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  1. Chua SS, Tea MH, Rahman MH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Apr;34(2):215-23.
    PMID: 19250142 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00997.x
    Drug administration errors were the second most frequent type of medication errors, after prescribing errors but the latter were often intercepted hence, administration errors were more probably to reach the patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the frequency and types of drug administration errors in a Malaysian hospital ward.
  2. TermehYousefi A, Bagheri S, Shahnazar S, Rahman MH, Kadri NA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:636-642.
    PMID: 26652417 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.041
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nanoscale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems, which is a powerful finite element (FE) tool to perform the numerical analysis and visualize the interactions between proposed tip and membrane of the cell. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well as the applied force of CNT-AFM tip on the contact area of the cell. This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis.
  3. Mah HY, Ishak WS, Abd Rahman MH
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Oct;20(10):911-916.
    PMID: 32820857 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.14011
    The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of dual sensory impairment, and to identify its risk factors among community-dwelling older adults in Selangor.

    METHODS: Secondary analysis was carried out on data collected by the Grand Challenge Project among older adults aged ≥65 years from Selangor. Data on sociodemographic information, medical history, cognitive function and functional performance were obtained through face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while hearing was assessed using pure-tone audiometry. Descriptive analysis was used to measure the prevalence of the impairments, and logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of dual sensory impairment and hearing impairment were at 10.5% and 76.2% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with lower cognitive scores were associated with dual sensory impairment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98), while smoking was found associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-28.65).

    CONCLUSION: Dual sensory impairment is common among older adults in Selangor. The association between dual sensory impairment and cognitive function suggests the need to have visual and hearing screening on older adults for early detection particularly those at risk of cognitive impairment. The prevalence of hearing impairment was reported high among older adults and smokers appeared to be at higher risk of the impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 911-916.

  4. Omar R, Rahman MH, Knight VF, Mustaphal M, Mohammed Z
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:667.
    PMID: 25245590 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-667
    BACKGROUND: Vision impairment associated with diabetic retinopathy, is well known and low vision rehabilitation is always recommended. In this report, the importance of objective measure of mental health and quality of life screening in diabetic retinopathy low-vision assessment is discussed.
    CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 43-year-old Asian female who has mild vision impairment due to tractional retinal detachment secondary to diabetic retinopathy and how mental health screening and quality of life screening during low vision rehabilitation can improve in the management of this patient.
    CONCLUSION: Although vision impairment was mild, the psychological impact was enormous and affected her quality of life substantially. This case report illustrates that recognition of the mental health and quality of life impact on visual impairment is critical to the rehabilitation management of low vision patients with diabetic retinopathy.
  5. Guo HF, Mohd Ali R, Abd Hamid R, Chang SK, Rahman MH, Zainal Z, et al.
    PMID: 33241700 DOI: 10.1177/1534734620971066
    Our previous study has demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) with tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) cream formulation accelerating postburn wound healing with deep partial-thickness burn in rats. Current study was conducted to determine the gene expression levels related to burn wound healing process. A total of 180 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: untreated control, treated with Silverdin cream, base cream, base cream with 0.00075% EGF, base cream with 3% TRF or base cream with 0.00075% EGF, and 3% TRF, respectively. Burn wounds were created and the above-mentioned creams were applied once daily. Six animals from each group were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 11, 14, and 21 postburn. RNA was extracted from wound tissues and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the 9 wound healing-related genes against time postburn. Results demonstrated that topically applied EGF + TRF formulation downregulated the expression levels of IL-6 (interluekin-6), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) throughout the whole healing process. TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β) and VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor-A) were reduced on day 14 postburn. On the contrary, increased expression of Collagen-1 in the early stage of wound healing was observed with no effects on epidemal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The results showed beneficial application of EGF + TRF cream in the treatment of burn wound since it accelerated wound healing by relieving oxidative stress, decreasing inflammation, and promoting proper tissue modelling in the burn wound.
  6. Thornber K, Huso D, Rahman MM, Biswas H, Rahman MH, Brum E, et al.
    Glob Health Action, 2019;12(sup1):1734735.
    PMID: 32153258 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2020.1734735
    One of the key strategic objectives of the World Health Organisation's global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) action plan is to improve public awareness and understanding of this issue. Very few AMR awareness campaigns have targeted the animal production sector, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where rural communities can be geographically difficult to access via traditional face-to-face community engagement methods. Aquaculture is a major food production industry in Bangladesh and across Asia, an area which poses a significant risk to global AMR dissemination. In this pilot study, we sought to investigate the potential for digital communication materials to rapidly and effectively communicate AMR messages to rural aquaculture farmers in Bangladesh. Working with stakeholders from the Bangladesh aquaculture industry, we developed a 4-minute digital animation designed specifically for this audience and assessed its capacity to engage and communicate AMR messages to farmers. We then conducted a small-scale social media campaign, to determine the potential for rapidly disseminating AMR awareness materials to a large audience across Bangladesh, where there is an extensive 4 G internet network and an ever-increasing proportion of the population (57% as of December 2019) have mobile internet access. Thirty-six farmers were surveyed: all of them liked this method of communication and 97% said it would change the way they use antibiotics in the future. Through the social media campaign, the animation received 9,100 views in the first 2 weeks alone. Although preliminary, these results demonstrate the huge potential for digital communication methods for the rapid and widespread communication of AMR awareness materials to rural aquaculture communities in Bangladesh and across Asia. Our results support the need for more research into the most appropriate and effective content of AMR awareness campaigns for aquaculture communities and question the need for explaining the science underlying AMR in such communication materials.
  7. Kee QT, Abd Rahman MH, Mohamad Fadzil N, Mohammed Z, Shahar S
    BMC Res Notes, 2021 Oct 24;14(1):395.
    PMID: 34689826 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-021-05813-3
    OBJECTIVE: Near visual impairment (VI) is a common disability in an aging population. Near vision is crucial in activity of daily living including reading, smartphone and computer use and meal preparation. This study was conducted to determine the association between near visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) with activity of daily living (ADL) among visually impaired older adults.

