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  1. Alafiatayo AA, Syahida A, Mahmood M
    PMID: 25371557
    BACKGROUND: Natural products such as herbs, fruits, spices, beverages, vegetables are becoming more popular among scientific community and consumers because of their potential to arrest the effect of free radicals in human system. This study determined the total antioxidant capacity of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) used as spices and for medicinal purposes in Southeast Asia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol was used as the extraction solvent, 2,2 - diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) for free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Phenolic compounds were measured using Total flavonoid, Phenolic acid and Polyphenols content assay to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant capacity of the rhizomes and vitamin C as positive control.

    RESULTS: The results obtained revealed that Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale had the highest free radical scavenging capacity of 270.07mg/TE/g DW and 266.95mg/TE/g DW and FRAP assay, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale also gave the highest ferric reducing power of 231.73mg/TE/g DW and 176.26mg/TE/g DW respectively. For Phenolic compounds, Curcuma longa and Curcuma xanthorrhiza gave the highest values of flavonoid (741.36mg/NGN/g DW and 220.53mg/NGN/g DW), phenolic acid (42.71mg/GAE/g DW and 22.03mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (39.38mg/GAE/g DW and 38.01mg/GAE/g DW) respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between Total antioxidant capacity and Phenolic compounds (R = 0.65 - 0.96).

    CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that extracts of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) rhizomes are a potential source of natural antioxidants and could serve as basis for future drugs and food supplements.

  2. Ooi CT, Syahida A, Stanslas J, Maziah M
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2013 Mar;29(3):421-30.
    PMID: 23090845 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-012-1194-z
    This article presents the abilities and efficiencies of five different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (strain ATCC 31798, ATCC 43057, AR12, A4 and A13) to induce hairy roots on Solanum mammosum through genetic transformation. There is significant difference in the transformation efficiency (average number of days of hairy root induction) and transformation frequency for all strains of A. rhizogenes (P < 0.05). Both A. rhizogenes strain AR12 and A13 were able to induce hairy root at 6 days of co-cultivation, which were the fastest among those tested. However, the transformation frequencies of all five strains were below 30 %, with A. rhizogenes strain A4 and A13 showing the highest, which were 21.41 ± 10.60 % and 21.43 ± 8.13 % respectively. Subsequently, the cultures for five different hairy root lines generated by five different strains of bacteria were established. However, different hairy root lines showed different growth index under the same culture condition, with the hairy root lines induced by A. rhizogenes strain ATCC 31798 exhibited largest increase in fresh biomass at 45 days of culture under 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod in half-strength MS medium. The slowest growing hairy root line, which was previously induced by A. rhizogenes strain A13, when cultured in optimized half-strength MS medium containing 1.5 times the standard amount of ammonium nitrate and potassium nitrate and 5 % (w/v) sucrose, had exhibited improvement in growth index, that is, the fresh biomass was almost double as compared to its initial growth in unmodified half-strength MS medium.
  3. Hudu SA, Alshrari AS, Syahida A, Sekawi Z
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2016 Mar;10(3):DE01-5.
    PMID: 27134874 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/15837.7460
    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the "gold standard" for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent.
  4. Haida Z, Syahida A, Ariff SM, Maziah M, Hakiman M
    Sci Rep, 2019 07 02;9(1):9533.
    PMID: 31267036 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-46042-w
    A study was conducted to establish in vitro culture conditions for maximum production of biomass and flavonoid content for Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri, locally named as Mas Cotek, known to have a wide variety of potential beneficial attributes for human health. Size of initial inoculum, cell aggregate and initial pH value have been suggested to influent content of biomass and flavonoid for cell suspension culture in several plant species. In the present study, leaf explants were cultured by cell suspension culture procedures in MSB5 basal medium supplemented with predetermined supplements of 30 g/L sucrose, 2.75 g/L gelrite, 2 mg/L picloram and 1 mg/L kinetin with continuous agitation of 120 rpm in a standard laboratory environment. Establishment of cell suspension culture was accomplished by culturing resulting callus in different initial fresh weight of cells (0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 g/25 mL of media) using similar basal medium. The results showed that the highest production of biomass (0.65 g/25 mL of media) was recorded from an initial inoculum size of 2.0 g/25 mL media, whereas the highest flavonoid (3.3 mg RE/g DW) was found in 0.5 g/25 mL of media. Cell suspension fractions classified according to their sizes (500-750 µm, 250-500 µm, and <250 µm). Large cell aggregate size (500-750 µm) cultured at pH 5.75 produced the highest cell biomass (0.28 g/25 mL media) and flavonoid content (3.3 mg RE/g DW). The study had established the optimum conditions for the production of total antioxidant and flavonoid content using DPPH and FRAP assays in cell suspension culture of F. deltoidea var. kunstleri.
  5. Israf DA, Khaizurin TA, Syahida A, Lajis NH, Khozirah S
    Mol Immunol, 2007 Feb;44(5):673-9.
