Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Anuar TS, Salleh FM, Moktar N
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:4101.
    PMID: 24525479 DOI: 10.1038/srep04101
    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (
  2. Teoh WK, Salleh FM, Shahir S
    3 Biotech, 2017 Jun;7(2):97.
    PMID: 28560637 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-017-0740-7
    Microbial arsenite oxidation is an essential biogeochemical process whereby more toxic arsenite is oxidized to the less toxic arsenate. Thiomonas strains represent an important arsenite oxidizer found ubiquitous in acid mine drainage. In the present study, the arsenite oxidase gene (aioBA) was cloned from Thiomonas delicata DSM 16361, expressed heterologously in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified recombinant Aio consisted of two subunits with the respective molecular weights of 91 and 21 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. Aio catalysis was optimum at pH 5.5 and 50-55 °C. Aio exhibited stability under acidic conditions (pH 2.5-6). The V max and K m values of the enzyme were found to be 4 µmol min(-1) mg(-1) and 14.2 µM, respectively. SDS and Triton X-100 were found to inhibit the enzyme activity. The homology model of Aio showed correlation with the acidophilic adaptation of the enzyme. This is the first characterization studies of Aio from a species belonging to the Thiomonas genus. The arsenite oxidase was found to be among the acid-tolerant Aio reported to date and has the potential to be used for biosensor and bioremediation applications in acidic environments.
  3. Anuar TS, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, Moktar N
    BMC Infect Dis, 2014;14:78.
    PMID: 24520940 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-78
    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals.
  4. Salleh FM, Anuar TS, Yasin AM, Moktar N
    J Microbiol Methods, 2012 Oct;91(1):174-8.
    PMID: 22986100 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2012.08.004
    Permanent staining of faecal smears by Wheatley's trichrome technique has been used by many scientists for the detection of parasites in the past and it was found to be highly sensitive. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Wintergreen oil in comparison with xylene in Wheatley's trichrome staining technique, as the reference technique. In a blind comparison study, 500 collected faecal samples from aboriginal communities were examined. Wintergreen oil was found to be more superior than xylene as a clearing agent in the Wheatley's trichrome staining of polyvinyl alcohol-fixed faecal smears for the identification of intestinal protozoa. Elimination of toxic, carcinogenic, and fire hazards makes Wintergreen oil the preferred choice in routine parasitology examinations.
  5. Anuar TS, Moktar N, Salleh FM, Al-Mekhlafi HM
    PMID: 26863854
    Clinical manifestations of giardiasis vary from asymptomatic infection to chronic diarrhea. A total of 611 stool samples from Aboriginal participants residing in Jelebu, Gerik and Temerloh States, Malaysia, ages 2 to 74 years were screened for Giardia intestinalis using microscopic examination and sequence analysis of a fragment of nested-PCR amplified triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. Demographic data was collected through a structured questionnaire. tpi was successfully amplified from 98/110 samples microscopically positive for G. intestinalis, with 62 and 36 belonging to assemblage A and B, respectively. There is a significant correlation between assemblage A and symptomatic infection only in participants of < 15 years of age. In the other age group, host factors may have more effects on the presence of clinical signs and symptoms than G. intestinalis assemblage types.
  6. Abubakar BM, Salleh FM, Shamsir Omar MS, Wagiran A
    Pharm Biol, 2018 Dec;56(1):368-377.
    PMID: 30058427 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2018.1479869
    CONTEXT: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) commonly known as Tongkat Ali is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. The plant extracts (particularly roots) are widely used for the treatment of cough and fever besides having antimalarial, antidiabetic, anticancer and aphrodisiac activities.

    OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the extent of adulteration of E. longifolia herbal medicinal products (HMPs) using DNA barcoding validated by HPLC analysis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chloroplastic rbcL and nuclear ITS2 barcode regions were used in the present study. The sequences generated from E. longifolia HMPs were compared to sequences in the GenBank using MEGABLAST to verify their taxonomic identity. These results were verified by neighbor-joining tree analysis in which branches of unknown specimen are compared to the reference sequences established from this study and other retrieved from the GenBank. The HMPs were also analysed using HPLC analysis for the presence of eurycomanone bioactive marker.

    RESULTS: Identification using DNA barcoding revealed that 37% of the tested HMPs were authentic while 27% were adulterated with the ITS2 barcode region proven to be the ideal marker. The validation of the authenticity using HPLC analysis showed a situation in which a species which was identified as authentic was found not to contain the expected chemical compound.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcoding should be used as the first screening step for testing of HMPs raw materials. However, integration of DNA barcoding with HPLC analysis will help to provide detailed knowledge about the safety and efficacy of the HMPs.

