Purpose of this study to be conducted is to identify the risk factor of low back pain
amongst port crane operator and to improve the health management program in the company. The
objectives of this study are to evaluate the major group of port crane operator that having low back
pain problem, to analyse the risk factors that associated to low back pain problem (WBV, Awkward
prolonged sitting and shift work-psychological) , individual characteristics (sport activity or hobby),
to analyse the associated rate operator’s absence from work (medical leave) and low back pain
problem and to propose the basic ergonomic assessment checklist for management to investigate
health incident cases and fit-to-work (ergonomics) screening checklist for new recruitment. A survey
research design through the distribution of the questionnaire and interview & field observation will
be used for research methodology. The population of this study consists of port crane operatorsRubber
Tyred Gantry Operator (RTG). Questionnaire method used to collect all relevant information
from correspondence. Interview also will be conducted to gain further details information. Data were
analyzed with the usage of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to make the process of
analysis easier. As result, firstly, the study shown that there are association of risk factor for working
posture and years of exposure with Low back Pain. The null hypothesis was rejected and there is
probability that these risk factors have influence the low back pain. It was also concluded that the null
hypothesis was accepted which means there are no correlation of risk factors for heavy physical
works, previous job experience, previous accident with low back pain problem. Thirdly, the study
shown there are no correlation of rate operator’s absence from work (medical leave) with low back
pain problem as the null hypothesis was accepted with p value
Algae biodiesel is undeniably very promising as an energy substitute for fossil fuel. It mass cultivation though requires huge capital investment. The aim of this study was to find a simple, inexpensive and tolerable media for algae growth. The optimal growth conditions for algae growth were studied. Botryococcus sp. was isolated from Sembrong Dam in Johor, Malaysia. In this study, two media were used, namely bold’s basal medium (BBM) and synthetic media from nitrogen and phosphorus compound. The synthetic media consisted of ammonium chloride and monopotassium phosphate that were blended together and modified into desired ratios. The N: P ratio of 1.5:1 yielded the highest chlorophyll-a concentration and the optimal growth conditions of algae for both media were at 6000 Lux, pH 7 and 30 rpm. The BMM had the highest algae growth, 3.25 x 107cell/ml while the synthetic media yielded a maximum cell concentration of up to 1.025 x 107 cell/ml which is 68.5% lower compared with BBM. The findings of this study point to the importance of large scale production of algae useful for industrial production of biodiesel.
Strength and durability are important characteristics of concrete and desired engineering properties. Exposure to aggressive environment threatens durability of concrete. Previous studies on bio-concrete using several types of bacteria, including sulphate reduction bacteria (SRB), had to increase durability of concrete have shown promising results. This study used mixtures designed according to concrete requirement for sea water condition with SRB composition of 3%, 5% and 7% respectively. The curing time were 28, 56 and 90 days respectively. The mechanical properties, namely compressive strength and water permeability, were tested using cube samples. The results showed compressive strength had higher increase than the control at 53.9 Mpa. The SRB with 3%composition had maximum water permeability. Thus, adding SRB in concrete specimens improves compressive strength and water permeability. This is particularly suitable for applications using chloride ion penetration (sea water condition) where corrosion tends to affect durability of concrete constructions.
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus is a well-established cause of the development of a variety of epithelial lesions in the cervix. However, as yet, incorporation of HPV testing into cervical cancer screening either as an adjunct or stand alone test is limited due to its cost. We therefore here ascertained the presence and type specificity of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA in routine cervical scrapings.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cervical scrapings were collected from women attending clinics for routine Pap smear screening. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ primer sets and genotyping was accomplished by cycle-sequencing.
RESULTS: A total of 635 women were recruited into the study with mean ± SD age of 43 ± 10.5 years. Of these 92.6% (588/635) were reported as within normal limits (WNL) on cytology. The presence of HPV infection detected by nested MY/GP+-PCR was 4.4% (28/635). The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) in abnormal Pap smears was 53.8% (7/13). HPVs were also seen in 3.1% (18/588) of smears reported as WNL by cytology and 5.9% (2/34) in smears unsatisfactory for evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of HPV positivity in routine cervical screening samples is comparable with abnormal findings in cytology. Conventional Pap smear 'missed' a few samples. Since HPV testing is expensive, our results may provide valuable information for strategising implementation of effective cervical cancer screening in a country with limited resources like Malaysia. If Pap smear coverage could be improved, HPV testing could be used as an adjunct method on cases with ambiguous diagnoses.