    PMID: 16777230
    Cardamonin, a chalcone isolated from the fruits of a local plant Alpinia rafflesiana, has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in cellular models of inflammation. In this report, we evaluated the ability of cardamonin to suppress both NO and PGE2 synthesis, iNOS and COX-2 expression and enzymatic activity, and key molecules in the NF-kappaB pathway in order to determine its molecular target. Cardamonin suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. This inhibition was demonstrated to be caused by a dose-dependent down-regulation of both inducible enzymes, iNOS and COX-2, without direct effect upon iNOS or COX-2 enzyme activity. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. We conclude that cardamonin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets the NF-kappaB pathway.
  6. Lee KH, Abas F, Mohamed Alitheen NB, Shaari K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, et al.
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2015 Jul;18(6):616-27.
    PMID: 24832356 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.12341
    Synovial fibroblast has emerged as a potential cellular target in progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis development. In this study, BDMC33 (2,6-bis[2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene]cyclohexanone), a curcumin analogue with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity has been synthesized and the potency of BDMC33 on molecular and cellular basis of synovial fibroblasts (SF) were evaluated in vitro.
  7. Israf DA, Tham CL, Syahida A, Lajis NH, Sulaiman MR, Mohamad AS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Aug;17(10):732-9.
    PMID: 20378317 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.006
    In a previous communication we showed that atrovirinone, a 1,4-benzoquinone isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis, was able to inhibit several major proinflammatory mediators of inflammation. In this report we show that atrovirinone inhibits NO and PGE(2) synthesis through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. We also show that atrovirinone inhibits the secretion of IL-1beta and IL-6 in a dose dependent fashion whereas the secretion of IL-10, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, was enhanced. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. We also showed that atrovirinone prevented phosphorylation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as demonstrated by expression analysis. We conclude that atrovirinone is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets both the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathway.
  8. Lee KH, Ab Aziz FH, Syahida A, Abas F, Shaari K, Israf DA, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2009 Aug;44(8):3195-200.
    PMID: 19359068 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2009.03.020
    A series of 46 curcumin related diarylpentanoid analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities. Among these compounds 2, 13 and 33 exhibited potent NO inhibitory effect on IFN-gamma/LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells as compared to L-NAME and curcumin. However, these series of diarylpentanoid analogues were not significantly inhibiting NO scavenging, total radical scavenging and tyrosinase enzyme activities. The results revealed that the biological activity of these diarylpentanoid analogues is most likely due to their action mainly upon inflammatory mediator, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The present results showed that compounds 2, 13 and 33 might serve as a useful starting point for the design of improved anti-inflammatory agents.
  9. Saha K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, Hamzah AS, Khozirah S, Khamis S, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2004 Jun;92(2-3):263-7.
    PMID: 15138010
    Methanol extracts of seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities. Antioxidant activity was measured by using FTC, TBA and DPPH free radical scavenging methods and Griess assay was used for the measurement of nitric oxide inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-treated RAW 264.7 cells. All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable to or higher than that of alpha-tocopherol, BHT and quercetin in FTC and TBA methods. The extracts from Leea indica and Spermacoce articularis showed strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity comparable with quercetin, BHT and Vit C. Spermacoce exilis showed only moderate activity but other species were weak as compared to the standards. In the Griess assay Lasianthus oblongus, Chasalia chartacea, Hedyotis verticillata, Spermacoce articularis and Leea indica showed strong inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production in LPS and IFN-gamma-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Extracts from Psychotria rostrata and Spermacoce exilis also inhibited NO production but this was due to their cytotoxic effects upon cells during culture.
  10. Alafiatayo AA, Lai KS, Syahida A, Mahmood M, Shaharuddin NA
    PMID: 30949217 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3807207
    Curcuma longa L. is a rhizome plant often used as traditional medicinal preparations in Southeast Asia. The dried powder is commonly known as cure-all herbal medicine with a wider spectrum of pharmaceutical activities. In spite of the widely reported therapeutic applications of C. longa, research on its safety and teratogenic effects on zebrafish embryos and larvae is still limited. Hence, this research aimed to assess the toxicity of C. longa extract on zebrafish. Using a reflux flask, methanol extract of C. longa was extracted and the identification and quantification of total flavonoids were carried out with HPLC. Twelve fertilized embryos were selected to test the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity at different concentration points. The embryos were exposed to the extract in the E3M medium while the control was only exposed to E3M and different developmental endpoints were recorded with the therapeutic index calculated using the ratio of LC50/EC50. C. longa extract was detected to be highly rich in flavonoids with catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin as the 3 most abundant with concentrations of 3,531.34, 688.70, and 523.83μg/mL, respectively. The toxicity effects were discovered to be dose-dependent at dosage above 62.50μg/mL, while, at 125.0μg/mL, mortality of embryos was observed and physical body deformities of larvae were recorded among the hatched embryos at higher concentrations. Teratogenic effect of the extract was severe at higher concentrations producing physical body deformities such as kink tail, bend trunk, and enlarged yolk sac edema. Finally, the therapeutic index (TI) values calculated were approximately the same for different concentration points tested. Overall, the result revealed that plants having therapeutic potential could also pose threats when consumed at higher doses especially on the embryos. Therefore, detailed toxicity analysis should be carried out on medicinal plants to ascertain their safety on the embryos and its development.