  7. Salleh FM, Moktar N, Yasin AM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Anuar TS
    J Microbiol Methods, 2014 Nov;106:143-145.
    PMID: 25193442 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2014.08.019
    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts.
  8. Salleh FM, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Nordin A, Yasin 'M, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Moktar N
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2011 Jan;69(1):82-5.
    PMID: 21146718 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2010.08.028
    This study was conducted to evaluate the modification of the usual Gram-chromotrope staining technique developed in-house known as Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun (GCK) in comparison with the Weber Modified Trichrome (WMT) staining technique; as the reference technique. Two hundred and ninety fecal specimens received by the Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory of Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia were examined for the presence of microsporidial spores. The sensitivity and specificity of GCK compared to the reference technique were 98% and 98.3%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92.5% and 99.6%, respectively. The agreement between the reference technique and the GCK staining technique was statistically significant by Kappa statistics (K = 0.941, P < 0.001). It is concluded that the GCK staining technique has high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of microsporidial spores in fecal specimens. Hence, it is recommended to be used in the diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis.
  9. Nimir AR, Isa NH, Eugene CB, Ghauth IM, Salleh FM, Rahman RA
    PMID: 17333723
    The age distribution, types of infection and clinical patterns of malaria were compared in patients admitted to an urban and a rural hospital. Analysis of the cases seen in urban setting characteristically indicated a relatively low transmission rate of the disease, whereas the mean inoculation rate in patients from the rural hospital was found to be at least twenty folds higher. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant causative species in the urban hospital (p = 0.01), infecting mostly adult (p = 0.001) males (p = 0.01). The geometric mean parasite count at 3432/microl among the urban patients was significantly higher than that in the rural patients at 1422/microl (p = 0.04). Coma and death were more common among the cases seen in the urban hospital (p = 0.003), while severe anemia was the significant complication in the rural setting. Overall, the provisional diagnosis of malaria was relatively low in the urban hospital (p = 0.02). The results from this study highlighted the need to define the extent of malaria in urban areas. This report attempts to identify the non-climatic determinants of the infection and, furthermore, to provide a more informed basis to describe the burden of the disease.
  10. Anuar TS, Ghani MK, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, Moktar N
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6:40.
    PMID: 23433099 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-40
    Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined.
  11. Koay JB, Natasya NN, Nashithatul M, Ihsanuddin R, Salleh FM, Azil AH
    Biotech Histochem, 2016;91(1):63-70.
    PMID: 26528914 DOI: 10.3109/10520295.2015.1074286
    Permanent mounting of fourth instar mosquito larvae is essential for identifying Aedes spp. This procedure requires extensive exposure to xylene, a clearing agent in the mounting process. We investigated wintergreen oil as a substitute for xylene. Five hundred larvae were mounted on slides to evaluate shrinkage or expansion of specimens after clearing using xylene or wintergreen oil. We examined the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts for species identification and for preservation of morphological characteristics after clearing specimens in xylene or wintergreen oil. Shrinkage of the length of whole larvae and width of the head, thorax and abdomen after mounting was significantly greater after clearing with xylene than with wintergreen oil. The length of the comb scale nearest the ventral brush was similar for both clearing agents. The clarity of the specimens after mounting was improved by clearing with wintergreen oil, but the integrity of the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts were similar for both clearing agents.
  12. Anuar TS, Hasim L, Moktar N, Salleh FM, Al-Mekhlafi HM
    PMID: 26863855
    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged < 15 years; 3 were male and 2 were female. All participants with positive stool sample for D. fragilis were symptomatic; 3 had diarrhea and 2 had other gastrointestinal symptoms. D. fragilis is present in the study population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population.
  13. Tuhina-Khatun M, Hanafi MM, Rafii Yusop M, Wong MY, Salleh FM, Ferdous J
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:290861.
    PMID: 26258135 DOI: 10.1155/2015/290861
    Upland rice is important for sustainable crop production to meet future food demands. The expansion in area of irrigated rice faces limitations due to water scarcity resulting from climate change. Therefore, this research aimed to identify potential genotypes and suitable traits of upland rice germplasm for breeding programmes. Forty-three genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design with three replications. All genotypes exhibited a wide and significant variation for 22 traits. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g). The highest heritability was found for photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO₂, and number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g). Cluster analysis based on 22 traits grouped the 43 rice genotypes into five clusters. Cluster II was the largest and consisted of 20 genotypes mostly originating from the Philippines. The first four principle components of 22 traits accounted for about 72% of the total variation and indicated a wide variation among the genotypes. The selected best trait of the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g), which showed high heritability and high genetic advance, could be used as a selection criterion for hybridisation programmes in the future.
