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  1. Leong YH, Gan CY, Majid MI
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2014 Jul;67(1):21-8.
    PMID: 24651928 DOI: 10.1007/s00244-014-0019-5
    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.
  2. Leong YH, Gan CY, Tan MA, Majid MI
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Mar;21(2):63-7.
    PMID: 24876809 MyJurnal
    Newborn screening (NBS) program is an important tool for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of life-long impairments. NBS is one of the strategies recommended by the World Health Organization to promote the primary prevention of congenital anomalies and the health of children with these conditions. However, NBS initiation and implementation in developing countries, especially South-East Asian and North African regions, are slow and challenging. Expanded NBS is not mandatory and has not yet been incorporated into the public healthcare system in our country. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness, and uncertain commitment from healthcare practitioners are the main challenges in establishing this program at the national level. Involvement and support from policy makers are very important to the success of the program and the benefit of the entire population.
  3. Chee JW, Amirul AA, Majid MI, Mansor SM
    Int J Pharm, 2008 Sep 1;361(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 18584978 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.05.007
    Copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) were produced by Cupriavidus sp. (USMAA2-4) (DSM 19379) from carbon sources of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone. The composition of copolyesters produced varied from 0 to 45 mol% 4HB, depending on the combination of carbon sources supplied. The P(3HB-co-4HB) films containing Mitragyna speciosa crude extract were prepared with the ratio varying from 10 to 40% (w/w). The in vitro crude extract release of the films was studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Although the release rate was slow, it was maintained at a constant rate. This suggests that the crude extract release was due to the polymer degradation because the amount of crude extract released was consistent. The amount of degradation was based on the films' dry weight loss, decrease in molecular weight and surface morphology changes. The degradation rate increased with the 4HB content. This showed that the polymer degradation is dependant on the molecular weight, crystallinity, thermal properties and water permeability. The different drug loading ratio which led to surface morphology changes also gave an effect on polymer degradation.
  4. Zahari Z, Jani NA, Amanah A, Latif MN, Majid MI, Adenan MI
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Feb 15;21(3):282-5.
    PMID: 24269185 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.09.011
    Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 μg/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR).
  5. Leong YH, Chiang PN, Jaafar HJ, Gan CY, Majid MI
    PMID: 24392728 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.880519
    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.
  6. Jamil MF, Subki MF, Lan TM, Majid MI, Adenan MI
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Jun 21;148(1):135-43.
    PMID: 23608241 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.078
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: [corrected] Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid compound of Mitragyna speciosa (M. speciosa) Korth. (Rubiaceae). This plant is native to the southern regions of Thailand and northern regions of Malaysia and is frequently used to manage the withdrawal symptoms in both countries.

    AIM OF STUDY: To investigate the effect of mitragynine after chronic morphine treatment on cyclic AMP (cAMP) level and mRNA expression of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell.

    METHOD AND MATERIALS: Mitragynine was isolated from the Mitragyna speciosa plant using the acid-base extraction method. The cAMP level upon forskolin stimulation in the cells was determined using the Calbiochem(®) Direct Immunoassay Kit. The mRNA expression of the MOR was carried out using quantitative RT-PCR.

    RESULT: Cotreatment and pretreatment of morphine and mitragynine significantly reduced the production of cAMP level at a lower concentration of mitragynine while the higher concentration of this compound could lead to the development of tolerance and dependence as shown by the increase of the cAMP level production in foskolin stimulation. In MOR mRNA expression study, cotreatment of morphine with mitragynine significantly reduced the down-regulation of MOR mRNA expression as compared to morphine treatment only.

    CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that mitragynine could possibly avoid the tolerance and dependence on chronic morphine treatment by reducing the up-regulation of cAMP level as well as reducing the down-regulation of MOR at a lower concentration of mitragynine.

  7. Utar Z, Majid MI, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, Lan TM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jun 14;136(1):75-82.
    PMID: 21513785 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.011
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: [corrected] Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat various types of diseases especially in Thailand and Malaysia. Its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in its crude form are well documented. In this study, the cellular mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of mitragynine, the major bioactive constituent, was investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of mitragynine on the mRNA and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were investigated in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed using Western blot analysis and the level of PGE(2) production was quantified using Parameter™ PGE(2) Assay (R&D Systems).

