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  1. Heng, S.C., Ibrahim, Z.B., Suleiman, M., Ismail, F.
    MyJurnal
    In this paper, an implicit 2-point Block Backward Differentiation formula (BBDF) method was considered for solving Delay Differential Equations (DDEs). The method was implemented by using a constant stepsize via Newton Iteration. This implicit block method was expected to produce two points simultaneously. The efficiency of the method was compared with the existing classical 1-point Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) in terms of execution time and accuracy.
  2. Suleiman M, Masundang DP, Akiyama H
    PhytoKeys, 2017.
    PMID: 29118647 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.88.14674
    This paper reports the mosses from Crocker Range Park (CRP) in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In total, 293 species, three subspecies and eight varieties belonging to 118 genera and 36 families are reported. This represents about 40% and 47% of the species and infra-specific taxa reported from Borneo and Sabah, respectively. Out of these, six species are new records for Borneo, namely Barbella horridula, Chaetomitrium lancifolium, Distichophyllum leiopogon, Rhaphidostichum luzonense, Rosulabryum capillare and Taxiphyllum taxirameum and 12 species and one variety are new to Sabah. With these additions, the current number of mosses in Sabah and Borneo are 651 and 766, respectively. The largest family of mosses is Calymperaceae with 35 species and one subspecies, followed by Sematophyllaceae with 32 species and two varieties and Pylaisiadelphaceae with 21 species and one variety. In conclusion, CRP has a very high species richness of mosses which is the second highest in Borneo, after Mount Kinabalu.
  3. Suleiman M, Muhammad J, Jelip J, William T, Chua TH
    PMID: 29644840
    The horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) is consumed by those
    residing near the coastal areas of Kota Marudu District in Malaysia, as it is considered
    a delicacy. During June to August, 2011 thirty cases of tetrodotoxin poisoning
    were reported from Kota Marudu District following ingestion of horseshoe
    crabs caught in Kota Marudu Bay. The purpose of this study is to describe this
    case series in order to determine risk factors to prevent further outbreaks. There
    were six confirmed and 24 probable cases of tetrodotoxin poisoning identified in
    the study area during the study period as diagnosed by clinical presentation and
    laboratory findings. Symptoms included dizziness (80%), circumoral and lingual
    numbness (80%), hand and feet numbness (63.3%), nausea and vomiting (30%)
    and weakness and difficulty in breathing (26.6%). Three cases (10%) died while 27
    cases recovered. Forty-seven percent of the cases had onset of symptoms within
    30 minutes of ingestion and 14% 31-60 minutes after ingestion of horseshoe crab
    meat. Urine samples were collected from the cases, while horseshoe crabs, cockles
    and sea water from the epidemic area were also taken for analysis. Tetrodotoxin
    was detected in the urine of six cases; the highest concentrations recorded were
    among the three cases who died. High tetrodotoxin concentrations were found
    in the hepatic cecum and eggs of the tested horseshoe crabs. Dinoflagellates were
    not detected in the sea water or cockle samples. Intensive health education was
    initiated quickly to stop other members of the Marudu Bay community from
    consuming the horseshoe crabs. This is the first documented epidemic of tetrodotoxin
    poisoning in Sabah.
  4. Ng SY, Kamada T, Suleiman M, Vairappan CS
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2016 Jul;18(7):690-6.
    PMID: 26828126 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2015.1134503
    A new compound, chandonanol (1), along with four known compounds, chandonanthone (2), iso-chandonanthone (3), anastreptene (4), and (6R,7S)-sesquiphellandrene (5), was isolated from the MeOH extract of Bornean liverwort Chandonanthus hirtellus. The structure of the new metabolite was established by analyses of the spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and IR). These compounds were tested for their activity against antibiotic-resistant clinical strains. Chandonanol (1) exhibited potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
  5. Suleiman M, Jelip J, Rundi C, Chua TH
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2017 Dec;97(6):1731-1736.
    PMID: 29016314 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0589
    During the months of January-February and May-June 2013 coinciding with the red tide occurrence in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, six episodes involving 58 cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) or saxitoxin (STX) poisoning and resulting in four deaths were reported. Many of them were intoxicated from consuming shellfish purchased from the markets, whereas others were intoxicated from eating shellfish collected from the beach. Levels of STX in shellfish collected from the affected areas were high (mean 2,920 ± 780 and 360 ± 140 µg STX equivalents/100 g shellfish meat respectively for the two periods). The count of toxic dinoflagellates (Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum) of the sea water sampled around the coast was also high (mean 34,200 ± 10,300 cells/L). Species of shellfish containing high levels of STX were Atrina fragilis, Perna viridis, and Crassostrea belcheri. The age of victims varied from 9 to 67 years. Symptoms presented were typical of PSP, such as dizziness, numbness, vomiting, and difficulty in breathing. Recommended steps to prevent or reduce PSP in future red tide season include better monitoring of red tide occurrence, regular sampling of shellfish for determination of STX level, wider dissemination of information on the danger of eating contaminated shellfish among the communities, fishermen, and fishmongers.
  6. Ng SY, Kamada T, Suleiman M, Vairappan CS
    Nat Prod Commun, 2016 Aug;11(8):1071-1072.
    PMID: 30725558
    A new compound, schistochilic acid D (1) and two known compounds (2 and 3) were isolated from MeOH extract of Bornean liverwort. Schistochila acuininata collected from Mount Trus Madi, Sabah. The structure of the new metabolite was established based on spectroscopic (ID NMR, 2D NMR, and IR). and HRESIMS data. In addition, another population of S. acuminata collected from Mount Alab (Sabah) yielded four known compounds, 2, 3, 4 and 5. These compounds were tested for their biological potential against the B 16-Fl0 cell line. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity.
  7. Ng SY, Kamada T, Suleiman M, Vairappan CS
    Nat Prod Res, 2018 Aug;32(15):1832-1837.
    PMID: 29156972 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1405409
    The Bornean liverwort Gottschelia schizopleura was investigated phytochemically for the first time. Two new and four previously known clerodane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the MeOH extract of G. schizopleura through a series of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the new metabolites were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS and IR). All the isolated compounds 1-6 were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Mus musculus skin melanoma (B16-F10). Compound 1 and 2 showed active inhibition against HL-60 and B16-F10 cells.