  11. Chow YL, Lee KH, Vidyadaran S, Lajis NH, Akhtar MN, Israf DA, et al.
    Int Immunopharmacol, 2012 Apr;12(4):657-65.
    PMID: 22306767 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.01.009
    The increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases has prompted investigation into innovative therapeutics over the last two decades. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the therapeutic choices to control and suppress the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. However, NSAIDs-associated gastropathy has hampered their long term usage despite their clinical advancement. On the natural end of the treatment spectrum, our group has shown that cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) isolated from Alpinia rafflesiana exerts potential anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophages. Therefore, we further explored the anti-inflammatory property of cardamonin as well as its underlying mechanism of action in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated microglial cells. In this investigation, cardamonin shows promising anti-inflammatory activity in microglial cell line BV2 by inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibition of NO and PGE(2) by cardamonin are resulted from the reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. Meanwhile the suppressive effects of cardamonin on TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were demonstrated at both protein and mRNA levels, thus indicating the interference of upstream signal transduction pathway. Our results also validate that cardamonin interrupts nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway via attenuation of NF-κB DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cardamonin also showed a consistent suppressive effect on the cell surface expression of CD14. Taken together, our experimental data provide mechanistic insights for the anti-inflammatory actions of cardamonin in BV2 and thus suggest a possible therapeutic application of cardamonin for targeting neuroinflammatory disorders.
  12. Lam KW, Syahida A, Ul-Haq Z, Abdul Rahman MB, Lajis NH
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2010 Jun 15;20(12):3755-9.
    PMID: 20493688 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.04.067
    A series of 16 oxadiazole and triazolothiadiazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. Five derivatives were found to display high inhibition on the tyrosinase activity ranging from 0.87 to 1.49 microM. Compound 5 exhibited highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 0.87+/-0.16 microM. The in silico protein-ligand docking using AUTODOCK 4.1 was successfully performed on compound 5 with significant binding energy value of -5.58 kcal/mol. The docking results also showed that the tyrosinase inhibition might be due to the metal chelating effect by the presence of thione functionality in compounds 1-5. Further studies revealed that the presence of hydrophobic group such as cycloamine derivatives played a major role in the inhibition. Piperazine moiety in compound 5 appeared to be involved in an extensive hydrophobic contact and a 2.9A hydrogen bonding with residue Glu 182 in the active site.
  13. Lee KH, Chow YL, Sharmili V, Abas F, Alitheen NB, Shaari K, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2985-3008.
    PMID: 22489138 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032985
    Our preliminary screening has shown that curcumin derivative BDMC33 [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] exerted promising nitric oxide inhibitory activity in activated macrophages. However, the molecular basis and mechanism for its pharmacological action is yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 and elucidate its underlying mechanism action in macrophage cells. Our current study demonstrated that BDMC33 inhibits the secretion of major pro-inflammatory mediators in stimulated macrophages, and includes NO, TNF-α and IL-1β through interference in both nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activator protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, BDMC33 also interrupted LPS signaling through inhibiting the surface expression of CD-14 accessory molecules. In addition, the inhibitory action of BDMC33 not only restricted the macrophages cell (RAW264.7), but also inhibited the secretion of NO and TNF-α in IFN-γ/LPS-challenged microglial cells (BV-2). The experimental data suggests the inflammatory action of BDMC33 on activated macrophage-like cellular systems, which could be used as a future therapeutic agent in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases.
  14. Syahida A, Israf DA, Permana D, Lajis NH, Khozirah S, Afiza AW, et al.
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 2006 Jun;84(3):250-8.
    PMID: 16509831
    Many plant-derived natural compounds have been reported previously to inhibit the production of important pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-alpha and reactive oxygen species by suppressing inducible enzyme expression via inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and nuclear translocation of critical transcription factors. This study evaluates the effects of atrovirinone [2-(1-methoxycarbonyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3-methoxy-5,6-di-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone)], a benzoquinone that we have previously isolated from Garcinia atroviridis, on two cellular systems that are repeatedly used in the analysis of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds, namely, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and whole blood. Atrovirinone inhibited the production of both nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 from LPS-induced and IFN-gamma-induced RAW 264.7 cells and whole blood, with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values of 4.62 +/- 0.65 and 9.33 +/- 1.47 micromol/L, respectively. Analysis of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) secretion from whole blood stimulated by either the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or the COX-2 pathway showed that atrovirinone inhibits the generation of TXB2 by both pathways, with IC50 values of 7.41 +/- 0.92 and 2.10 +/- 0.48 micromol/L, respectively. Analysis of IC50 ratios showed that atrovirinone was more COX-2 selective in its inhibition of TXB2, with a ratio of 0.32. Atrovirinone also inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the secretion of TNF-alpha from RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-responsive manner, with IC50 values of 5.99 +/- 0.62 and 11.56 +/- 0.04 micromol/L, respectively. Lipoxygenase activity was also moderately inhibited by atrovirinone. Our results suggest that atrovirinone acts on important pro-inflammatory mediators possibly by the inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway and also by the inhibition of the COX/lipoxygenase enzyme activity.
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