Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):127.
    PMID: 23875816 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-127
    The emulsification-evaporation method was used to prepare astaxanthin nanodispersions using a three-component emulsifier system composed of Tween 20, sodium caseinate and gum Arabic. Using Response-surface methodology (RSM), we studied the main and interaction effects of the major emulsion components, namely, astaxanthin concentration (0.02-0.38 wt %, x1), emulsifier concentration (0.2-3.8 wt %, x2) and organic phase (dichloromethane) concentration (2-38 wt %, x3) on nanodispersion characteristics. The physicochemical properties considered as response variables were: average particle size (Y1), PDI (Y2) and astaxanthin loss (Y3).
  2. Anarjan N, Tan CP, Nehdi IA, Ling TC
    Food Chem, 2012 Dec 1;135(3):1303-9.
    PMID: 22953858 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.091
    Astaxanthin colloidal particles were produced using solvent-diffusion technique in the presence of different food grade surface active compounds, namely, Polysorbate 20 (PS20), sodium caseinate (SC), gum Arabic (GA) and the optimum combination of them (OPT). Particle size and surface charge characteristics, rheological behaviour, chemical stability, colour, in vitro cellular uptake, in vitro antioxidant activity and residual solvent concentration of prepared colloidal particles were evaluated. The results indicated that in most cases the mixture of surface active compounds lead to production of colloidal particles with more desirable physicochemical and biological properties, as compared to using them individually. The optimum combination of PS20, SC and GA could produce the astaxanthin colloidal particles with small particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), conductivity and higher zeta potential, mobility, cellular uptake, colour intensity and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, all prepared astaxanthin colloidal particles had significantly (p<0.05) higher cellular uptake than pure astaxanthin powder.
  3. Anarjan N, Jafarizadeh-Malmiri H, Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Al-Resayes SI, Tan CP
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:1109-18.
    PMID: 25709435 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S72835
    Nanodispersion systems allow incorporation of lipophilic bioactives, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid) into aqueous systems, which can improve their solubility, bioavailability, and stability, and widen their uses in water-based pharmaceutical and food products. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the influences of homogenization time (0.5-20 minutes) and speed (1,000-9,000 rpm) in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via the solvent-diffusion process. The product was characterized for particle size and astaxanthin concentration using laser diffraction particle size analysis and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Relatively high determination coefficients (ranging from 0.896 to 0.969) were obtained for all suggested polynomial regression models. The overall optimal homogenization conditions were determined by multiple response optimization analysis to be 6,000 rpm for 7 minutes. In vitro cellular uptake of astaxanthin from the suggested individual and multiple optimized astaxanthin nanodispersions was also evaluated. The cellular uptake of astaxanthin was found to be considerably increased (by more than five times) as it became incorporated into optimum nanodispersion systems. The lack of a significant difference between predicted and experimental values confirms the suitability of the regression equations connecting the response variables studied to the independent parameters.
  4. Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Al-Resayes SI, Malmiri HJ, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Sep 10;19(9):14257-65.
    PMID: 25211006 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190914257
    The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid) in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC) as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4±8.6 nm). It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI) and maximum zeta-potential). This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.
  5. Zulkurnain M, Lai OM, Latip RA, Nehdi IA, Ling TC, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2012 Nov 15;135(2):799-805.
    PMID: 22868161 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.144
    The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation.
  6. Tan TB, Yussof NS, Abas F, Mirhosseini H, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2016 Mar 1;194:416-23.
    PMID: 26471574 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.045
    A solvent displacement method was used to prepare lutein nanodispersions. The effects of processing parameters (addition method, addition rate, stirring time and stirring speed) and emulsifiers with different stabilizing mechanisms (steric, electrostatic, electrosteric and combined electrostatic-steric) on the particle size and particle size distribution (PSD) of the nanodispersions were investigated. Among the processing parameters, only the addition method and stirring time had significant effects (p<0.05) on the particle size and PSD. For steric emulsifiers, Tween 20, 40, 60 and 80 were used to produce nanodispersions successfully with particle sizes below 100nm. Tween 80 (steric) was then chosen for further comparison against sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (electrostatic), sodium caseinate (electrosteric) and SDS-Tween 80 (combined electrostatic-steric) emulsifiers. At the lowest emulsifier concentration of 0.1%, all the emulsifiers invariably produced stable nanodispersions with small particle sizes (72.88-142.85nm) and narrow PSDs (polydispersity index<0.40).