    RESULTS: Mitragynine produced a significant inhibition on the mRNA expression of COX-2 induced by LPS, in a dose dependent manner and this was followed by the reduction of PGE(2) production. On the other hand, the effects of mitragynine on COX-1 mRNA expression were found to be insignificant as compared to the control cells. However, the effect of mitragynine on COX-1 protein expression is dependent on concentration, with higher concentration of mitragynine producing a further reduction of COX-1 expression in LPS-treated cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mitragynine suppressed PGE(2) production by inhibiting COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Mitragynine may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  8. Othman MI, Majid MI, Singh M, Subathra S, Seng L, Gam LH
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2009 Mar;52(Pt 3):209-19.
    PMID: 18564057 DOI: 10.1042/BA20070271
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and IDC (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) is the most common type of invasive breast cancer. The changes in the biological behaviour of cancer tissue can be predicted by measuring the differential protein expression of normal and cancerous tissues. Using a combination of SDS/PAGE and LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS), we identified 82 common and differentially expressed proteins from normal and cancerous breast tissues in 20 Malaysian Chinese patients with IDC. These proteins are extracted from the normal and cancerous tissue of patients and therefore represent the actual proteins involved in cancer development. Proteins identified possibly have significant roles in the development of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese patients in view of their consistent expression in most of the patients, although some of the proteins had not been detected in earlier studies that were mostly carried out in Western countries. This observation suggests that molecular mechanisms leading to breast cancer development in this region may not be identical with those leading to IDC in Western regions.
  9. Othman MI, Majid MI, Singh M, Man CN, Lay-Harn G
    Ann. Clin. Biochem., 2008 May;45(Pt 3):299-306.
    PMID: 18482919 DOI: 10.1258/acb.2007.007104
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCA) is the most common type of breast cancer accounting for 85% of all invasive breast cancers.
  10. Lai CS, Mas RH, Nair NK, Majid MI, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2008 Jun 19;118(1):14-20.
    PMID: 18436400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.034
    Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume (Araceae) is a Malaysian plant used locally to combat cancer. In order to evaluate its antiproliferative activity in vitro and to possibly identify the active chemical constituents, a bioactivity guided study was conducted on the extracts of this plant.
  11. Amirul AA, Yahya AR, Sudesh K, Azizan MN, Majid MI
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Jul;99(11):4903-9.
    PMID: 17981028
    Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 was isolated from Malaysian environment and able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate), [P(3HB-co-4HB)] when grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source. The polyester was purified from freeze-dried cells and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR results confirmed the presence of 3HB and 4HB monomers. In a one-step cultivation process, P(3HB-co-4HB) accumulation by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 was affected by carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). A two-step cultivation process accumulated P(3HB-co-4HB) copolyester with a higher 4HB fraction (53 mol%) in nitrogen-free mineral medium containing gamma-butyrolactone. The biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) was also achieved by using 4-hydroxybutyric acid and alkanediol as 1,4-butanediol. The composition of copolyesters varied from 32 to 51 mol% 4HB, depending on the carbon sources supplied. The copolyester produced by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 has a random sequence distribution of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) units when analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. When gamma-butyrolactone was used as the sole carbon source, the 4HB fraction in copolyester increased from 25 to 60 mol% as the concentration of gamma-butyrolactone in the culture medium increased from 2.5 g/L to 20.0 g/L.
