OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.
RESULTS: Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis altered functional groups of OPL where a secondary amine was present in the PH. Changes were also observed in the thermal stability where the enthalpy heat obtained for PH (933.93-1142.57 J g-1 ) was much lower than OPL (7854.11 J g-1 ). The results showed that the PH extracted by 8% Alcalase exhibited absolute zeta potential, as well as a high emulsifying activity index (70.64 m2 g-1 of protein) and emulsion stability index (60.58 min). Furthermore, this PH showed higher solubility (96.32%) and emulsifying properties compared to other PHs. It is also comparable with commercial plant proteins, indicating that 8% Alcalase is an optimum concentration for hydrolysis.
CONCLUSION: In summary, the physicochemical and functional properties of PH extracted from OPL showed good functional properties, suggesting that it can be used as an alternative plant protein in food industries. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.