  14. Oothuman P, Rampal L, Omar B, Marwsi MA, Mohammod CG, Jeffery J, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Dec;44(4):312-6.
    PMID: 2520040
    A survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in 1352 Chinese children between the ages of 6-12 years from the three National Type Chinese Primary Schools in Pulau Ketam in 1988, using the scotch-tape technique on three successive days. The overall prevalence was high (56.88%). The prevalence in Sin Bin School was significantly lower (50.86%) compared to the other two schools (56.60% and 61.04%). Prevalence was significantly higher amongst the 6-7 years age group (61.61%-70.18%) compared to other age groups (47.9%-59.29%). There was no difference in the prevalence between the boys and girls being 56.15% and 57.55% respectively.
  15. Salleh FM, Mariotti L, Spadafora ND, Price AM, Picciarelli P, Wagstaff C, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2016;16(1):77.
    PMID: 27039085 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-016-0766-8
    In many species floral senescence is coordinated by ethylene. Endogenous levels rise, and exogenous application accelerates senescence. Furthermore, floral senescence is often associated with increased reactive oxygen species, and is delayed by exogenously applied cytokinin. However, how these processes are linked remains largely unresolved. Erysimum linifolium (wallflower) provides an excellent model for understanding these interactions due to its easily staged flowers and close taxonomic relationship to Arabidopsis. This has facilitated microarray analysis of gene expression during petal senescence and provided gene markers for following the effects of treatments on different regulatory pathways.
  16. Anuar TS, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Abdul Ghani MK, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, Ghazali N, et al.
    Korean J Parasitol, 2013 Apr;51(2):231-6.
    PMID: 23710093 DOI: 10.3347/kjp.2013.51.2.231
    The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Orang Asli (aborigine) communities in Malaysia. Examination was performed on 500 stool samples obtained from Orang Asli communities in 3 different states using formalin-ether concentration, trichrome staining, and single-round PCR techniques. Out of 500 stool samples, single infection of E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii was identified in 3.2%, 13.4%, and 1%, respectively. In addition, 10 samples had mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar. Six samples containing E. dispar were also positive for E. moshkovskii, and only 2 samples had E. histolytica in association with E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Seventeen E. histolytica-positive samples were from symptomatic subjects, whereas the remaining 11 samples came from asymptomatic subjects. These findings suggest a predominant distribution of pathogenic potential of E. histolytica strains in this community. Therefore, further studies on genotyping of E. histolytica is required, to find out association between E. histolytica genotype and the outcome of the infection.
  17. Anuar TS, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ghani MK, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, Ghazali N, et al.
    Parasitology, 2012 Oct;139(12):1521-5.
    PMID: 22939193 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182012001485
    Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba dispar are microscopically indistinguishable from the pathogenic species Entamoeba histolytica. Although sporadic cases of human infection with E. moshkovskii have been reported, the amoeba is still considered primarily as a free-living amoeba. A cross-sectional study was carried out among Orang Asli communities in 3 different states of Peninsular Malaysia. Fecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques and then single-round PCR assay was used to detect E. moshkovskii. Out of 500 fecal samples examined microscopically, 93 (18·6%) samples were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii complex cysts and/or trophozoites. PCR products were detected in 106 fecal samples. E. moshkovskii isolates were detected in 13 (12·3%) fecal samples. Of the 13 E. moshkovskii-positive samples, 5 were of single isolation of E. moshkovskii, 6 were also positive for E. dispar, and only 2 samples were positive for E. dispar and E. histolytica. Moreover, 3 E. moshkovskii-positive samples were collected from symptomatic individuals while the remaining 10 samples were from asymptomatic subjects. This is the first report on the identification of E. moshkovskii in Malaysia. Further studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of E. moshkovskii infection and determine the epidemiology among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.
  18. Anuar TS, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Abdul Ghani MK, Abu Bakar E, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, et al.
    J Microbiol Methods, 2013 Mar;92(3):344-8.