  7. Tan TB, Yussof NS, Abas F, Mirhosseini H, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2016 Aug 15;205:155-62.
    PMID: 27006226 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.008
    The stability of lutein nanodispersions was evaluated during storage and when exposed to different environmental conditions. Lutein nanodispersions were prepared using Tween 80, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium caseinate (SC) and SDS-Tween 80 as the emulsifiers. During eight weeks of storage, all samples showed remarkable physical stability. However, only the SC-stabilized nanodispersion showed excellent chemical stability. Under different environmental conditions, the nanodispersions exhibited a varied degree of stability. All nanodispersions showed constant particle sizes at temperatures between 30 and 60°C. However, at pH 2-8, only the SC-stabilized nanodispersion was physically unstable. The addition of NaCl (300-400mM) only caused flocculation in nanodispersion stabilized by SDS-Tween 80. All nanodispersions were physically stable when subjected to different centrifugation speeds. Only Tween 80-stabilized nanodispersion was stable against the effect of freeze-thaw cycles (no phase separation observed). In this study, there was no particular emulsifier that was effective against all of the environmental conditions tested.
  8. Toopkanloo SP, Tan TB, Abas F, Alharthi FA, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2020 Dec 05;10(12).
    PMID: 33291386 DOI: 10.3390/nano10122432
    This study used highly lipophilic agents with an aim to increase the oxidant inhibitory activity and enhance photothermal stability of a novel mixed soy lecithin (ML)-based liposome by changing the composition of formulation within the membrane. Specifically, the development and optimization of the liposome intended for improving Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value and %TEAC loss was carried out by incorporating a natural antioxidant, quercetin (QU). In this context, a focus was set on QU encapsulation in ML-based liposomes and the concentration-dependent solubility of QU was investigated and calculated as encapsulation efficiency (EE). To explore the combined effects of the incorporation of plant sterols on the integrity and entrapment capacity of mixed phospholipid vesicles, conjugation of two types of phytosterols (PSs), namely β-sitosterol (βS) and stigmasterol (ST), to mixed membranes at different ratios was also performed. The EE measurement revealed that QU could be efficiently encapsulated in the stable ML-based liposome using 0.15 and 0.1 g/100 mL of βS and ST, respectively. The aforementioned liposome complex exhibited a considerable TEAC (197.23%) and enhanced TEAC loss (30.81%) when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light (280-320 nm) over a 6 h duration. It appeared that the presence and type of PSs affect the membrane-integration characteristics as well as photodamage transformation of the ML-based liposome. The association of QU with either βS or ST in the formulation was justified by their synergistic effects on the enhancement of the EE of liposomes. Parallel to this, it was demonstrated that synergistic PS effects could be in effect in the maintenance of membrane order of the ML-based liposome. The findings presented in this study provided useful information for the development and production of stable QU-loaded ML-based liposomes for food and nutraceutical applications and could serve as a potential mixed lipids-based delivery system in the disease management using antioxidant therapy.
  9. Chan SW, Mirhosseini H, Taip FS, Ling TC, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2016;25(Suppl 1):53-62.
    PMID: 30263486 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-016-0098-3
    The present study is aimed to prepare κ-carrageenan microparticles for the encapsulation of model drug, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). A face-centered central composite design was employed to study the effects of three different formulation variables (κ-carrageenan, emulsifier, and oil). The powder yield was found inversely affected by the κ-carrageenan and oil concentration. The encapsulation efficiency was maximized in the region of the middle level κ-carrageenan concentration, the high level emulsifier concentration, and the low level oil concentration. The emulsifier concentration was the most influential variable on the particle size of powder. The optimal formulation was reported as 0.91% (w/v) κ-carrageenan concentration, 0.64% (w/v) emulsifier, and 1.0% (w/w) oil. Both differential scanning colorimeter and X-ray diffraction analyses proved that incorporation of CoQ10 into κ- carrageenan microcapsules resulted in amorphous powder with significantly (p<0.05) higher water solubility compared to pure CoQ10 and physical mixture in the crystalline form.
