Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 144 in total

  1. Perumal S, Mahmud R, Ramanathan S
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(18):1766-9.
    PMID: 25571920 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.999242
    Euphorbia hirta (L.) plant is traditionally used in Malaysia for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by nosocomial infectious agents. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of E. hirta and analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography have led to the isolation of two antibacterial compounds. These compounds were identified as caffeic acid (CA) and (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) based on spectroscopic analyses and comparison with previously published data. Using broth microdilution method, both ECG and CA had demonstrated significant minimum inhibitory concentration of 15.6 and 31.3 μg/mL respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Time-kill assessment of ECG and CA displayed bactericidal effect on P. aeruginosa cells.
  2. Perumal S, Mahmud R
    PMID: 24321370 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-346
    The frequent occurrences of antibiotic-resistant biofilm forming pathogens have become global issue since various measures that had been taken to curb the situation led to failure. Euphorbia hirta, is a well-known ethnomedicinal plant of Malaysia with diverse biological activities. This plant has been used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by infectious agents.
  3. Balakrishnan, D., Suraini, M.S., Mahmud, R,, Ezamin, A.R., Hazman, M.N., Hariati, J.
    This paper highlights a potentially life threatening and unsuspected case of multiple small pseudoaneurysms from the thyrocervical and costocervical branch of the left subclavian artery that was spontaneously ruptured. The cause was not suspected prior to thoracic CT angiography (CTA) because the initial pre-emptive diagnosis was only trivial spontaneous hydropneumothorax which became serious after a chest tube was inserted.
  4. Ponnampalavanar S, Kukreja A, Amir A, Mahmud R
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Mar 01;37(1):24-28.
    PMID: 33612715
    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by Paragonimus, a lung fluke and is acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans containing the infective metacercariae. Herein, we report a case of paragonimiasis in a Malaysian man who presented with incidental findings from chest radiographs. Examination of his biopsied lung tissue and sputum specimen revealed Paragonimus sp. eggs, whereas stool examination showed the presence of Giardia cysts. Patient was succesfully treated with praziquantel and metronidazole respectively.
  5. Yeoh TL, Mahmud R, Saim L
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):432-6.
    PMID: 14750385
    A four years review from June 1998 to June 2002 of traumatic facial nerve paralysis from temporal bone fractures that required surgical intervention is presented. The aim of this clinical presentation was to determine the current pattern of cases with traumatic facial paralysis which required surgical intervention at our center. There were six cases, of which four (66%) were longitudinal fractures, one each (17%) had transverse fracture and fracture over the lateral wall of mastoid. Hearing loss (83%) was the commonest associated clinical symptom. All cases underwent decompression via the transmastoid surgical approach. Intraoperative findings revealed oedema of facial nerve involving vertical segment and horizontal segment in three cases each respectively. Two cases had concomitant bony impingement. The facial nerve functions in four cases (66%) and one case recovered to House Brackmann grade 2 and 4, 12 months and 3 months respectively postsurgery. The case with transverse fracture remained as House Brackmann grade 5 after two years.
  6. Perumal S, Mahmud R, Ismail S
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S311-S315.
    PMID: 28808398 DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_309_15
    BACKGROUND: The escalating dominance of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains as infectious pathogen had urged the researchers to look for alternative and complementary drugs.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to address the biological targets and probable mechanisms of action underlying the potent antibacterial effect of the isolated compounds from Euphorbia hirta (L.) against P. aeruginosa.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The action mechanisms of caffeic acid (CA) and epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) on P. aeruginosa cells were investigated by several bacterial physiological manifestations involving outer membrane permeabilization, intracellular potassium ion efflux, and nucleotide leakage.

    RESULTS: The findings revealed that ECG and CA targeted both cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. aeruginosa. The cellular membrane destruction and ensuing membrane permeability perturbation of P. aeruginosa had led to the ascending access of hydrophobic antibiotics, release of potassium ions, and leakages of nucleotides.

