RESULTS: We report that combination of A-1210477 and ABT-263 exhibited synergistic effects on all cervical cancer cell lines tested. Drug sensitization studies revealed that A-1210477 sensitised the cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and CaSki to ABT-263 by 11- and fivefold, respectively. Sensitization also occurred in the opposite direction whereby ABT-263 sensitised SiHa and CaSki to A-1210477 by eightfold. This report shows that combination of ABT-263 and A-1210477 could be a potential treatment strategy for cervical cancer. Extensive drug mechanistic studies and drug sensitivity studies in physiological models are necessary to unleash the prospect of this combination for cervical cancer therapy.
RESULTS: Spheroids generated from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HK-1 continuously grew and invaded into collagen matrix in a 24-well plate. Similar observations were noticed with spheroids embedded in the 3D chip. Large spheroids in both 24-well plate and the 3D chip disintegrated and invaded into the collagen matrix. Preliminary drug sensitivity assays showed that the growth and invasion of spheroids were inhibited when spheroids were treated with combination of cisplatin and paynantheine at high concentrations, in a 24-well plate. Comparable findings were obtained when spheroids were treated with the same drug combination in the 3D chip. Moving forward, spheroid assays could be performed in the 3D chip in a more high-throughput manner with minimal time and cost.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the potential applicability of M. speciosa alkaloids (mitragynine, speciociliatine or paynantheine) as chemosensitizers for cisplatin in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of the extracts, fractions and compounds were determined by conducting in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Based on the cytotoxic screening, the alkaloid extract of M. speciosa exhibited potent inhibitory effect on the NPC cell line NPC/HK1, and therefore, was chosen for further fractionation and purification. NPC cell lines NPC/HK1 and C666-1 were treated with combinations of cisplatin and M. speciosa alkaloids combinations in 2D monolayer culture. The effect of cisplatin and mitragynine as a combination on cell migration was tested using in vitro wound healing and spheroid invasion assays.
RESULTS: In our bioassay guided isolation, both methanolic and alkaloid extracts showed mild to moderate cytotoxic effect against the NPC/HK1 cell line. Both NPC cell lines (NPC/HK1 and C666-1) were insensitive to single agent and combination treatments of the M. speciosa alkaloids. However, mitragynine and speciociliatine sensitized the NPC/HK1 and C666-1 cells to cisplatin at ~4- and >5-fold, respectively in 2D monolayer culture. The combination of mitragynine and cisplatin also significantly inhibited cell migration of the NPC cell lines. Similarly, the combination also of mitragynine and cisplatin inhibited growth and invasion of NPC/HK1 spheroids in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the spheroids did not rapidly develop resistance to the drug combinations at higher concentrations over 10 days.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that both mitragynine and speciociliatine could be potential chemosensitizers for cisplatin. Further elucidation focusing on the drug mechanistic studies and in vivo studies are necessary to support delineate the therapeutic applicability of M. speciosa alkaloids for NPC treatment.
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