  12. Venkatesh G, Majid MI, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM, Nair NK, Croft SL, et al.
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2008 May;22(5):535-41.
    PMID: 18205140 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.965
    A simple, sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 251 nm was developed for quantitation of buparvaquone (BPQ) in human and rabbit plasma. The method utilizes 250 microL of plasma and sample preparation involves protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction. The method was validated on a C18 column with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 m, pH 3.0) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 18:82 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficient>or=0.998) in the selected range. The method is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL for BPQ. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and BPQ was found to be stable. Partial validation studies were carried out using rabbit plasma and intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 7%. This method is simple, reliable and can be routinely used for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies for BPQ.
  13. Majid MI, Akmal DH, Few LL, Agustien A, Toh MS, Samian MR, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 1999 Jun-Jul;25(1-3):95-104.
    PMID: 10416655
    A locally isolated soil microorganism identified as Erwinia sp. USMI-20 has been found to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), from either palm oil or glucose and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV), from a combination of palm oil and a second carbon source of either one of the following compounds: propionic acid, n-propanol, valeric acid and n-pentanol. It was found that Erwinia sp. USMI-20 could produce P(3HB) up to 69 wt.% polymer content with a dry cell weight of 4.4 g/l from an initial amount of 14.5 g/l of glucose followed by a feeding rate of glucose at 0.48 g/h glucose. On the other hand, the bacteria can achieve 46 wt.% of P(3HB) and a dry cell weight of 3.6 g/l from a batch fermentation in a 10-l fermentor from an initial concentration of 4.6 g/l of palm oil. Further characterisation of the polymer production was also carried out by using different types of palm oil. Among the different palm oils that were used, crude palm oil was the best lipid source for P(3HB) production as compared to palm olein and palm kernel oil. In the production of the copolymer, P(3HB-co-3HV), the highest mole fraction of 3-HV units could be as high as 47 mol% from a single feeding of valeric acid upon initial growth on palm oil.
  14. Awang R, Abd Rahman AF, Wan Abdullah WZA, Lajis R, Abdul Majid MI
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):375-9.
    PMID: 14750377
    This report describes inquiries relating to poisoning cases which were received by the National Poison Centre of Malaysia from the years 1996 to 2000. The study utilized data from the NPC report forms. Only data relating to patient contact with a poison or chemical were included in the analysis. The poison centre received an average of 186 poisoning inquiries per year. Doctors remained the highest group of caller to the poison centre throughout the five-year period. Nearly 50% of all inquiries was regarding pesticide poisoning and this trend remained constant during the five-year period. Overall, the findings showed that poisoning inquiries relating to patient care were lower than in Japan and the United States.
  15. Alwan IA, Awadh AI, Tangiisuran B, Khan HRM, Yahaya N, Majid MI
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 10 08;12(4):475-481.
    PMID: 33679096 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_340_19
    Background and Purpose: The wide availability of medications has led to an increased exposure of humans to the possibility of poisoning. An unavoidable effect due to the availability of these medications has also led to a rising increment in the number of poisoning cases. All drugs, especially when administered in large doses or overextended periods, can initiate a toxic condition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine nationwide, the patterns attributed to poisoning, and to describe the sociodemographic, and geographic distribution of poisoning, by identifying the category of substances implicated in these cases.

