MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cervical scrapings were collected from women attending clinics for routine Pap smear screening. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ primer sets and genotyping was accomplished by cycle-sequencing.
RESULTS: A total of 635 women were recruited into the study with mean ± SD age of 43 ± 10.5 years. Of these 92.6% (588/635) were reported as within normal limits (WNL) on cytology. The presence of HPV infection detected by nested MY/GP+-PCR was 4.4% (28/635). The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) in abnormal Pap smears was 53.8% (7/13). HPVs were also seen in 3.1% (18/588) of smears reported as WNL by cytology and 5.9% (2/34) in smears unsatisfactory for evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of HPV positivity in routine cervical screening samples is comparable with abnormal findings in cytology. Conventional Pap smear 'missed' a few samples. Since HPV testing is expensive, our results may provide valuable information for strategising implementation of effective cervical cancer screening in a country with limited resources like Malaysia. If Pap smear coverage could be improved, HPV testing could be used as an adjunct method on cases with ambiguous diagnoses.
Methods: A survey using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from a sample of 856 staff nurses working in eight public hospitals in Malaysia. A shortened nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(UWES-9) was used to measure work engagement. The UWES-9 comprises three dimensions, which was measured with three items each: vigor, dedication, and absorption. Job characteristics (job autonomy, job feedback, skill variety, task identity, task significance) were measured with the corresponding subscales of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Each subscale consisted of three items. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analysis.
Results: Findings indicated that all the five demographic variables (age, marital status, education, organizational tenure, job tenure) were unrelated to work engagement. The results further revealed that job autonomy (β = 0.19, P 0.05), however, did not affect work engagement.
Conclusion: Job autonomy, job feedback, task identity, and task significance are important factors in predicting work engagement. The findings of this study highlighted the need to incorporate these core dimensions in nursing management to foster work engagement.