The aim of this study is to design radon irradiation technique in the field of hematology for an invitro study. In addition, deposit of alpha particles into the human blood surface and its effects on the thrombocytopenia estimated using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). In this technique, amount of radon gas (2210±5.1Bq/m 3 ) collected in a tight PVC container with the appropriate engineering dimension using two sources of radium (5μCi). Blood samples (10 male and 10 female) and CR-39NTDs (40 pieces) are exposed to radon gas at various exposure time. Complete blood test and the computer scanning for each piece of CR-39NTDs before and after exposure has done. The results show that the present technique has a good efficiency (96%) to the invitro exposure of human blood. When the radon gas moved on the surface of blood sample, alpha tracks registered into CR-39NTDs. Thus, this technique improved that the comparative method to evaluate alpha particle density into exposure blood samples is an effective way; this depended on the geometry of design and the sensitivity of CR-39NTDs to track registration. Radon detector version 7 (RAD7) used to make a certain suitability of CR- 39NTDs. Amount of radon concentration losses during the exposure process, in the present work it was variable from 0.41% to 1.4%. Radon concentration effected on the thrombocytopenia; this depended on time of exposure and alpha energy loss into the blood and CR-39 through the atomic displacements. At the time of exposure of 10 minutes, rate of absorption dose was 2.255±0.11μSv (39%), and the platelet (PLT) cont reduced rapidly (high effected on reduce PLT, this makes thrombocytopenia.
A 68-year-old Malay man who is a rubber tapper, presented with a large painful right-sided neck swelling for 6 months, which was gradually increasing in size and associated with odynophagia, dysphagia, hoarseness and significant weight loss. He did not complain of any ear symptoms, but on further questioning, he admitted having a 3-week history of occasional tinnitus and reduced hearing on the right ear. Other ear symptoms were negative.
The optimisation of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) sterilisation process was studied using different degree of FFB ripeness (i.e. under-ripe, ripe, overripe) and loose fruits. This study was carried out with the application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), based on the interrelation between process temperature (X1; 100 to 120oC) and time (X2; 20 to 80 min) used for FFB sterilisation process on Free Fatty Acid, FFA (Y1,underripe FFB; Y2,ripe FFB; Y3,Overripe FFB; and Y4,loose fruits). Thirteen experimental runs were conducted per degree of ripeness using laboratory scale steriliser with varying sterilisation temperature and time, as generated by Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). Raw experimental data trend showed substantial FFA increment with the increment of FFB maturity. Four polynomial models were found appropriate to predict the responses within experimental regions. Analysis regarding factor influences on each response was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and graphical analysis. For under-ripe and ripe FFB, the temperature exerted higher and significant (p
Complete blood counts were analyzed for 30 samples of human blood with radiation dose rate ranging between 10 and 41 μSv/h using a Radium-226 source with different time of exposure. A new technique involving a nuclear track detector type CR-39(CR-39 NTDs) was used to estimate the alpha particle density incident on the blood samples. The results show that the ranges of alpha particle in blood samples and on the surface of CR-39NTDs vary exponentially with energy of alpha particles. This depends on the restricted energy loss and target density. Changes in the blood components due to irradiation occurred for different durations of irradiation, and the duration of irradiation that influenced the blood samples in this study was 6 min. The change in red blood cell (RBC) was negligible, so it is less affected than other blood components. In addition, most changes in the blood contents began at a low radiation dose (10.38-13.41 μSv/h). For the doses 13.41-21.77 μSv/h, platelet (PLT) counts increased rapidly and adversely with the RBC and white blood cell (WBC) due to chromosomal aberration. Besides, rapid PLT count reduction rapidly at high dose (42.1 μSvh) causes thrombocytopenia; in contrast, WBC increased, which is an indication of cancer caused due to increase in alpha particle dose. Generally, our results are in agreement with the essentials of blood content and the principles of biological radiation interaction.