  10. Ng SK, Nyam KL, Nehdi IA, Chong GH, Lai OM, Tan CP
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2016;25(Suppl 1):15-21.
    PMID: 30263481 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-016-0093-8
    β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) can produce fibrils that have multi-functional properties. Impacts of different stirring speeds on characteristics of β-lg fibrils as a stable form in β-lg fibril solutions were investigated. Fibril concentration, fibril morphology, turbidity, particle size distribution, zeta potential, and rheological behavior of solutions were studied. Stirring enhanced fibril formation and stability of a fibril solution, in comparison with unstirred solutions. Increasing the stirring speed produced more turbidity and a greater distribution of particle sizes, higher viscosity values, but no differences in zeta potential values of β-lg fibril solutions. However, a high stirring speed is not feasible due to reduction of the fibril yield and changes in fibril morphology.
  11. Toopkanloo SP, Tan TB, Abas F, Azam M, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2020 Dec 11;25(24).
    PMID: 33322600 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25245873
    In order to improve the membrane lipophilicity and the affinity towards the environment of lipid bilayers, squalene (SQ) could be conjugated to phospholipids in the formation of liposomes. The effect of membrane composition and concentrations on the degradation of liposomes prepared via the extrusion method was investigated. Liposomes were prepared using a mixture of SQ, cholesterol (CH) and Tween80 (TW80). Based on the optimal conditions, liposome batches were prepared in the absence and presence of SQ. Their physicochemical and stability behavior were evaluated as a function of liposome constituent. From the optimization study, the liposomal formulation containing 5% (w/w) mixed soy lecithin (ML), 0.5% (w/w) SQ, 0.3% (w/w) CH and 0.75% (w/w) TW80 had optimal physicochemical properties and displayed a unilamellar structure. Liposome prepared using the optimal formulation had a low particle size (158.31 ± 2.96 nm) and acceptable %increase in the particle size (15.09% ± 3.76%) and %trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (%TEAC) loss (35.69% ± 0.72%) against UV light treatment (280-320 nm) for 6 h. The interesting outcome of this research was the association of naturally occurring substance SQ for size reduction without the extra input of energy or mechanical procedures, and improvement of vesicle stability and antioxidant activity of ML-based liposome. This study also demonstrated that the presence of SQ in the membrane might increase the acyl chain dynamics and decrease the viscosity of the dispersion, thereby limiting long-term stability of the liposome.
  12. Mokbli S, Sbihi HM, Nehdi IA, Romdhani-Younes M, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI
    J Food Sci Technol, 2018 Jun;55(6):2170-2179.
    PMID: 29892118 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-018-3134-x
    Herein we examine the characteristics of date seed oil extracted from Chamaerops humilis L. var. humilis seeds (HSO) cultivated in a gardening zone in Tunisia. Its physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, and thermal and antioxidant properties were evaluated and compared with those of seed oil from another variety of Chamaerops humilis. The results showed that HSO possessed higher contents of oleic (44%) and linoleic (20%) acids than the other seed oil. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol content was 88 mg/100 g oil, where α-tocotrienol (64%) was the major isomer. The total phenolic (91 μg/g oil) and flavonoid contents (18 μg/g oil) of the HSO were determined, and its antioxidant capacities, measured in terms of ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging capacities, were 210 µM TEAC/g DW and 4.3 mM TEAC/g DW, respectively. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the oil was 16 h at 110 °C. Furthermore, the OSI of soybean oil was significantly enhanced upon blending with HSO. HSO exhibited higher thermal stability than the other oils and significantly different thermal behavior. The determination of fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, bioactive content, oxidative stability, and thermal behavior of HSO demonstrated that this renewable resource can be used for edible purposes.
