Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Teh SS, Lau HLN
    Food Chem, 2021 Mar 15;340:127912.
    PMID: 32916404 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127912
    Palm-pressed mesocarp oil has been found to contain plenty of naturally occurring valuable phytonutrients. The application and study of the oil are limited, therefore, quality assessment of refined red palm-pressed mesocarp olein (PPMO) is deemed necessary to provide data in widening the applications as a niche products or raw material for the nutraceutical industry. Results showed that refined PPMO has comparable physicochemical properties and oxidative stability with commercial cooking oil, palm olein (PO). The food safety parameters and contaminants (PAH, 3-MCPD ester, 2-MCPD ester, glycidyl ester and trace metals) analyses proven that refined PPMO is safe to be consumed. Besides, refined PPMO contains remarkably greater concentrations of phytonutrients including carotenoids, phytosterols, squalene and vitamin E than PO, postulating its protective health benefits. The overall quality assessment of refined PPMO showed that it is suitable for human consumption and it is a good source for food applications and dietary nutritional supplements.
  2. Teh SS, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2018;67(11):1381-1387.
    PMID: 30404958 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess18067
    The study was aimed at evaluating the effects of vegetable oils on emulsion stability. Palm olein (POo), olive oil (OO), safflower oil (SAF), grape seed oil (GSO), soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) with different degree of saturation levels were chosen as major ingredient of oil phases. All the emulsions were stored at 4℃, 27℃ and 40℃ for 35 days and subjected to all the stability tests, including temperature variation, centrifuge test, cycle test, pH and slip melting point. The results indicated that POo exhibited the highest stability, followed by SAF, OO, GSO, SFO and SBO. In addition, the results implied that the degree of saturation levels of vegetable oils does give significant effect on emulsion stability based on the centrifuge testing for an approximate 30% usage level of oil. The POo-based emulsion exhibited good emulsion stability throughout the experimental period indicated that POo could be a good carrier oil for various applications in cosmetic industry.
  3. Teh SS, Ahem A, Bastion ML
    BMJ Case Rep, 2013;2013.
    PMID: 23774706 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2013-009697
    This paper describes a rare case of Coats disease with late presentation in a young adult. The condition improved with a combination of focal photocoagulation, cryotherapy and intravitreal ranibizumab.
  4. Mah SH, Ee GC, Teh SS, Sukari MA
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(1):98-101.
    PMID: 25229947 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.959949
    Extensive chromatographic isolation and purification of the extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri have resulted in 11 xanthones. C. inophyllum gave inophinnin (1), inophinone (2), pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7) and 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), while C. soulattri afforded soulattrin (3), phylattrin (4), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV. Cytotoxicity screening (MTT assay) carried out in vitro on all the xanthones using five human cancer cell lines indicated good activities for some of these xanthones. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the inhibitory activities exhibited by these xanthone derivatives to be closely related to the existence and nature of the pyrano and the prenyl substituent groups on their skeleton.
  5. Ee GC, See I, Teh SS, Daud S
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2014;16(7):790-4.
    PMID: 24670077 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2014.901313
    Our phytochemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana has led to the discovery of a new furanoxanthone, mangaxanthone A (1), together with five known analogs. The five known analogs that were isolated are α-mangostin (2), β-mangostin (3), cowagarcinone B (4), and dulcisxanthone F (5). The structural elucidations of these compounds were carried out by interpreting their spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS.
  6. Teh SS, Ahmad R, Wan-Abdullah WN, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):M155-64.
    PMID: 20492305 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01538.x
    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agrowastes from durian (Durio zibethinus), cempedak (Artocarpus champeden), and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) as immobilizers for lactobacilli grown in soymilk. Rinds from the agrowastes were separated from the skin, dried, and ground (150 microm) to form powders and used as immobilizers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that lactobacilli cells were attached and bound to the surface of the immobilizers. Immobilized cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411 were inoculated into soymilk, stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) and growth properties were evaluated over 168 h. Soymilk inoculated with nonimmobilized cells was used as the control. Utilization of substrates, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, and changes in pH were evaluated in soymilk over 186 h. Immobilized lactobacilli showed significantly better growth (P < 0.05) compared to the control, accompanied by higher production of lactic and acetic acids in soymilk. Soymilk containing immobilized cells showed greater reduction of soy sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose compared to the control (P < 0.05).
  7. Teh SS, Ahmad R, Wan-Abdullah WN, Liong MT
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Nov 11;57(21):10187-98.