    Data Sources and Methods: A retrospective study based on telephone calls reported on poisoning caused by pharmaceutical products undertaken by the National Poisoning Centre (NPC) in Penang (Malaysia) was used as the basis of this study covering the period between 2010 and 2015. The study included the mode and type of poisoning, exposure routes as well as the incidence locations.

    Results: A total of 10,998 cases were examined, finding that females represented 5,899 cases (53.6%) being intoxicated more frequently compared to the number of males, 3,839 (34.9%). The age group of poisoning cases ranged between 20 and 29 years representing 2,579 (23.4%) of reported cases. The common mode of poisoning was attributed to suicide 5,203 (47.3%) from among the 10,998 cases and the highest poisoning agents reported were from the psychiatric group of pharmaceutical products of 2,287 (21%).

    Conclusion and Implications: These findings indicate a rising trend of suicidal poisoning attempts between 2013 and 2015, which emphasizes the need for more stringent and effective enforcement protocols to limit the rising incidence of poisoning. As such, analyzing the trends in poisoning in a particular zone periodically could help health policy-makers to develop management policies and prevention strategies.

  16. Vigneswari S, Vijaya S, Majid MI, Sudesh K, Sipaut CS, Azizan MN, et al.
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009 Apr;36(4):547-56.
    PMID: 19189144 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-009-0525-z
    Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020, a local isolate was able to biosynthesis poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer with various 4HB precursors as the sole carbon source. Manipulation of the culture conditions such as cell concentration, phosphate ratio and culture aeration significantly affected the synthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and 4HB composition. P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer with 4HB compositions ranging from 23 to 75 mol% 4HB with various mechanical and thermal properties were successfully produced by varying the medium aeration. The physical and mechanical properties of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, tensile test, and differential scanning calorimetry. The number-average molecular weights (M (n)) of copolymers ranged from 260 x 10(3) to 590 x 10(3)Da, and the polydispersities (M (w)/M (n)) were between 1.8 and 3.0. Increases in the 4HB composition lowered the molecular weight of these copolymers. In addition, the increase in 4HB composition affected the randomness of copolymer, melting temperature (T (m)), glass transition temperature (T (g)), tensile strength, and elongation to break. Enzymatic degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with an extracellular depolymerase from Ochrobactrum sp. DP5 showed that the degradation rate increased proportionally with time as the 4HB fraction increased from 17 to 50 mol% but were much lower with higher 4HB fraction. Degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum exhibited highest degradation rate at 75 mol% 4HB. The biocompatibility of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were evaluated and these copolymers have been shown to support the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
  17. Venkatesh G, Majid MI, Mansor SM, Nair NK, Croft SL, Navaratnam V
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2010 Jun;36(6):735-45.
    PMID: 20136493 DOI: 10.3109/03639040903460446
    The aim of this study was to prepare a lipid-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to increase the solubility and oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble compound, buparvaquone (BPQ).
  18. Lim EL, Seah TC, Koe XF, Wahab HA, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, et al.
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2013 Mar;27(2):812-24.
    PMID: 23274770 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.014
    CYP450 enzymes are key determinants in drug toxicities, reduced pharmacological effect and adverse drug reactions. Mitragynine, an euphoric compound was evaluated for its effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 and protein expression and resultant enzymatic activity. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP450 isoforms were carried out using an optimized multiplex qRT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated using P450-Glo™ assays. The effects of mitragynine on human CYP3A4 protein expression were determined using an optimized hCYP3A4-HepG2 cell-based assay. An in silico computational method to predict the binding conformation of mitragynine to the active site of the CYP3A4 enzyme was performed and further validated using in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition assays. Mitragynine was found to induce mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A2. For the highest concentration of 25 μM, induction of mRNA was approximately 70% that of the positive control and was consistent with the increased CYP1A2 enzymatic activity. Thus, mitragynine is a significant in vitro CYP1A2 inducer. However, it appeared to be a weak CYP3A4 inducer at the transcriptional level and a weak CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor. It is therefore, unlikely to have any significant clinical effects on CYP3A4 activity.
  19. Kamaruzaman NA, Leong YH, Jaafar MH, Mohamed Khan HR, Abdul Rani NA, Razali MF, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2020 06 01;10(6):e036048.
    PMID: 32487578 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036048
    OBJECTIVE: Pesticide poisoning is a global health problem, and its progressive deterioration is a major cause of concern. The objective of this study is to assess epidemiological characteristics and identify risk factors of pesticide poisoning in Malaysia.

    SETTING: Pesticide poisoning database of Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) from 2006 to 2015.

    PARTICIPANTS: Telephone enquiries regarding pesticide poisoning were made by healthcare professionals. Information received by the NPC was entered into a retrievable database of standardised Poison Case Report Form, as adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO).

    OUTCOMES: The outcome of the study is to provide an overview of national epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning. High-risk groups of people and their circumstances were also identified to ensure that appropriate measures are strategised.

    RESULTS: Within the study period, a total of 11 087 pesticide poisoning cases were recorded. Sixty per cent of these cases were intentional in nature and most were found among male individuals (57%) of the Indian race (36.4%) aged between 20 and 29 years (25.5%), which occurred at home (90%) through the route of ingestion (94%). The highest number of poisoning was due to herbicides (44%) followed by agricultural insecticides (34%), rodenticides (9.9%), household insecticides (9.5%) and fungicides (0.5%). In addition, 93.6% of intentional pesticide poisoning cases were caused by suicide attempts. The results of this study show that there was an increasing trend in pesticide poisoning incidents over the 10-year duration. This indicates that pesticide poisoning is a prevalent public health problem in Malaysia, resulting in an average incidence rate of 3.8 per 100 000 population.

    CONCLUSIONS: Deliberate pesticide ingestion as a method of suicide has become a disturbing trend among Malaysians. Therefore, regulation of highly hazardous pesticides must be enforced to ensure controlled and limited access to these chemicals by the public.

  20. Dharmalingam K, Tan BK, Mahmud MZ, Sedek SA, Majid MI, Kuah MK, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Jan 31;139(2):657-63.
    PMID: 22193176 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.12.016
    Swietenia macrophylla or commonly known as big leaf mahogany, has been traditionally used as an antibacterial and antifungal agent.
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