  13. Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Blidi LE, Rashid U, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(2):164-170.
    PMID: 28240158 DOI: 10.2174/0929866524666170223150839
    BACKGROUND: Biodiesel is a green fuel consisting of long chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters, which can be blended with diesel or used alone which is usually produced from vegetable oils/fats by either lipasecatalyzed transesterification. In this investigation, an enzyme (Novozym 435) catalyzed process was optimized to prepare methyl esters from crude Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) by transesterification of CCO with methanol. However, as per our knowledge, lipase-catalyzed transesterification have not been used for biodiesel production from Citrullus colocynthis.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to transesterify the CCO in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase as catalyst and methanol. Additionally, the physicochemical parameters/fuel properties of the Citrullus colocynthis methyl ester (CCME) were assessed and compared.

    METHODS: Lipase-catalyzed reactions were carried out in three necked flask (50 mL) attached with reflux condenser and thermometer, immersed in oil bath at constant stirring speed (400 rpm). The reaction mixture was consisted of CCO and varying the calculated amount of methanol, tert-butyl alcohol, and Novozym 435. The experimental parameters reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, tert-butanol content, Novozym 435 content and water content were optimized for the transesterification reaction. The CCME yield was measured using gas chromatograph. The fuel properties of the produced CCME were determined as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and European (EN) biodiesel standard methods.

    RESULTS: In this study, an enzymatic catalyst was employed to synthesize the CCME from CCO via transesterification. Several variables affecting the CCME yield were optimized as lipase quantity (4%), water content (0.5%), methanol/oil molar ratio (5:1), reaction temperature (43 °C), reaction medium composition (80% tertbutanol/ oil), and reaction time (3.7 h). A CCME yield of 97.8% was achieved using enzyme catalyzed transesterification of CCO under optimal conditions. The significant biodiesel fuel properties of CCME, i.e. cloud point (0.70 °C); cetane number (49.07); kinematic viscosity (2.27 mm2/s); flash point (143 °C); sulfur content (2 ppm) density (880 kg/m3) and acid value (0.076 mg KOH/g) were appraised. CCME also exhibited long-term storage stability (4.80 h) and all the biodiesel fuel properties were within the range of standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214).

    CONCLUSION: The lipase-catalyzed transesterification produced better conversion than the base-catalyzed reaction. The fuel properties of CCME were within the limits of the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Furthermore, CCME showed good oxidative stability and a long shelf life due its high natural antioxidant content. CCME showed better fuel properties and long-term storage stability due to which it can be used as a potential alternative fuel.

  14. Nehdi IA, Hadj-Kali MK, Sbihi HM, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI
    J Oleo Sci, 2019;68(11):1041-1049.
    PMID: 31695014 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19111
    An optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 (ω-6/ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet prevents the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize ternary oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios using olive (OL), sunflower (SU), and cress (CR) oils. The oxidative stability, thermal profile, fatty acid (FA) and tocopherol compositions, and the physicochemical properties of the blends were used to determine their quality. Oil mixtures were prepared with 2, 3, 4, and 5 ω-6/ω-3 ratios. FA composition and tocopherol content were the most important factors affecting the oxidation and thermal stabilities of the oils. All oil mixtures showed good quality indices. Thus, synthetized oil blends with high oxidative stability, high antioxidant content, optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios, and recommended FA compositions can influence human health. The composition of healthy oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios was expressed mathematically and depicted graphically in a ternary diagram.
  15. Hew KS, Asis AJ, Tan TB, Yusoff MM, Lai OM, Nehdi IA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2020 Mar 01;307:125545.
    PMID: 31654951 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125545
    Corresponding the high presence of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) in refined palm oil, this paper re-evaluated degumming and bleaching processes of physical palm oil refining to reduce the amount of said contaminants. Separation-free water degumming was incorporated into the process, and this significantly (p 
  16. Shariffa YN, Tan TB, Uthumporn U, Abas F, Mirhosseini H, Nehdi IA, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2017 11;101:165-172.