Immobilization of cross-linked tannase on pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was successfully performed. Cross-linking of tannase molecules was made through glutaraldehyde. The immobilized tannase exhibited significantly improved pH, thermal, and recycling stability. The optimal pH for both free and immobilized tannase was observed at pH 5.0 with optimal operating temperature at 30°C. Moreover, immobilized enzyme retained greater biocatalytic activities upon 10 repeated uses compared to free enzyme in solution. Immobilization of tannase was accomplished by strong hydrophobic interaction most likely between hydrophobic amino acid moieties of the glutaraldehyde-cross-linked tannase to the MWCNT.
This study was carried out to determine the concentration of (222)Rn, (226)Ra, and (238)U in 25 different toothpastes available in the local market in Penang, Malaysia, using a CR-39 detector. The results showed the maximum concentration of radon/ radium/uranium to be 4197.644 Bq.m(-3), 54.369 Bq.Kgm(-1), and 0.044 ppm in Colgate4; the annual effective dose was found (0.402 mSvy(-1)) in S07. The average concentration of radon (42 %, 3.224 KBq.m(-3)) was higher than the concentration of (214)Po, (218)Po in POS (32 %, 2.415 KBq.m(-3)) and POW (26 %, 1.979 KBq.m(-3)). Also the values of pH of samples ranged from 4.21 (highly acidic) in S04 to 9.97 (highly basic) in S07, with an average of 6.33 which tended towards an acidic behavior; a low or high pH for a long period of time can cause harmful side-effects and enamel erosion. Concentrations of heavy metals varied from the maximum value 56.156 ppm in the Ca elements in the Colgate 4 sample to a minimum value of -0.858 ppm in the Cd elements in Colgate 6 (Ca 56.156 ppm > Cd 51.572 ppm > Zn 41.039 ppm > Mg 11.682 ppm > Pb 11.009 ppm]. Monitoring the accumulation of these metals in toothpaste samples is very important: the average annual effective dose (0.3118 mSvy(-1)) was below the range (3-10 mSvy(-1)) reported by ICRP (1993), and therefore there is no evidence of health problems. Significant strong positive correlations were found (r = 1, Pearson correlation, p
Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) frequently occurs in haemodialysis
(HD) patients undergoing recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO)
therapy and is commonly associated with rHuEPO hypo-responsiveness.
However, the conventional iron indices are inadequate to exhibit the status or
utilisation of iron during erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to elucidate
the accuracy and usefulness of the reticulocyte haemoglobin (RET-He) test
for diagnosing IDA in HD patients undergoing rHuEPO therapy. Methods: In
this cross-sectional study, fifty-five blood samples of HD patients on rHuEPO
therapy were collected and analysed for haematological and biochemical
parameters. A receiver operating characteristics curve was also plotted for
sensitivity and specificity analysis. IDA detection rates by RET-He, soluble
transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum ferritin were 63.64%, 3.64% and 0%,
respectively. RET-He level was significantly correlated with sTfR level, mean
cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin level and the transferrin receptor-ferritin
index. The sensitivity and specificity of RET-He in detecting IDA were 78.3%
and 92.0%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.864. IDA was more
frequently detected by RET-He than by ferritin or sTfR in HD patients
undergoing rHuEPO therapy. The RET-He level also showed higher sensitivity
and specificity for the iron status in these patients. Therefore, RET-He is a
useful biomarker for the detection of IDA in HD patients undergoing rHuEPO
The ability of hospitals to fulfil their roles--of information processing and dissemination, and of quality patient care provider--is influenced by the availability of supporting information systems. Using computers in wards, which is a change process, introduces new working practices accompanied by attitudinal and knowledge alterations in the users. This paper suggests that as a practical approach users need to be consulted and assessed prior to the introduction of computers in their work places. A questionnaire survey, the main purpose of which was to determine the potential users' responses and to measure their computer competencies, was sent to 183 nursing staff in several hospitals. Results show that the respondents have slightly positive attitudes towards computers even though 85% of them were computer illiterate. A training strategy is needed to increase competencies and to develop more favourable attitudes, which can be monitored using four training indicators.