    PMID: 19821558 DOI: 10.1021/jf902003a
    The objective of this study was to evaluate agricultural wastes as immobilizers for probiotics in liquid foods, such as soy milk. Probiotic strains were initially evaluated for acid and bile tolerance and the ability to produce alpha-galactosidase. Rinds of durian, mangosteen, and jackfruit were dried, ground, and sterilized prior to immobilization of selected strains ( Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTCC 0411). Immobilized cells were inoculated into soy milk, and growth properties were evaluated over 168 h at 37 degrees C. Soy milk containing free cells without agrowastes was used as the control. Immobilized probiotics showed increased growth, greater reduction of stachyose, sucrose, and glucose, higher production of lactic and acetic acids, and lower pH in soy milk compared to the control. The results illustrated that agrowastes could be used for the immobilization of probiotics with enhanced growth, utilization of substrates, and production of organic acids.
  8. Gunter NV, Teh SS, Lim YM, Mah SH
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:594202.
    PMID: 33424605 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.594202
    The pathogenesis of skin inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, acne, psoriasis, and skin cancers generally involve the generation of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Exposure of the skin to external aggressors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and xenobiotics induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which subsequently activates immune responses and causes immunological aberrations. Hence, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents were considered to be potential compounds to treat skin inflammatory diseases. A prime example of such compounds is xanthone (xanthene-9-one), a class of natural compounds that possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and chemotherapeutic effects. Many studies reported various mechanisms of action by xanthones for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases. These mechanisms of action commonly involve the modulation of various pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. Other mechanisms of action include the regulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, besides immune cell recruitment via modulation of chemokines, activation, and infiltration. Moreover, disease-specific activity contributed by xanthones, such as antibacterial action against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis for acne treatment, and numerous cytotoxic mechanisms involving pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic effects for skin cancer treatment have been extensively elucidated. Furthermore, xanthones have been reported to modulate pathways responsible for mediating oxidative stress and inflammation such as PPAR, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor and prostaglandin cascades. These pathways were also implicated in skin inflammatory diseases. Xanthones including the prenylated α-mangostin (2) and γ-mangostin (3), glucosylated mangiferin (4) and the caged xanthone gambogic acid (8) are potential lead compounds to be further developed into pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases. Future studies on the structure-activity relationships, molecular mechanisms, and applications of xanthones for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases are thus highly recommended.
  9. Teh SS, Lau HLN, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2019 Aug 01;68(8):803-808.
    PMID: 31292345 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19098
    Refined palm-pressed mesocarp fibre oil (PPFO), which can be obtained from one of the by-products of palm oil milling, palm-pressed mesocarp fibre, is categorized as palm sludge oil. So far, it has been given less attention and underutilized until some recent scientific reports revealing its high content of phytonutrients, carotenoids and vitamin E, which have been proven scientifically to possess anti-oxidant activity. The study evaluated the stability of PPFO as a carrier for plant-based emulsion. PPFO was extracted and examined for its positional distribution of fatty acids, saturation levels and iodine value (IV) using NMR spectroscopy. The PPFO-based emulsion was then prepared and subjected to stability tests, including temperature variation, centrifuge test, cycle test, pH and slip melting point for 28 days. Phase separation was observed from PPFO-based emulsion stored at 40℃ from day-21 onwards while no creaming found in all the palm olein-based emulsions stored at the three storage temperatures. Nevertheless, results indicated that the PPFO-based emulsion passed all the tests above showing insignificant phase separation (p > 0.05) compared with those of palm olein commonly used in emulsion preparation. The findings suggested that PPFO enriched with valuable phytonutrients could be used as an alternative carrier oil in emulsion formulation, which is an important component in personal care products.
  10. Mah SH, Teh SS, Ee GC
    Pharm Biol, 2017 Dec;55(1):920-928.
    PMID: 28152649 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1285322
    CONTEXT: Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation.

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.

  11. Hau EH, Teh SS, Yeo SK, Mah SH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Jan 15;102(1):233-240.
    PMID: 34081335 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11350
    BACKGROUND: The oil palm tree produces 90% of wastes and the limited usage of these wastes causes a major disposal problem in the mills. Nevertheless, these by-products have a large amount of nutritional components. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of protein hydrolysates (PH) from oil palm leaves (OPL) extracted using different concentrations of Alcalase (0-10%) at 2 h of hydrolysis time.

