Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 106 in total

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  1. Nabil S, Ramli R
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2012 Nov;41(11):1422-6.
    PMID: 22560870 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2012.04.001
    The use of buccal fat pad in the management of osteoradionecrosis has not been described previously. A series of 10 consecutive cases of osteoradionecrosis treated with a combination of sequestrectomy and buccal fat pad is presented. The data were obtained by reviewing operative and medical records. The combination of sequestrectomy and buccal fat pad flap was successful in 86% of cases of stage II osteoradionecrosis and in 0% of cases of stage III. The overall success rate was 60%. Based on the result of this series, this treatment regime appeared to be beneficial in stage II osteoradionecrosis.
  2. Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R
    Singapore Dent J, 2005 Dec;27(1):13-6.
    PMID: 16438263
    Minor oral surgery in warfarinized patients can be performed without stopping or altering the dose of the drug. Thirty patients underwent various types of oral surgical procedures without interruption of their anticoagulant therapy and their therapeutic international normalized ratio maintained. Local measures such as pressure, packing the sockets with oxidized regenerated cellulose, and suturing were applied. In some patients, tranexamic acid mouthwashes were prescribed to further enhance haemostasis. Four patients had minimal postoperative bleeding in the form of bloodstained saliva, which lasted for 24 hours. This study highlights the importance of local measures in controlling postoperative bleeding in warfarinized patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures.
  3. Norazlimi NA, Ramli R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:105296.
    PMID: 26345324 DOI: 10.1155/2015/105296
    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p < 0.05), bill size and prey size (R = -0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.
  4. Ramli R, Oxley J
    Injury, 2016 Nov;47(11):2442-2449.
    PMID: 27645615 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.09.022
    INTRODUCTION: In Malaysia, motorcyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The objective of this study was to determine the association between helmet fixation and helmet type with head injury and severity of head injury among Malaysian motorcyclists.

    METHODS: The study design was a prospective cross-sectional study. The participants involved injured motorcyclists who were admitted in five selected hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Participants who sustained head injury were selected as the cases while those with injury below the neck (IBN) were selected as the controls. Questionnaire comprising motorcyclist, vehicle, helmet and crash factors was examined. Diagnoses of injuries were obtained from the participants' medical records.

    RESULTS: The total subjects with head injuries were 404 while those with IBN were 235. Majority of the cases (76.2%) and controls (80.4%) wore the half-head and open-face helmets, followed by the tropical helmets (5.4% and 6.0% of the cases and controls, respectively). Full-face helmets were used by 1.2% of the cases and 4.7% of the controls. 5.7% of the cases and 6.0% of the controls did not wear a helmet. 32.7% of the cases and 77.4% of the controls had their helmets fixed. Motorcyclists with ejected helmets were five times as likely to sustain head injury [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.73 (95% CI 3.38-9.73)] and four times as likely to sustain severe head injury [AOR of 4.83 (95% CI 2.76-8.45)]. The half head and open face helmets had AOR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.10-0.56) for severe head injury when compared to motorcyclists who did not wear a helmet.

    CONCLUSION: Helmet fixation is more effective than helmet type in providing protection to the motorcyclists.