    PMID: 23361047 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2013.01.010
    This study was conducted to evaluate two routinely microscopic diagnostic methods in comparison with single-round PCR assay as the reference technique to detect Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii. Examination was performed on 500 stool samples obtained from Orang Asli communities in different states of Malaysia using formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining and single-round PCR techniques. Ninety-three stool samples were detected E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii positive by routine microscopy, while single-round PCR detected 106 positive samples. Additional positives detected by PCR assay were eventually confirmed to be negative by both microscopic techniques. Detection rate of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was highest in combination techniques (18.6%), followed by trichrome staining (13.4%) and formalin-ether sedimentation (11.2%) techniques. Single-round PCR detected 21.2% of the stool samples. The sensitivity and specificity of formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques compared to the reference technique were 31.1% (95% CI: 29.0-36.0) and 94.2% (95% CI: 89.8-98.9), and 53.8% (95% CI: 46.0-76.2) and 97.5% (95% CI: 92.8-99.1), respectively. However, the sensitivity [59.4% (95% CI: 48.9-78.5)] of the method increased when both techniques were performed together, but the specificity decreased to 92.4% (95% CI: 81.0-98.0). The agreement between the reference technique, trichrome staining and combination techniques were statistically significant by Kappa statistics (trichrome staining: K = 0.592, p < 0.05; combination techniques: K = 0.543, p < 0.05). Hence, the combination technique is recommended to be used as a screening method in the diagnosis of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infections either for clinical or epidemiological study.
  19. Anuar TS, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Abdul Ghani MK, Abu Bakar E, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, et al.
    Int J Parasitol, 2012 Dec;42(13-14):1165-75.
    PMID: 23123168 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.10.003
    Currently, species-specific information on Entamoeba infections is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to the re-description of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to provide the first known documented data on the true prevalence of these three species in western Malaysia using a molecular method. Another aim of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors associated with each Entamoeba sp. A total of 500 stool samples from three Orang Asli tribes were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii determined by microscopy was 18.6% (93/500). Molecular analysis revealed that while most Entamoeba-positive individuals were infected with E. dispar (13.4%), followed by E. histolytica (3.2%) and E. moshkovskii (1.0%), the present findings show low prevalence rates of mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar (2%), E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (1.2%) and association infections of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (0.4%). Logistical regression analysis indicates that the dynamics of the transmission of the three Entamoeba spp. was different. Of six statistically significant variables observed in the univariate analysis, three were retained as significant risk factors for E. histolytica infection in the logistical regression model. These factors were (i) not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening (Odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence level (CI)=1.38, 16.14; P=0.013), (ii) indiscriminate defecation in the river or bush (OR=5.7; 95% CI=1.46, 21.95; P=0.012) and (iii) close contact with domestic animals (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.36, 2.51; P=0.017). However, subjects with family members who were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii (OR=3.8; 95 CI=2.11, 6.86; P<0.001) and those who consumed raw vegetables (OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.01, 3.23; P=0.047) were more likely to be infected with E. dispar. On the other hand, no associated factor was identified with E. moshkovskii infection. Nevertheless, diarrhoea (P=0.002) and other gastroenteritis symptoms (P<0.001) were only associated with E. histolytica infection. The present study provides new insight into the distribution and risk factors of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii infections among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Identifying the different risk factors of E. histolytica and E. dispar infections will help in the planning specific strategies in the control and prevention of each infection in the communities. Moreover, it emphasises the need for molecular methods to determine the species-specific prevalence of Entamoeba spp.
  20. Miga M, Jahari PNS, Vei Siang C, Kamarudin KR, Shamsir MS, Tokiman L, et al.
    Data Brief, 2022 Feb;40:107740.
    PMID: 35141362 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107740
    Here, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of Pachliopta aristolochiae, a Common Rose butterfly from Malaysia. The sequence was generated using Illumina NovaSeq 6000 sequencing platform. The mitogenome is 15,235bp long, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and two D-loop regions. The total base composition was (81.6%), with A (39.3%), T (42.3%), C (11.0%) and G (7.3%). The gene order of the three tRNAs was trnM-trnI-trnQ, which differs from the ancestral insect gene order trnI-trnQ-trnM. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the sequenced Pachliopta aristolochiae in this data is closely related to Losaria neptunus (NC 037868), with highly supported ML and BI analysis. The data presented in this work can provide useful resources for other researchers to study deeper into the phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera and the diversification of the Pachliopta species. Also, as one of the bioindicator species, this data can be used to assess environmental changes in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem via enviromental DNA approahes. The mitogenome of Pachliopta aristolochiae is available in GenBank under the accession number MZ781228.
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