    CONCLUSION: The overall study concludes that ECG and CA isolated from E. hirta possess remarkable anti-infective potentials which can be exploited as drug template for the development of new antibacterial agent against resistant P. aeruginosa pathogen.

    SUMMARY: Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) and caffeic acid (CA) exhibited remarkable bactericidal abilities by increasing the outer membrane and plasma membrane permeability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenECG and CA had facilitated the entry of hydrophobic antibiotics into P. aeruginosa by disintegrating the lipopolysaccharides layer of the outer membraneECG-induced potassium efflux with efficiency close to that obtained with cefepime suggesting mode of action through membrane disruptionBoth ECG and CA had caused consistent leakage of intracellular nucleotide content with the increase in time. Abbreviations used: ECG: Epicatechin 3-gallate; CA: Caffeic acid; E. hirta: Euphoria hirta.

  7. Khammas ASA, Mahmud R
    J Med Ultrasound, 2020 10 01;29(1):26-31.
    PMID: 34084713 DOI: 10.4103/JMU.JMU_53_20
    Background: Ultrasonographic (USG) measurements of the liver length, gallbladder wall thickness (GBWT), diameters of the inferior vena cava (IVC), portal vein (PV), and pancreas are valuable and reliable in diagnosis hepatobiliary and pancreas conditions. This study is aimed to determine the normal values of liver length, GBWT, AP diameters of the IVC and PV, AP diameter of the head and body of the pancreas.

    Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in this study. A total of the 408 participants were randomly recruited using a systematic method. According to the USG reports, the subjects who had normal USG report for liver, biliary system, and pancreas were described as normals, whereas the subjects who had hepatobiliary diseases such as fatty liver, liver cysts, hemangioma, cirrhosis, gallbladder wall thickening, acute cholecystitis, gallstones, and polyps were recorded as abnormal subjects.

    Results: Of the 408 participants with a mean of 52.6 ± 8.4 years old. Of those, 294 (72.1%) participants were normal and 114 (27.9%) subjects were reported as abnormal. More than half of the study population was males, 52.9% versus 47.1% of females. There was a significant difference of liver length, head, and body of the pancreas between genders (P = 0.004, 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, the pancreatic body only was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.026). There also was a significant difference of the liver length, head, and body of the pancreas between normal and abnormal subjects (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, and P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Liver length, diameter of the head, and body of the pancreas were significantly associated with gender and hepatobiliary diseases. In addition, only the diameter of the body of the pancreas was significantly correlated with age.