  5. Mansor MS, Ramli R
    Behav Processes, 2017 Jul;140:121-126.
    PMID: 28438691 DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.010
    Niche theory suggests that sympatric species reduce interspecific competition through segregation of shared resources by adopting different attack manoeuvres. However, the fact that flycatcher-like bird species exclusively use the sally manoeuvre may thus challenge this view. We studied the foraging ecology of three flycatcher-like species (i.e. Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone sp., Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea, and Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhoptera) in the Krau Wildlife Reserve in central Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated foraging preferences of each bird species and the potential niche partitioning via spatial or behavioural segregation. Foraging substrate was important parameter that effectively divided paradise-flycatcher from Black-naped Monarch and Rufous-winged Philentoma, where monarch and philentoma foraged mainly on live green leaves, while paradise-flycatcher foraged on the air. They also exhibited different foraging height preferences. Paradise-flycatcher, for instance, preferred the highest studied strata, while Black-naped Monarch foraged mostly in lower strata, and Rufous-winged Philentoma made use of the lowest strata. This study indicates that niche segregation occurs among sympatric species through foraging substrate and attack manoeuvres selection.
  6. Ramli R, Fauzi A
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2018 Mar;25(3):513-519.
    PMID: 29686514 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.017
    Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus) is a well-known raptor that inhabits open areas such as oil palm plantation or paddy field. To determine preferable habitat and nesting site of Black-shouldered Kite in oil palm landscape, we conducted a study on Black-shouldered Kite's nesting biology in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia. We divided the island into six types of habitat and conducted road-side count of Black-shouldered Kite from April 2009 to February 2011. Whenever the Black-shouldered Kite was detected, we thoroughly searched the surrounding area for their nest. In total, we have recorded forty nests. The nests were built on 15 species of trees but most of the trees shared common physical characteristics. Some novice breeders also used oil palm tree as their nesting site. Structure and building materials of nests constructed on oil palm trees were different from nests built on other trees. Of all breeding attempts, only four nests which were located in residential area adjacent to young oil palm habitat were successful. Among important characteristics of successful nesting site include taller trees with strong branches and good leaf coverage. These trees not only protect nests from predator detection (except from other predatory birds) and physical environment but also facilitate Black-shouldered Kite's foraging activities by providing good vantage point.
  7. Zakaria N, Ramli R
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2018;14:117-128.
    PMID: 29343963 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S115261
    Background: Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients' perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients' privacy.

    Methods: We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients' perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months.

    Results: Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system.

    Conclusion: Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy.