  8. Abu Bakar MF, Abdul Karim F, Suleiman M, Isha A, Rahmat A
    PMID: 26640502 DOI: 10.1155/2015/936215
    The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.
  9. Abu Bakar MF, Ahmad NE, Suleiman M, Rahmat A, Isha A
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:916902.
    PMID: 26557713 DOI: 10.1155/2015/916902
    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.
  10. Iwashina T, Matsumoto S, Kitajima J, Nakamura T, Kokubugata G, Suleiman M, et al.
    Nat Prod Commun, 2010 Jan;5(1):39-42.
    PMID: 20184017
    Two new flavone rhamnosides, apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the fronds of Asplenium normale D. Don, together with two known C-glycosylflavones, vicenin-2 and lucenin-2. The chemical structures of the isolated glycosides were established by UV, LC-MS, characterization of acid hydrolysates, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
  11. Daim S, Barnad E, Johnny V, Suleiman M, Jikal M, Chua TH, et al.
    Clinical case reports, 2020 Jan;8(1):171-175.
    PMID: 31998510 DOI: 10.1002/ccr3.2584
    In endemic regions, include melioidosis in the routine differential diagnosis of neonates with respiratory distress, and consider early empirical ceftazidime treatment for neonates with worsening respiratory distress.
  12. Kamada T, Johanis ML, Ng SY, Phan CS, Suleiman M, Vairappan CS
    Nat Prod Bioprospect, 2020 Feb;10(1):51-56.
    PMID: 32062804 DOI: 10.1007/s13659-020-00232-6
    New bioactive 13-epi-neoverrucosane diterpenoid, 5β-acetoxy-13-epi-neoverrucosanic acid (1) along with three known secondary metabolites, 13-epi-neoverrucosan-5β-ol (2), chelodane (3) and (E)-β-farnesene (4) were isolated from the MeOH extract of east Malaysia's liverwort Pleurozia subinflata. The chemical structure of new compound was elucidated by the analyses of its spectroscopic data (FTIR, NMR and HR-ESI-MS). These epi-neoverrucosane-type compounds seem to be notable chemosystematic markers for P. subinflata in Borneo. Compound 3 was widespread in marine sponges however this is the first record for 3 to be found in liverwort. These metabolites were tested for their antifungal potentials against selected fungi from the marine environment. Compound 1 exhibited effective antifungal activity against Lagenidium thermophilum.
  13. Pócs T, Lee GE, Podani J, Pesiu E, Havasi J, Tang HY, et al.
    PhytoKeys, 2020;153:63-83.
    PMID: 32765181 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.153.53637
    We evaluated the species richness and beta diversity of epiphyllous assemblages from three selected localities in Sabah, i.e. Mt. Silam in Sapagaya Forest Reserve, and Ulu Senagang and Mt. Alab in Crocker Range Park. A total of 98 species were found and a phytosociological survey was carried out based on the three study areas. A detailed statistical analysis including standard correlation and regression analyses, ordination of species and leaves using centered principal component analysis, and the SDR simplex method to evaluate the beta diversity, was conducted. Beta diversity is very high in the epiphyllous liverwort assemblages in Sabah, with species replacement as the major component of pattern formation and less pronounced richness difference. The community analysis of the epiphyllous communities in Sabah makes possible their detailed description and comparison with similar communities of other continents.
  14. William T, Thevarajah B, Lee SF, Suleiman M, Jeffree MS, Menon J, et al.
    Emerg Infect Dis, 2015 Jan;21(1):142-5.
    PMID: 25531078 DOI: 10.3201/eid2101.141092
    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally.
  15. Carter BE, Larraín J, Manukjanová A, Shaw B, Shaw AJ, Heinrichs J, et al.
    Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2017 02;107:16-26.
    PMID: 27744015 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.10.002
    Frullania subgenus Microfrullania is a clade of ca. 15 liverwort species occurring in Australasia, Malesia, and southern South America. We used combined nuclear and chloroplast sequence data from 265 ingroup accessions to test species circumscriptions and estimate the biogeographic history of the subgenus. With dense infra-specific sampling, we document an important role of long-distance dispersal in establishing phylogeographic patterns of extant species. At deeper time scales, a combination of phylogenetic analyses, divergence time estimation and ancestral range estimation were used to reject vicariance and to document the role of long-distance dispersal in explaining the evolution and biogeography of the clade across the southern Hemisphere. A backbone phylogeny for the subgenus is proposed, providing insight into evolution of morphological patterns and establishing the basis for an improved sectional classification of species within Microfrullania. Several species complexes are identified, the presence of two undescribed but genetically and morphologically distinct species is noted, and previously neglected names are discussed.
  16. Montini Maluda MC, Jelip J, Ibrahim MY, Suleiman M, Jeffree MS, Binti Aziz AF, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020 Aug;103(2):864-868.
    PMID: 32524958 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0928
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Malaysia. Although JE vaccination is practiced in the neighboring state of Sarawak for a long time, little is known about JE in Sabah state in Borneo. As a result, informed policy formulation for JE in Sabah has not been accomplished. In the present study, we have analyzed JE cases that have been reported to the Sabah State Health Department from 2000 to 2018. A total of 92 JE cases were reported during 19 years, and three-fourths of the cases were attributed to children. The estimated mean incidence for JE cases is 0.161/100,000 population. Japanese encephalitis was predominant in Sabah during June, July, and August, peaking in July. In most cases, pigs were absent within a 400-m radius of the place of residence. We could not establish any relationship between the mapping of JE cases and the number of piggeries in each district. We could not establish a relationship between average rainfall and JE cases, either. We propose the cases reported are possibly showing the tip of an iceberg and continuous surveillance is needed, as JE is a public health challenge in Sabah.
  17. Zaw MT, Emran NA, Ibrahim MY, Suleiman M, Awang Mohd TA, Yusuff AS, et al.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2019 Aug;52(4):563-570.
    PMID: 29428381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2018.01.003
    BACKGROUND: Cholera is an important health problem in Sabah, a Malaysian state in northern Borneo; however, Vibrio cholerae in Sabah have never been characterized. Since 2002, serogroup O1 strains having the traits of both classical and El Tor biotype, designated as atypical El Tor biotype, have been increasingly reported as the cause of cholera worldwide. These variants are believed to produce clinically more severe disease like classical strains.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of V.cholerae in Sabah and whether V.cholerae in Sabah belong to atypical El Tor biotype.