    RESULTS: A total of 208 participants aged  ≥  60 were recruited from the population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity. Habitual near VA and CS were measured using Lighthouse near VA chart and Pelli-Robson CS chart, respectively. Lawton instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was used to assess ADL. There are 41.8% participants with near visual impairment and 28.7% among them had IADL disability. Independent t test showed significant lower mean IADL score among visually impaired participants [t(206)  =  2.03, p  =  0.04]. IADL score significantly correlated with near VA (r  =   - 0.21, p  =  0.05) but not with CS (r  =   - 0.14, p = 0.21). Near VA (B  =   - 0.44, p  =  0.03) and age (B  =   - 0.07, p  =  0.01) significantly predicted IADL. The findings show poorer VA renders higher IADL disability, which may necessitate interventions to improve ADL among visually impaired older adults.

  8. Mohd Basri MS, Yek TH, A Talib R, Mohamed Amin Tawakkal IS, Kamarudin SH, Mazlan N, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Mar 23;13(6).
    PMID: 33806990 DOI: 10.3390/polym13060985
    Geopolymer coating using rice husk ash (RHA) as the aluminosilicate source has shown excellent fire retardant properties. However, incorporation of rice husk ash into the geopolymer matrix increased water absorption properties of the polymer composite. As such, silicone rubber (SiR) was introduced to improve the moisture absorption and fire retardant properties of the composite. Additionally, the less efficient one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach was conventionally used in past studies on the RHA-based geopolymer composite. In understanding the optimum value and significant effect of factors on the fire retardant and moisture absorption properties of the binary blended geopolymer coating composite, the use of statistical analysis and regression coefficient model (mathematical model) was considered essential. The objectives of this study are to identify the significant effect of factors on moisture absorption and fire retardant properties, to determine the optimum composition, and to study the microstructure of the rice husk ash/silicone rubber (RHA/SiR)-based binary blended geopolymer coating composite. The RHA/AA and SiR/Ge ratios were chosen as factors, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to design experiments and conduct analyses. Fire retardant and moisture absorption tests were conducted. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the microstructure of geopolymer samples. The RHA/alkaline activator (AA) and SiR/Ge ratios were shown to have a significant effect on the responses (temperature at equilibrium and moisture absorption). The high ratio of RHA/AA and SiR/Ge resulted in a lower temperature at equilibrium (TAE) below 200°C and at moisture absorption below 16%. The optimum formulation for the geopolymer coating composite can be achieved when the RHA/AA ratio, SiR/Ge ratio, and sodium hydroxide concentration are set at 0.85, 0.70, and 14 M, respectively. SEM micrographs of samples with good fire retardant properties showed that the char residue of the geopolymer composite coating, which is a layer of excess silicone rubber, is porous and continuous, thus providing a shielding effect for the layer of geopolymer underneath. The sample with good moisture absorption showed the formation of a thin outer layer of silicone rubber without any cracks. The unreacted SiR formed a thin layer beneath the geopolymer composite matrix providing a good moisture barrier.
  9. Amal MNA, Ismail A, Saad MZ, Md Yasin IS, Nasruddin NS, Mastor SS, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2019 Jun;131:47-52.
    PMID: 30940607 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.03.034
    This study determines the median lethal dose, and describes the clinico-pathological changes and disease development following Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Javanese medaka model. Javanese medakas were infected with S. agalactiae via intraperitoneal (IP) from 104 to 108 CFU/mL, and immersion (IM) route from 103 to 107 CFU/mL. The LD50-240h and clinico-pathological changes of the fish was determined until 240 h post infection (hpi). Next, the disease development was determined for 96 hpi in the fish following IP and IM infection at 103 CFU/mL and 104 CFU/mL, respectively. The LD50-240h of S. agalactiae in Javanese medaka was lower following IP injection (4.5 × 102 CFU/mL), compared to IM route (3.5 × 103 CFU/mL). The clinical signs included separating from the schooling group, swimming at the surface of water column, lethargy, erratic swimming pattern, corneal opacity and exophthalmia. Histopathological examinations revealed generalized congestion in almost all internal organs, particularly in liver and brain, while the kidney displayed tubular necrosis. Both IP and IM routes showed significant positive correlation (p 