  8. Al-Qdah M, Ramli AR, Mahmud R
    Comput Biol Med, 2005 Dec;35(10):905-14.
    PMID: 16310014
    This paper uses wavelets in the detection comparison of breast cancer among the three main races in Malaysia: Chinese, Malays, and Indians followed by a system that evaluates the radiologist's findings over a period of time to gauge the radiologist's skills in confirming breast cancer cases. The db4 wavelet has been utilized to detect microcalcifications in mammogram-digitized images obtained from Malaysian women sample. The wavelet filter's detection evaluation was done by visual inspection by an expert radiologist to confirm the detection results of those pixels that corresponded to microcalcifications. Detection was counted if the wavelet-detected pixels corresponded to the radiologist's identified microcalcification pixels. After the radiologist's detection confirmation a new client-server radiologist recording and evaluation system is designed to evaluate the findings of the radiologist over some period of cancer detection working time. It is a system that records the findings of the Malaysian radiologist for the presence of breast cancer in Malaysian patients and provides a way of registering the progress of detecting breast cancer of the radiologist by tracking certain metric values such as the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operator curve (ROC). The initial findings suggest that no single race mammograms are easier for wavelets' detections of microcalcifications and for the radiologist confirmation even though for this study the Chinese race samples detection average were a few percentages less than the other two races, namely the Malay and Indian races.
  9. Long YT, Mahmud R, Sani A, Saim L
    Asian J Surg, 2002 Apr;25(2):170-4.
    PMID: 12376240
    Although the incidence of complications of otitis media that require surgical interventions has decreased substantially over the past few years, it is a prevailing condition for which clinicians should remain vigilant.
  10. Perumal S, Mahmud R, Mohamed N
    PMID: 30108657 DOI: 10.1155/2018/5713703
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is naturally resistant to many classes of antipseudomonal antibiotics due to the species ability to easily acquire resistance. Plant-based antibacterial agent in combination with the existing antibiotic proposes an alternative treatment regimen for the eradication of resistant bacterial infections. The antibacterial effects of the isolated epicatechin 3-gallate compound from Euphorbia hirta in combination with cefepime were investigated in vitro against resistant P. aeruginosa. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of the combination was determined using checkerboard broth microdilution method. Epicatechin 3-gallate combined with cefepime had produced synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa (with average FIC index of 0.24). The MIC of epicatechin 3-gallate was effectively reduced to MIC/4, MIC/8, MIC/16, and MIC/32 in the presence of cefepime. Time-kill study of epicatechin 3-gallate combined with cefepime exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity where the eradication of P. aeruginosa occurred within 4 h of treatment. Scanning electron micrographs revealed apparent cell membrane damage and leakage of cytoplasmic contents from P. aeruginosa cells which eventually led to the cell lysis after the combination treatment of epicatechin 3-gallate and cefepime. The potential of epicatechin 3-gallate to act synergistically with cefepime against clinically resistant P. aeruginosa strain possibly will maximize the successful outcomes when choosing empirical antibiotic treatment in hospitals or health care institutions.
  11. Mahmud R, Ariffin F, Shanmuganathan P
    Korean J Fam Med, 2020 Jul;41(4):263-266.
    PMID: 32512984 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.18.0161
    The presence of erythrocytosis along with the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may veer a primary care clinician in a busy clinic towards attributing the erythrocytosis to hypoxia secondary to COPD; however, this is not always the case. This case highlights the importance of investigation and the significance not excluding a primary cause in COPD patients with erythrocytosis. A 57-year-old male, presenting with chronic cough, was subsequently diagnosed with COPD clinically and confirmed by spirometry. Erythrocytosis was also incidentally noted. The patient did not have any symptoms of polycythemia or hepatosplenomegaly. Therefore, the erythrocytosis was initially thought to be caused by hypoxia secondary to COPD. However, the JAK2 V617F gene mutation was detected and hence the diagnosis of polycythemia vera was made. Although the erythrocytosis was initially attributed secondary to the underlying pulmonary disease, investigations proved it to be primary in origin. This case report highlights the importance of investigating the underlying cause and to confirm the diagnosis of erythrocytosis as primary and secondary polycythemia differ in their management approach. This will avoid inappropriate diagnosis, treatment, and undesirable outcomes.
  12. Muslim A, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Sivanandam S
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Dec;30(4):727-30.
    PMID: 24522144 MyJurnal
    A case of human eye infection caused by Brugia pahangi was reported in 2010 in a semi rural village in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Our report here reveals results of investigation on the vector and animal host for the transmission of the infection. We conducted entomological survey and cat blood examination in the vicinity of the patient's home. The mosquito species Armigeres subalbatus was incriminated as the vector, whereas cat served as the reservoir host.
  13. Liew JW, Mahmud R, Tan LH, Lau YL
    Malar J, 2016;15:8.
    PMID: 26738724 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-1070-z