  8. Mansor MS, Ramli R
    PLoS One, 2017;12(3):e0172836.
    PMID: 28253284 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172836
    Tropical rainforests are considered as hotspots for bird diversity, yet little is known about the system that upholds the coexistence of species. Differences in body size that are associated with foraging strategies and spatial distribution are believed to promote the coexistence of closely related species by reducing competition. However, the fact that many babbler species do not differ significantly in their morphology has challenged this view. We studied the foraging ecology of nine sympatric babbler species (i.e., Pellorneum capistratum, P. bicolor, P. malaccense, Malacopteron cinereum, M. magnum, Stachyris nigriceps, S. nigricollis, S. maculata, and Cyanoderma erythropterum) in the Krau Wildlife Reserve in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated; i) how these babblers forage in the wild and use vegetation to obtain food, and ii) how these trophically similar species differ in spatial distribution and foraging tactics. Results indicated that most babblers foraged predominantly on aerial leaf litter and used gleaning manoeuvre in intermediate-density foliage but exhibited wide ranges of vertical strata usage, thus reducing interspecific competition. The principal component analysis indicated that two components, i.e., foraging height and substrate are important as mechanisms to allow the coexistence of sympatric babblers. The present findings revealed that these bird species have unique foraging niches that are distinct from each other, and this may apply to other insectivorous birds inhabiting tropical forests. This suggests that niche separation does occur among coexisting birds, thus following Gause' law of competitive exclusion, which states two species occupying the same niche will not stably coexist.
  9. Ramli R, Oxley JA
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2019;20(3):332-335.
    PMID: 30995129 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2018.1557640
    Objectives: We encountered an unusual facial laceration wound in relation to motorcycle helmet visor use during our clinical practice. We aimed to assess the prevalence of this unusual facial injury among motorcyclists who sustained facial injuries in selected hospitals and to determine the possible mechanism involved. Methods: We used our prospective cross-sectional substudy involving injured motorcyclists presenting at major trauma hospitals in Southern Klang Valley, Malaysia, between March 2010 and March 2011. of 391 subjects with facial injuries, 2 male motorcyclists sustained this laceration. The wounds were assessed and we believed that each was associated with the helmet visor. One of the visors was collected and the edge was inspected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The prevalence of this unusual injury was 0.51% (95% confidence interval, 0.002-0.012) among motorcyclists who sustained facial injuries. Both cases were involved in a head-on collision with their colliding partners and their helmets were intact throughout the crash. The visor in case 1 was intact, but the visor in case 2 was broken. SEM analysis showed that the visor in case 1 had a potential cutting surface. We postulated that with helmet rotation in the forward and downward position and with some degree of visor bending or with a dislodged visor, the sharp-edged visor could potentially severely lacerate the face. Conclusion: This injury affects facial aesthetics and early referral to the facial surgery team is advocated. Documentation of the mechanism of injury, the patient's helmet and visor is obligatory, so that this information can be delivered to the regional road safety authority for preventive measures.
  10. Ramli R, Abd Rahman R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2002 Jul;9(2):47-50.
    PMID: 22844224
    Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients.
  11. Nor Hashim E, Ramli R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:676507.
    PMID: 24453888 DOI: 10.1155/2013/676507
    A comparative study of understorey birds inhabiting different habitats, that is, virgin jungle reserve (VJR) and regenerated forest (RF), was conducted in Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve and Selangor and Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to assess the diversity of understorey birds in both habitats and the effects of forest regeneration on the understorey bird community. The mist-netting method was used to capture understorey birds inhabiting both habitats in both locations. Species composition and feeding guild indicated that understorey bird populations were similar in the two habitats. However, the number of secondary forest species such as Little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra) in VJR is increasing due to its proximity to RF. This study discovered that RFs in both study areas are not yet fully recovered. However, based on the range of species discovered, the RFs have conservation value and should be maintained because they harbour important forest species such as babblers and flycatchers. The assessment of the community structure of understorey birds in VJR and RF is important for forest management and conservation, especially where both habitats are intact.
  12. Law B, Mohd Yunus SS, Ramli R
    Clin Ter, 2020 3 7;171(2):e110-e113.
    PMID: 32141481 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2020.2199
    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a well-recognized, debilitating complication of radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. There is no universally accepted treatment for ORN of the jawbones. We report on a case of refractory mandibular ORN treated by sequestrectomy of mandible and autogenous transplantation of fat graft combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Improved perfusion was observed using the laser Doppler flowmetry. This case highlights the use of autogenous free fat graft and PRF as an adjunct therapy to sequestrectomy in the management of ORN.
  13. Ramli R, Mohd Yunus SS
    PMID: 32187977 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17061922