    RESULTS: Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis altered functional groups of OPL where a secondary amine was present in the PH. Changes were also observed in the thermal stability where the enthalpy heat obtained for PH (933.93-1142.57 J g-1 ) was much lower than OPL (7854.11 J g-1 ). The results showed that the PH extracted by 8% Alcalase exhibited absolute zeta potential, as well as a high emulsifying activity index (70.64 m2  g-1 of protein) and emulsion stability index (60.58 min). Furthermore, this PH showed higher solubility (96.32%) and emulsifying properties compared to other PHs. It is also comparable with commercial plant proteins, indicating that 8% Alcalase is an optimum concentration for hydrolysis.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, the physicochemical and functional properties of PH extracted from OPL showed good functional properties, suggesting that it can be used as an alternative plant protein in food industries. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Lau HLN, Tee YS, Chan MK, Teh SS
    J Oleo Sci, 2022;71(2):177-185.
    PMID: 35110462 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess21256
    Phosphoric acid is used in the refining of palm oil for the removal of phosphatides. The high concentration of phosphorus in solvent extracted palm-pressed mesocarp fiber oil hinders palm oil mills to recover this phytonutrients-rich residual oil in pressed fiber which typically contains 0.1 to 0.2% of total oil yield. This study aimed to refine the palm-pressed mesocarp fiber oil and determine the optimum dosage of phosphoric acid for acid-degumming of palm-pressed mesocarp fiber oil while retaining its phytonutrients. The refining process was carried out with combination of wet degumming, acid degumming, neutralisation, bleaching and deodorization. The optimum dose of phosphoric acid was identified as 0.05 wt.% by incorporating the wet degumming process. The refined palm-pressed mesocarp fiber oil showed a reduction in phosphorus content by 97% (from 901 ppm to 20 ppm) and 97% free fatty acid content removal (from 6.36% to 0.17%), while the Deterioration of Bleachability Index increased from 1.76 to 2.48, which showed an increment of 41%. The refined oil retained the key phytonutrients such as carotenoids (1,150 ppm) and vitamin E (1,540 ppm) that can be further developed into high-value products. The oil meets the quality specification of refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil while preserving the heat-sensitive phytonutrients, which in turn provides a new resource of nutritious oil.
  13. Mah SH, Lian Ee GC, Teh SS, Sukari MA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Mar;28(2):425-9.
    PMID: 25730799
    Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells (Raji), colon carcinoma cells (LS174T), human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32) and skin carcinoma cells (SK-MEL-28). The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin (1) and inophinone (2) were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin (3) and phylattrin (4) were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7), 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 1.25μg/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive.
  14. Teh SS, Hock Ong AS, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2017;66(11):1183-1191.
    PMID: 29093377 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17078
    The environmental impacts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been a concern due to the water pollution and greenhouse gases emissions. Thus, this study was conducted to recover the value-added products from POME source before being discharged. The samples, before (X) and after (Y) the pre-recovery system in the clarification tank were sampled and analysed and proximate analysis indicated that both samples are energy rich source of food due to high contents of fats and carbohydrates. GCMS analysis showed that the oil extracts contain predominantly palmitic, oleic, linoleic and stearic acids. Regiospecific analysis of oil extracts by quantitative 13C-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that both oil extracts contain similar degree of saturation of fatty acids at sn-2 and sn-1,3 positions. The samples are rich in various phytonutrients, pro-vitamin A, vitamin E, squalene and phytosterols, thus contributing to exceptionally high total flavonoid contents and moderate antioxidant activities. Overall, samples X and Y are good alternative food sources, besides reducing the environmental impact of POME.
  15. Vanessa VV, Teh SS, Lam KW, Mah SH
    Nat Prod Res, 2023;37(17):2849-2861.
    PMID: 36398788 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2022.2137800
    This study focused on the synthesis of 1,3-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and its new derivatives with alkyl (2a-2f), alkenyl (2 g-2k), alkynyl (2 l-2n), and alkylated phenyl (2o-2r) groups at C3 position. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by MS, NMR, and FTIR spectroscopic data. All the substituted xanthones (2a-2r) showed significantly stronger acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities than 1. Compounds 2g and 2j exhibited the strongest activities with the IC50 values of 20.8 and 21.5 μM and their enzyme kinetic analyses indicated a mixed-mode inhibition. Molecular docking study revealed that 2g binds favourably to the active site of AChE via π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding from the xanthone ring, in addition to π-alkyl interaction from the substituent group. These xanthone derivatives are potential lead compounds to be further developed into Alzheimer's disease drugs.
