influencing its perpendicular motion and (2) its parallel motion was dependent on both self-swimming and magnetophoresis, in which this cooperative effect was a function of separation distance from the magnet. As the microbot approached the magnet, the magnetophoretic force suppressed its self-swimming behavior, leading to a positive magnetotaxis of the microbot toward the source of magnetic field. Our experimental results and kinematic analysis revealed the contribution of mass density variation of particle-and-cell system on influencing its dynamical behavior.
Increased understanding of radiation-induced secondary bystander effect (RISBE) is relevant to radiation therapy since it likely contributes to normal tissue injury and tumor recurrence, subsequently resulting in treatment failure. In this work, we developed a simple method based on proton microbeam radiation and a transwell insert co-culture system to elucidate the RISBE between irradiated human lung cancer cells and nonirradiated human normal cells. A549 lung cancer cells received a single dose or fractionated doses of proton microbeam radiation to generate the primary bystander cells. These cells were then seeded on the top of the insert with secondary bystander WI-38 normal cells growing underneath in the presence or absence of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) inhibitor, 18-α-glycyrrhetnic acid (AGA). Cells were co-cultured before harvesting and assayed for micronuclei formation. The results of this work showed that fractionated doses of protons caused less DNA damage in the secondary bystander WI-38 cells compared to a single radiation dose, where the means differ by 20%. However, the damaging effect in the secondary bystander normal cells could be eliminated when treated with AGA. This novel work reflects our effort to demonstrate that GJIC plays a major role in the RISBE generated from the primary bystander cancer cells.