Lung cancer remains to be one of the most common and serious types of cancer worldwide. While treatment is available, the survival rate of this cancer is still critically low due to late stage diagnosis and high frequency of drug resistance, thus highlighting the pressing need for a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis. Studies in the past years have evidenced that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical players in the regulation of various biological functions, including apoptosis, which is a process frequently evaded in cancer progression. Recently, miRNAs were demonstrated to possess proapoptotic or antiapoptotic abilities through the targeting of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review examines the involvement of miRNAs in the apoptotic process of lung cancer and will also touch on the promising evidence supporting the role of miRNAs in regulating sensitivity to anticancer treatment.
Many problems associated with the mixing process remain unsolved and result in poor mixing performance. The residence time distribution (RTD) and the mixing time are the most important parameters that determine the homogenisation that is achieved in the mixing vessel and are discussed in detail in this paper. In addition, this paper reviews the current problems associated with conventional tracers, mathematical models, and computational fluid dynamics simulations involved in radiotracer experiments and hybrid of radiotracer.
"Proteomics" refers to the systematic analysis of proteins. It complements other "omics" technologies such as genomics and transcriptomics in elucidating the identity of proteins of an organism, and understanding their functions. Proteomics is used in many areas of research such as discovery of markers for diagnosis and vaccine candidates, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, in the study of expression patterns at different time points and in response to different stimuli, and in elucidating functional protein networks. Proteomics analysis involves sample preparation, protein separation, and protein identification. The 'heart' of current proteomics is mass-spectrometry, with LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF being commonly used equipment. However, the high costs of the equipment, software, databases, and the need for skilled personnel limit the wide utilization of this technology in the less developed countries. Therefore, there need to be sharing of facilities, better networking and collaborations among our scientists and laboratories to take advantage of this powerful technology.
The aim of this study was to examine cells (split-sample) that were retained on sampling devices used to collect conventional Pap smears (primary smears) in order to evaluate specimen adequacy and cytological diagnosis of scrapings that are routinely discarded.
The extraction of Red 3BS reactive dye from aqueous solution was studied using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). ELM is one of the processes that have very high potential in treating industrial wastewater consisting of dyes. In this research, Red 3BS reactive dye was extracted from simulated wastewater using tridodecylamine (TDA) as the carrier agent, salicyclic acid (SA) to protonate TDA, sodium chloride as the stripping agent, kerosene as the diluent and SPAN 80 as emulsifier. Experimental parameters investigated were salicyclic acid concentration, extraction time, SPAN 80 concentration, sodium chloride concentration, TDA concentration, agitation speed, homogenizer speed, emulsifying time and treat ratio. The results show almost 100% of Red 3BS was removed and stripped in the receiving phase at the optimum condition in this ELM system. High voltage coalesce was applied to break the emulsion hence, enables recovery of Red 3BS in the receiving phase.
Feedback on satisfaction with dental care is vital for continuous improvement of the service delivery process and outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction with school dental service (SDS) provided via mobile dental squads in Selangor, Malaysia, under 4 domains of satisfaction: patient-personnel interaction, technical competency, administrative efficiency, and clinic setup using self-administered questionnaires. Among the 607 participants who had received treatment, 62% were satisfied with the services provided. In terms of domains, technical competency achieved the highest satisfaction score, whereas clinic setup was ranked the lowest. As for items within the domains, the most acceptable was "dental operator did not ask personal things which were not dentally related," whereas privacy of treatment was the least acceptable. In conclusion, whereas children were generally satisfied with the SDS, this study indicates that there are still areas for further improvement.