  16. Jin Y, Teh SS, Lau HLN, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2021 Dec 03;70(12):1749-1759.
    PMID: 34759114 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess21215
    Refined red palm-pressed mesocarp olein (PPMO) is recovered from palm-pressed mesocarp fiber, which is a by-product from palm oil mill. Its utilization in food industry is extremely limited even though it contains various phytonutrients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate its toxicity effects by using the male Sprague-Dawley rat model. The rats were administered with a single dose of 2 g/kg PPMO in an acute toxicity study while administered with 2, 1, or 0.5 g/kg PPMO daily for 28 days in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mortality, oral LD50 value, clinical observation, body and organ weight, hematological and biochemical analyses, pathological and histopathological examinations were assessed. The overall outcomes indicated that PPMO is non-toxic up to 2 g/kg and considered safe to be used in food application, especially as functional food ingredient and supplement attributed to its phytonutrients. Besides, this study provides an insight in alternative utilization of the wastes from palm oil mill.
  17. Daud SB, Ee GC, Malek EA, Teh SS, See I
    Nat Prod Res, 2014;28(19):1534-8.
    PMID: 24897077 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.924001
    A new coumarin, hoseimarin (1), together with four other xanthones, trapezifolizanthone (2), osajaxanthone (3), β-mangostin (4) and caloxanthone A (5), were isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum hosei. The structures of these compounds were established by using spectroscopic analysis which included (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC experiments.
  18. See I, Ee GC, Teh SS, Kadir AA, Daud S
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 04;19(6):7308-16.
    PMID: 24901833 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19067308
    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.
  19. Teh SS, Ee GC, Mah SH, Yong YK, Lim YM, Rahmani M, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:517072.
    PMID: 24089682 DOI: 10.1155/2013/517072
    The in vitro cytotoxicity tests on the extracts of Mesua beccariana, M. ferrea, and M. congestiflora against Raji, SNU-1, HeLa, LS-174T, NCI-H23, SK-MEL-28, Hep-G2, IMR-32, and K562 were achieved using MTT assay. The methanol extracts of Mesua beccariana showed its potency towards the proliferation of B-lymphoma cell (Raji). In addition, only the nonpolar to semipolar extracts (hexane to ethyl acetate) of the three Mesua species indicated cytotoxic effects on the tested panel of human cancer cell lines. Antioxidant assays were evaluated using DPPH scavenging radical assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extracts of M. beccariana and M. ferrea showed high antioxidant activities with low EC₅₀ values of 12.70 and 9.77  μg/mL, respectively, which are comparable to that of ascorbic acid (EC₅₀ = 5.62  μg/mL). Antibacterial tests were carried out using four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria on Mesua beccariana extracts. All the extracts showed negative results in the inhibition of Gram negative bacteria. Nevertheless, methanol extracts showed some activities against Gram positive bacteria which are Bacillus cereus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while the hexane extract also contributed some activities towards Bacillus cereus.
  20. Teh SS, Cheng Lian Ee G, Mah SH, Lim YM, Rahmani M
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 10;17(9):10791-800.
    PMID: 22964497 DOI: 10.3390/molecules170910791
    An investigation on biologically active secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Mesua beccariana was carried out. A new cyclodione, mesuadione, along with several known constituents which are beccamarin, 2,5-dihydroxy-1,3,4-trimethoxy anthraquinone, 4-methoxy-1,3,5-trihydroxyanthraquinone, betulinic acid and stigmasterol were obtained from this ongoing research. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV techniques. Preliminary tests of the in vitro cytotoxic activities of all the isolated metabolites against a panel of human cancer cell lines Raji (lymphoma), SNU-1 (gastric carcinoma), K562 (erythroleukemia cells), LS-174T (colorectal adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical cells), SK-MEL-28 (malignant melanoma cells), NCI-H23 (lung adenocarcinoma), IMR-32 (neuroblastoma) and Hep-G2 (hepatocellular liver carcinoma) were carried out using an MTT assay. Mesuadione, beccamarin, betulinic acid and stigmasterol displayed strong inhibition of Raji cell proliferation, while the proliferation rate of SK-MEL-28 and HeLa were strongly inhibited by stigmasterol and beccamarin, indicating these secondary metabolites could be anti-cancer lead compounds in drug discovery.
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