    Plasmodium ovale is rare and not exactly known to be autochthonous in Malaysia. There are two distinct forms of the parasite, namely P. ovale curtisi (classic form) and P. ovale wallikeri (variant form). Here, the first sequence confirmed case of an imported P. ovale wallikeri infection in Malaysia is presented. Microscopy found Plasmodium parasites with morphology similar to P. ovale or Plasmodium vivax in the blood films. Further confirmation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small-subunit rRNA gene of the parasite was unsuccessful. Genus-specific PCR was then performed and the product was sequenced and analysed. Sequence analyses confirmed the aetiological agent as P. ovale wallikeri. New species-specific primers (rOVA1v and rOVA2v) were employed and P. ovale wallikeri was finally confirmed. The findings highlight the need to look out for imported malaria infections in Malaysia and the importance of a constantly updated and validated diagnostic technique.
  14. Lau YL, Lai MY, Fong MY, Jelip J, Mahmud R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2016 Feb;94(2):336-339.
    PMID: 26598573 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0569
    The lack of rapid, affordable, and accurate diagnostic tests represents the primary hurdle affecting malaria surveillance in resource- and expertise-limited areas. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a sensitive, rapid, and cheap diagnostic method. Five species-specific LAMP assays were developed based on 18S rRNA gene. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP results were calculated as compared with microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction. LAMP reactions were highly sensitive with the detection limit of one copy for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium malariae and 10 copies for Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale. LAMP positively detected all human malaria species in all positive samples (N = 134; sensitivity = 100%) within 35 minutes. All negative samples were not amplified by LAMP (N = 67; specificity = 100%). LAMP successfully detected two samples with very low parasitemia. LAMP may offer a rapid, simple, and reliable test for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where malaria is prevalent.
  15. Sonaimuthu P, Fong MY, Kalyanasundaram R, Mahmud R, Lau YL
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:297.
    PMID: 24986686 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-297
    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Early diagnosis and determining the infective stage are critical for effectively treating immunosuppressed individuals and pregnant women with toxoplasmosis. Among the rhoptry proteins of the parasite, Rhoptry protein 8 (ROP8), is known to be expressed during the early stages of T. gondii infection and is involved in parasitophorous vacuole formation. In this study, we have investigated the diagnostic efficacy of recombinant ROP8 (rROP8).
  16. Bamaga OA, Mahdy MA, Mahmud R, Lim YA
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:351.
    PMID: 25074325 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-351
    Yemen is a Mediterranean country where 65% of its population is at risk of malaria, with 43% at high risk. Yemen is still in the control phase without sustainable reduction in the proportion of malaria cases. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in different districts in the southeast of the country to determine malaria prevalence and identify factors that impede progress of the elimination phase.
  17. Cheong FW, Fong MY, Lau YL, Mahmud R
    Malar J, 2013;12:454.
    PMID: 24354660 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-454
    Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth Plasmodium species that can infect humans. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein-1(42) (MSP-1(42)) is a potential candidate for malaria vaccine. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-1(42).
  18. Muslim A, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Lau YL, Sivanandam S
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6:219.
    PMID: 23898840 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-219
    In 2011, we reported occurrence of natural human infections with Brugia pahangi, a filarial worm of dogs and cats, in a surburb of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia. Our preliminary entomological survey at that time suggested the mosquito species Armigeres subalbatus as the vector of the zoonotic infections. In this present report, we provide biological evidence to confirm our preliminary finding.
  19. Tubesha Z, Imam MU, Mahmud R, Ismail M
    Molecules, 2013 Jun 26;18(7):7460-72.
    PMID: 23803717 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18077460
    Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE) has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ)/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW) as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW) group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.
  20. Cheong FW, Lau YL, Fong MY, Mahmud R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2013 May;88(5):835-40.
    PMID: 23509118 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0250
    Plasmodium knowlesi is now known as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein (MSP) has been reported to be potential target for vaccination and diagnosis of malaria. MSP-1(33) has been shown to be immunogenic and its T cell epitopes could mediate cellular immune protection. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-133. In this study, an approximately 28-kDa recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-1(33) (pkMSP-1(33)) was expressed by using an Escherichia coli system. The purified pkMSP-1(33) reacted with serum samples of patients infected with P. knowlesi (31 of 31, 100%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria (27 of 28, 96.43%) by Western blotting. The pkMSP-1(33) also reacted with P. knowlesi (25 of 31, 80.65%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria sera (20 of 28, 71.43%) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the non-malarial infection (49 of 52 in by Western blotting and 46 of 52 in the ELISA) and healthy donor serum samples (65 of 65 by Western blotting and ELISA) did not react with recombinant pkMSP-1(33).
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