  10. Latif MS, Azad AK, Nawaz A, Rashid SA, Rahman MH, Al Omar SY, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Oct 09;13(20).
    PMID: 34685214 DOI: 10.3390/polym13203455
    Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) have become innovative, fascinating drug delivery methods intended for skin application to achieve systemic effects. TDDSs overcome the drawbacks associated with oral and parenteral routes of drug administration. The current investigation aimed to design, evaluate and optimize methotrexate (MTX)-loaded transdermal-type patches having ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) at different concentrations for the local management of psoriasis. In vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies were carried out for the formulated patches. Various formulations (F1-F9) were developed using different concentrations of HPMC and EC. The F1 formulation having a 1:1 polymer concentration ratio served as the control formulation. ATR-FTIR analysis was performed to study drug-polymer interactions, and it was found that the drug and polymers were compatible with each other. The formulated patches were further investigated for their physicochemical parameters, in vitro release and ex vivo diffusion characteristics. Different parameters, such as surface pH, physical appearance, thickness, weight uniformity, percent moisture absorption, percent moisture loss, folding endurance, skin irritation, stability and drug content uniformity, were studied. From the hydrophilic mixture, it was observed that viscosity has a direct influence on drug release. Among all formulated patches, the F5 formulation exhibited 82.71% drug release in a sustained-release fashion and followed an anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The permeation data of the F5 formulation exhibited about a 36.55% cumulative amount of percent drug permeated. The skin showed high retention for the F5 formulation (15.1%). The stability study indicated that all prepared formulations had very good stability for a period of 180 days. Therefore, it was concluded from the present study that methotrexate-loaded transdermal patches with EC and HPMC as polymers at different concentrations suit TDDSs ideally and improve patient compliance for the local management of psoriasis.
  11. Abdul Rahman MH, Sadi T, Ahmad AA, Masri IN, Mohammad Yusoff M, Kamaruddin H, et al.
    Heliyon, 2020 Aug;6(8):e04748.
    PMID: 32885080 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04748
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04486.].
  12. Abdul Rahman MH, Sadi T, Ahmad AA, Masri IN, Mohammad Yusoff M, Kamaruddin H, et al.
    Heliyon, 2020 Jul;6(7):e04486.
    PMID: 32715140 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04486
    Composting of yard waste is one of the waste management approaches in the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. The yard waste inventory was developed in the headquarters' area and a pilot-scale study was performed on the potential compost product. The total amount of yard waste generated from June 2017 to December 2017 was 16.75 tonnes with an average generation of 0.60 tonnes per week on the dry weight (d.w.) basis. The collected yard waste consisted of three major characteristics, namely dry leaves, fresh green leaves, and grass cuttings, and a waste estimation technique was applied to determine the composition of these three elements. The acquired information was used to formulate the initial compost mixture. The wastes were then mixed with an appropriate amount of livestock manure and other wastes to obtain the optimum initial C/N ratio, which was then found in the analysis to range between 25:1 and 42:1. Meanwhile, the C/N ratios obtained from the matured compost product were from 10:1 and 15:1. Moreover, most of the compost yield ranged between 50% and 70% (w w-1 d.w. basis), while the percentage of the seed germination in the compost was over 95%. The viability of the project was indicated from the economic analysis, with benefit to cost ratio (BCR) values of more than 1. The results also suggested that the large scale composting of yard waste in MARDI was feasible and its applicability is continuous. This technique also fulfilled the objective of producing quality compost, which was suitable for agricultural use.
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