The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-β-CD) monomer was synthesized for the purpose of selective recognition of benzylparaben (BzP). The MAA-β-CD monomer was produced by bridging a methacrylic acid (MAA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) by reacting the -OH group of MAA and one of the primary -OH groups of β-CD. This monomer comprised of triple interactions that included an inclusion complex, π-π interaction, and hydrogen bonding. To demonstrate β-CD performance in MIPs, two MIPs were prepared; molecularly imprinted polymer-methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin, MIP(MAA-β-CD), and molecularly imprinted polymer-methacrylic acid, MIP(MAA); both prepared by a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) in the bulk polymerization process. Both MIPs were characterized using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The presence of β-CD not only influenced the morphological structure, it also affected the specific surface area, average pore diameter, and total pore volume of the MIP. The rebinding of the imprinting effect was evaluated in binding experiments, which proved that the β-CD contributed significantly to the enhancement of the recognition affinity and selective adsorption of the MIP.
This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD) as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD) for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentrations towards removal of 2,4-DCP using MIP MAA-βCD have been evaluated. The imprinted material shows fast kinetics and the optimum pH for removal of 2,4-DCP is pH 7. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP MAA-βCD), the MIP MAA-βCD exhibited higher adsorption capacity and outstanding selectivity towards 2,4-DCP. Freundlich isotherm best fitted the adsorption equilibrium data of MIP MAA-βCD and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4-DCP was spontaneous and exothermic under the examined conditions.
The adsorption of tributyltin (TBT), onto three mesoporous silica adsorbents functionalized with calixarene, p-tert-butylcalixarene and p-sulfonatocalixarene (MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively) has been compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effect of contact time, initial TBT concentration, pH and temperature were studied. The Koble-Corrigan isotherm was the most suitable for data fitting. Based on a Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities were 12.1212, 16.4204 and 7.5757 mg/g for MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively. The larger uptake and stronger affinity of MCM-TDI-PC4 than MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S probably results from van der Waals interactions and the pore size distribution of MCM-TDI-PC4. Gibbs free energies for the three adsorption processes of TBT presented a negative value, reflecting that TBT/surface interactions are thermodynamic favorable and spontaneous. The interaction processes were accompanied by an increase of entropy value for MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S (43.7192 and 120.7609 J/mol K, respectively) and a decrease for MCM-TDI-PC4 (-37.4704 J/mol K). It is obviously observed that MCM-TDI-PC4 spontaneously adsorbs TBT driven mainly by enthalpy change, while MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S do so driven mainly by entropy changes.
Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) was firstly synthesized using functionalized β-Cyclodextrin (CD) with 1-benzylimidazole (BIM) to form monofunctionalized CD (βCD-BIMOTs) and was further polymerized using toluene diisocyanate (TDI) linker to form insoluble βCD-BIMOTs-TDI. SEM characterization result shows that βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibits macropore size while the BET result shows low surface area (1.254 m(2)g(-1)). The unique properties of the ILs allow us to produce materials with different morphologies. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) onto βCD-BIMOTs-TDI is studied. Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics are found to be the best to represent the data for 2,4-DCP adsorption on the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI. The presence of macropores decreases the mass transfer resistance and increases the adsorption process by reducing the diffusion distance. The change in entropy (ΔS°) and heat of adsorption (ΔH°) for 2,4-DCP on βCD-BIMOTs-TDI were estimated as -55.99 J/Kmol and -18.10 J/mol, respectively. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) indicates that the adsorption process is thermodynamically feasible, spontaneous and chemically controlled. Finally, the interactions between the cavity of βCD-BIMOTs and 2,4-DCP are investigated and the results shows that the inclusion of the complex formation and π-π interaction are the main processes involved in the adsorption process.