    The child restraint legislation in Malaysia becomes mandatory from 1 January 2020. Prior to commencement of the rule, a survey showed that only 36% of Malaysian parents were aware of the importance of a child restraint system (CRS) and only 27% usage was reported during travel. The Malaysian Institute of Road Safety report showed that children transported in private vehicles were the leading groups of casualties among children aged 1 to 4 years old (43.8%) and 5 to 9 years old (30.2%), respectively. We performed a narrative review using the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases using keywords such as child restraint system, unrestrained injuries, Malaysia and epidemiology. The objectives of this review were: (1) to determine the prevalence on the use of CRS in Malaysia, (2) to evaluate the injuries related to unrestrained children and (3) to show the nation's preparation towards implementation of the child restraint law. Six papers on prevalence, one paper on injury and six mainstream newspaper were included in this study. The prevalence of a CRS use was shown between 5% to 41.8%. In relation to injury, the only publication from this country showed that among 19 children involved in a car crash, five (26.3%) children had non-craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries, ten (52.6%) with CMF injuries only, two (10.5%) with both CMF and non-CMF injuries and two (10.5%) without any injury. Overall, the Injury Severity Score (ISS) range was between 0 to 13 (median, 1.00; interquartile range, 1). Preparation to comply with the best practice of the child restraint law is still ongoing, especially those addressing the issues related to the low-income parents in the country. Due to scarcity of publication and data on the CRS use and injuries related to its non-usage, it is advocated that parallel with the implementation legislation, vigorous forms of public education as well as good data management must be performed and monitored regularly by the road safety authority in this country.
  14. Abd Rashid AH, Ramli R, Ibrahim S
    Surg Infect (Larchmt), 2014 Oct;15(5):656-8.
    PMID: 24828080 DOI: 10.1089/sur.2012.192
    Clostridium perfringens myonecrosis following an elective surgical procedure in a previously healthy child is a rare incident.
  15. Ramli R, Khamis MF, Shuid AN
    PMID: 22952556 DOI: 10.1155/2012/501858
    Recent studies suggested that Eurycoma longifolia, a herbal plant, may have the potential to treat osteoporosis in elderly male. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats (androgen-deficient osteoporosis model). Forty-eight-aged (10-12 months old) Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomised control (ORX), orchidectomised + 7 mg/rat testosterone enanthate (TEN) and orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 30 mg/kg (EL30), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 60 mg/kg (EL60), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 90 mg/kg (EL90). Rats were euthanized following six weeks of treatment. The left femora were used to measure the trabecular bone microarchitecture using micro-CT. Orchidectomy significantly decreased connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number compared to the SHAM group. Testosterone replacement reversed all the orchidectomy-induced changes in the micro-CT parameters. EL at 30 and 60 mg/kg rat worsened the trabecular bone connectivity density and trabecular separation parameters of orchidectomised rats. EL at 90 mg/kg rat preserved the bone volume. High dose of EL (90 mg/kg) may have potential in preserving the bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats, but lower doses may further worsen the osteoporotic changes.
  16. Wong HS, Then KY, Ramli R
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):369-70.
    PMID: 22299563 MyJurnal
    We report the first case of Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) who successfully underwent surgery in Malaysia following a grade 4 (severe) chemical injury in both eyes in 2006. The patient's left eye was eviscerated and his right eye underwent penetrating keratoplasty. However, the corneal graft failed and became opaque. His right eye could only perceive light. The OOKP was offered to him hoping to recover some functional vision. He underwent a 2-stage surgery to implant the OOKP into his right eye. However, 2 months post-operation, he developed vitreous haemorrhage. A successful pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed via the limited view through the lens. He attained a final visual acuity of 6/60 (N36). He was able to mobilize more independently, feed, dress himself and read large print.
  17. Ramza Ramli R, Mohamad I, Mohamad Zaki Z
    Acta Inform Med, 2012 Dec;20(4):264-5.
    PMID: 23378697 DOI: 10.5455/aim.2012.20.264-265
    Common foreign bodies in adults include fish bones and improperly chewed meat A 72-year-old Malay gentleman was brought in by his son to the emergency department after he was seen gasping at home. The patient has an underlying history of stroke with neurological deficit include his gag reflex. According to family members, the patient had the symptom a day after he had allegedly consumed a piece of durian without removing its seed. Patient was then admitted to Intensive care Unit (ICU) for monitoring. His blood gas normalized and was extubated after 2 days in ICU before discharged home the next day.
  18. Yunus SS, Ngeow WC, Ramli R
    Am J Emerg Med, 2015 Sep;33(9):1253-7.
    PMID: 26026365 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.05.009
    A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries among children involved in road traffic crashes was performed. The association of protective equipment use with the CMF injuries was evaluated.
  19. Soong MF, Ramli R, Saifizul A
    PLoS One, 2017;12(6):e0179485.
    PMID: 28617819 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179485
    Quarter vehicle model is the simplest representation of a vehicle that belongs to lumped-mass vehicle models. It is widely used in vehicle and suspension analyses, particularly those related to ride dynamics. However, as much as its common adoption, it is also commonly accepted without quantification that this model is not as accurate as many higher-degree-of-freedom models due to its simplicity and limited degrees of freedom. This study investigates the trade-off between simplicity and accuracy within the context of quarter vehicle model by determining the effect of adding various modeling details on model accuracy. In the study, road input detail, tire detail, suspension stiffness detail and suspension damping detail were factored in, and several enhanced models were compared to the base model to assess the significance of these details. The results clearly indicated that these details do have effect on simulated vehicle response, but to various extents. In particular, road input detail and suspension damping detail have the most significance and are worth being added to quarter vehicle model, as the inclusion of these details changed the response quite fundamentally. Overall, when it comes to lumped-mass vehicle modeling, it is reasonable to say that model accuracy depends not just on the number of degrees of freedom employed, but also on the contributions from various modeling details.
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