In this study, the numerical simulation in a mixing vessel agitated by a six bladed Rushton turbine has
been carried out to investigate the effects of effective parameters to the mixing process. The study is intended to screen the potential parameters which affect the optimization process and to provide the detail insights into the process. Three-dimensional and steady-state flow has been performed using the fully predictive Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) technique for the impeller and tank geometry. Process optimization is always used to ensure the optimum conditions are fulfilled to attain industries’ satisfaction or needs (ie; increase profit, low cost, yields, etc). In this study, the range of recommended speed to accelerate optimization is 100, 150 and 200rpm respectively and the range of recommended clearance is 50, 75 and 100mm respectively for dual Rushton impeller. Thus, the computer fluid dynamics (CFD) was introduced in order to screen the suitable parameters efficiently and to accelerate optimization. In this study,
Lung cancer remains a major health problem with a low 5-year survival rate of patients. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) are prevalent in lung cancer and these aberrations play a significant role in the progression of tumour progression. In the present study, bioinformatics analyses was employed to predict potential miR-608 targets, which are associated with signaling pathways involved in cancer. Luciferase reporter assay identified AKT2 as a novel target of miR-608, and suppression of its protein levels was validated through western blot analysis. Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with cells transfected with miR-608 to elucidate the role of miR-608 in vivo, and immunostained with antibodies to detect activated caspase-3. We present the first evidence that miR-608 behaves as a tumour suppressor in A549 and SK-LU-1 cells through the regulation of AKT2, suggesting that selective targeting of AKT2 via miR-608 may be developed as a potential therapeutic strategy for miRNA-based non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy.
This paper embarks on the evolution of green economy approach to support the increasing
food commodity expenses by adapting Solar Photovoltaic (PV) as the suitable renewable
energy technology for Natural Resource Management (NRM). The crops for cash trend and
continuously decreasing market price in solar technologies are highlighted with strong effort
by Malaysian Government through Renewable Energy (RE) policy and National Key Economy
Area (NKEA). Reviews on the benefits of solar dryer technologies in crop production and agrobusiness
are presented with highlights on high value herbal crops (HVHc) and some potentials
of high-performance solar dryer technology.
The silencing of Bcl‑xL in the non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, downregulates miR‑361‑5p expression. This study aimed to determine the biological effects of miR‑361‑5p on NSCLC, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated. MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) functional analyses were performed via transfection of miR‑361‑5p mimics and inhibitors, demonstrating that the inhibition of miR‑361‑5p induced the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. To elucidate the function of miR‑361‑5p in vivo, cells transfected with miR‑361‑5p inhibitors were microinjected into zebrafish embryos, and immunostained using antibodies to detect the active form of caspase‑3. Co-transfection with siBcl‑xL and miR‑361‑5p mimics illustrated the association between Bcl‑xL, miR‑361‑5p and apoptosis; miR‑361‑5p mimics blocked the apoptosis initiated by siBcl‑xL. Luciferase reporter assays identified mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2) as a novel target of miR‑361‑5p and the reduction of its protein level was validated by western blot analysis. To confirm the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated, gene rescue experiments revealed that the ectopic expression of SMAD2 attenuated the inhibitory effects on apoptosis induced by miR‑361‑5p. In this study, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that miR‑361‑5p functions as an oncomiR in A549 and SK‑LU‑1 cells through the regulation of SMAD2, suggesting that miR‑361‑5p may be employed as a potential therapeutic target for the miRNA-based therapy of NSCLC.
In order to investigate the reliability of detecting HPV DNA in cervical smears, we compared the performance of nested MY/GP PCR and FDA approved-Hybrid Capture II (HCII) using clinical cervical scrapings from 40 patients. It was found that PCR was more sensitive (81.8%) in comparison to HCII (36.4%) in detecting HPV although specificity of HCII was much higher (96.6%) than PCR (58.6%). The Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of both the techniques were quite similar but Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of HCII was much higher (80.0%) compared to PCR (42.9%). While the HCII method showed good specificity for HPV detection, its lack of sensitivity as compared to PCR may be a drawback for diagnostic use.
Pneumococcal glomerulonephritis in a healthy child: a case report and literature review. [Singapore Med J. 2014]
• A different viewpoint on pneumococcal glomerulonephritis in a healthy child. [Singapore Med J. 2014]