A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
β-Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (CD-ILP) was first synthesized by functionalized β-cyclodextrin (CD) with 1-benzylimidazole (BIM) to form monofunctionalized CD (βCD-BIMOTs) and was further polymerized using a toluene diisocyanate (TDI) linker to form insoluble CD-ILP (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI). The βCD-BIMOTs-TDI polymer was characterized using various tools and the results obtained were compared with those derived from the native β-cyclodextrin polymer (βCD-TDI). The SEM result shows that the presence of ionic liquid (IL) increases the pore size, while the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) result shows that the presence of IL increases the stability of the polymer. Meanwhile, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results show that βCD-BIMOTs-TDI polymer has 1.254 m(2)/g surface areas and the Barret-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution result reveals that the polymer exhibits macropores with a pore size of 77.66 nm. Preliminary sorption experiments were carried out and the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI polymer shows enhanced sorption capacity and high removal towards phenols and As(V).
The removal of four parabens, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and benzyl-paraben, by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer from aqueous solution was studied. Different β-CD polymers were prepared by using two cross-linkers, i.e., hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and toluene-2,6-diisocyanate (TDI), with various molar ratios of cross-linker. β-CD-HMDI polymer with molar ratio of 1:7 and β-CD-TDI polymer with ratio 1:4 gave the highest adsorption of parabens among the β-CD-HMDI and β-CD-TDI series, and were subsequently used for further studies. The adsorption capacity of β-CD-HMDI is 0.0305, 0.0376, 0.1854 and 0.3026 mmol/g for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and benzyl-paraben, respectively. β-CD-TDI have higher adsorption capacities compared with β-CD-HMDI, the adsorption capacity are 0.1019, 0.1286, 0.2551, and 0.3699 mmol/g methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and benzyl-paraben respectively. The parameters studied were adsorption capacity, water retention, and reusability. Role of both cross-linker in adsorption, hydrophobicity of polymers, and adsorption capacity of different parabens were compared and discussed. All experiments were conducted in batch adsorption technique. These polymers were applied to real samples and showed positive results.
The supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with 1,1',2,2'-tetramethyl-3,3'-(p-phenylenedimethylene) diimidazolium dibromide (TetraPhimBr), a dicationic ionic liquid, has been investigated. The inclusion complex with 1:1 molar ratio was prepared by a kneading method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, (1)H NMR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the formation of the inclusion complex. The results showed that the host-guest system is a fine crystalline powder. The decomposition temperature of the inclusion complex is lower than that of its parent molecules, TetraPhimBr and β-CD individually.
Our previous study demonstrated that the effects of isoniazid (INH) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the cellular level varied according to the growth phases. In this study, the variations in the INH action on M. avium strain NCTC 8559 are reported. M. avium cells grown on Middlebrook 7H10 agar were harvested at different stages of their growth cycle, exposed to the minimum inhibitory concentration of INH, stained with acid-fast staining for morphological changes and acid fastness properties, and the number of colonies were evaluated for viability studies. The study demonstrated that M. avium NCTC 8559 cells at the initial and fragmentation stages of the growth cycle were most susceptible to INH.
This work reports a new method to covalently attach calixarene derivatives onto MCM-41, using a diisocyanate as a linker. The modified mesoporous silicates were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verified that the calixarene derivates are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis.
A molecularly imprinted silica gel sorbent for selective removal of 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HA) was prepared by a surface imprinting technique with a sol-gel process. The 2-HA molecularly imprinted silica gel (2-HA-MISG) sorbent was evaluated by various parameters, including the influence of pH, static, kinetic adsorption and selectivity experiments. The optimum adsorption capacity to the 2-HA appeared to be around pH 2 by the polymer. Morevoer, the imprinted sorbent displayed fast uptake kinetics, obtained within 20 min. The adsorption capacity of the 2-HA-MISG (76.2 mg g-1) was higher than that of the non-imprinted silica gel (NISG) (42.58 mg g-1). This indicates that the 2-HA-MISG offers a higher affinity for 2-HA than the NISG. The polymer displays good selectivity and exhibits good reusability. Experimental results show the potential of molecularly imprinted silica sorbent for selective removal of 2-HA.