    METHODS: ERIC-PCR, a DNA fingerprinting method for bacterial pathogens based on the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence, was used to study the genetic diversity of 65 clinical V.cholerae O1 isolates from 3 districts (Kudat, Beluran, Sandakan) in Sabah and one environmental isolate from coastal sea water in Kudat district. In addition, we studied the biotype-specific genetic traits in these isolates to establish their biotype.

    RESULTS: Different fingerprint patterns were seen in isolates from these three districts but one of the patterns was seen in more than one district. Clinical isolates and environmental isolate have different patterns. In addition, Sabah isolates harbor genetic traits specific to both classical biotype (ctxB-1, rstRCla) and El Tor biotype (rstRET, rstC, tcpAET, rtxC, VC2346).

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that V.cholerae in Sabah were genetically diverse and were atypical El Tor strains. Fingerprint patterns of these isolates will be useful in tracing the origin of this pathogen in the future.

  18. Yamamoto T, Tsuda Y, Mori GM, Cruz MV, Shinmura Y, Wee AK, et al.
    Appl Plant Sci, 2016 Sep;4(9).
    PMID: 27672519 DOI: 10.3732/apps.1600042
    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Twenty-seven nuclear microsatellite markers were developed for the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum (Pteridaceae), to investigate the genetic structure and demographic history of the only pantropical mangrove plant.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-six A. aureum individuals from three populations were sampled and genotyped to characterize the 27 loci. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from one to 15 and 0.000 to 0.893, respectively. Across the 26 polymorphic loci, the Malaysian population showed much higher levels of polymorphism compared to the other two populations in Guam and Brazil. Cross-amplification tests in the other two species from the genus determined that seven and six loci were amplifiable in A. danaeifolium and A. speciosum, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful for future studies investigating the genetic structure and demographic history of of A. aureum, which has the widest distributional range of all mangrove plants.

  19. Cabrera-Fuentes HA, Aragones J, Bernhagen J, Boening A, Boisvert WA, Bøtker HE, et al.
    Basic Res. Cardiol., 2016 11;111(6):69.
    PMID: 27743118
    In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematically uncovering unexpected components involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury or heart regeneration. Based on the characterization of particular platelet integrins, mitochondrial redox-linked proteins, or lipid-diol compounds in cardiovascular diseases, their targeting by newly developed theranostics and technologies opens new avenues for diagnosis and therapy of myocardial infarction to improve the patients' outcome.
  20. Merckx VS, Hendriks KP, Beentjes KK, Mennes CB, Becking LE, Peijnenburg KT, et al.
    Nature, 2015 Aug 20;524(7565):347-50.
    PMID: 26266979 DOI: 10.1038/nature14949
    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.
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