    PMID: 28941679 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.005
    The aim of this study was to develop formulations to produce lycopene nanodispersions and to investigate the effects of the homogenization pressure on the physicochemical properties of the lycopene nanodispersion. The samples were prepared by using emulsification-evaporation technique. The best formulation was achieved by dispersing an organic phase (0.3% w/v lycopene dissolved in dichloromethane) in an aqueous phase (0.3% w/v Tween 20 dissolved in deionized water) at a ratio of 1:9 by using homogenization process. The increased level of homogenization pressure to 500bar reduced the particle size and lycopene concentration significantly (p<0.05). Excessive homogenization pressure (700-900bar) resulted in large particle sizes with high dispersibility. The zeta potential and turbidity of the lycopene nanodispersion were significantly influenced by the homogenization pressure. The results from this study provided useful information for producing small-sized lycopene nanodispersions with a narrow PDI and good stability for application in beverage products.
  17. Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Tan CP, Rashid U, Al-Resayes SI
    J Food Sci, 2018 Mar;83(3):624-630.
    PMID: 29377104 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14033
    This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia.

  18. Anarjan N, Tan CP, Ling TC, Lye KL, Malmiri HJ, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2011 Aug 24;59(16):8733-41.
    PMID: 21726079 DOI: 10.1021/jf201314u
    A simplex centroid mixture design was used to study the interactions between two chosen solvents, dichloromethane (DCM) and acetone (ACT), as organic-phase components in the formation and physicochemical characterization and cellular uptake of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced using precipitation and condensation processes. Full cubic or quadratic regression models with acceptable determination coefficients were obtained for all of the studied responses. Multiple-response optimization predicted that the organic phase with 38% (w/w) DCM and 62% (w/w) ACT yielded astaxanthin nanodispersions with the minimum particle size (106 nm), polydispersity index (0.191), and total astaxanthin loss (12.7%, w/w) and the maximum cellular uptake (2981 fmol/cell). Astaxanthin cellular uptake from the produced nanodispersions also showed a good correlation with their particle size distributions and astaxanthin trans/cis isomerization ratios. The absence of significant (p > 0.05) differences between the experimental and predicted values of the response variables confirmed the adequacy of the fitted models.
  19. Tan TB, Chu WC, Yussof NS, Abas F, Mirhosseini H, Cheah YK, et al.
    Food Funct, 2016 Apr 20;7(4):2043-51.
    PMID: 27010495 DOI: 10.1039/c5fo01621e
    In this study, we prepared a series of lutein nanodispersions via the solvent displacement method, by using surfactants with different stabilizing mechanisms. The surfactants used include Tween 80 (steric stabilization), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; electrostatic stabilization), sodium caseinate (electrosteric stabilization) and SDS-Tween 80 (electrostatic-steric stabilization). We then characterized the resulting lutein nanodispersions in terms of their particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential, lutein content, flow behavior, apparent viscosity, transmittance, color, morphological properties and their effects on cell viability and cellular uptake. The type of surfactant used significantly (p < 0.05) affected the physical properties of the nanodispersions, but the chemical properties (lutein content) remained unaffected. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images obtained from this study demonstrated that the solvent displacement method was capable of producing lutein nanodispersions containing spherical particles with sizes ranging from 66.20-125.25 nm, depending on the type of surfactant used. SDS and SDS-Tween 80 surfactants negatively affected the viability of the HT-29 cells used in this study. Thus, for the cellular uptake determination, only Tween 80 and sodium caseinate surfactants were used. The cellular uptake of the lutein nanodispersion stabilized by sodium caseinate was higher than that which was stabilized by Tween 80. All things considered, the type of surfactant with different stabilizing mechanisms did produce lutein nanodispersions with different characteristics. These findings would aid in future selection of surfactants in order to produce nanodispersions with desirable properties.
  20. Khor YP, Sim BI, Abas F, Lai OM, Wang Y, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Dec;99(15):6989-6997.
    PMID: 31414493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9989
    BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil.

    RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P 

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