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  1. Pan GT, Chong S, Yang TC, Huang CM
    Materials (Basel), 2017 Mar 31;10(4).
    PMID: 28772727 DOI: 10.3390/ma10040370
    Mesoporous Mn1.5Co1.5O₄ (MCO) spinel films were prepared directly on a conductive nickel (Ni) foam substrate via electrodeposition and an annealing treatment as supercapacitor electrodes. The electrodeposition time markedly influenced the surface morphological, textural, and supercapacitive properties of MCO/Ni electrodes. The (MCO/Ni)-15 min electrode (electrodeposition time: 15 min) exhibited the highest capacitance among three electrodes (electrodeposition times of 7.5, 15, and 30 min, respectively). Further, an asymmetric supercapacitor that utilizes (MCO/Ni)-15 min as a positive electrode, a plasma-treated activated carbon (PAC)/Ni electrode as a negative electrode, and carboxymethyl cellulose-lithium nitrate (LiNO₃) gel electrolyte (denoted as (PAC/Ni)//(MCO/Ni)-15 min) was fabricated. In a stable operation window of 2.0 V, the device exhibited an energy density of 27.6 Wh·kg-1 and a power density of 1.01 kW·kg-1 at 1 A·g-1. After 5000 cycles, the specific energy density retention and power density retention were 96% and 92%, respectively, demonstrating exceptional cycling stability. The good supercapacitive performance and excellent stability of the (PAC/Ni)//(MCO/Ni)-15 min device can be ascribed to the hierarchical structure and high surface area of the (MCO/Ni)-15 min electrode, which facilitate lithium ion intercalation and deintercalation at the electrode/electrolyte interface and mitigate volume change during long-term charge/discharge cycling.
  2. Rosli H, Batzer JC, Harrington TC, Gleason ML
    Mycologia, 2018 09 21;110(5):822-834.
    PMID: 30240341 DOI: 10.1080/00275514.2018.1486679
    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi infect the cuticle of fruit, including apple fruit, and produce pigmented colonies. A new member of this fungal complex in the genus Peltaster is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The SBFS complex is a diverse group of ectophytic fungi that reside primarily within the order Capnodiales. Sooty blotch and flyspeck isolates from apple orchards in the central United States were subjected to parsimony and Bayesian analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuc rDNA, the partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene, and the partial mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis delineated a new species, Peltaster gemmifer, from P. cerophilus and P. fructicola. Peltaster gemmifer conidiophores bear primary conidia that produce secondary conidia either through budding or through microcyclic conidiation; these were not seen in cultures of P. cerophilus and P. fructicola. On cellulose membrane that was placed on water agar amended with apple juice, P. gemmifer produced brown to black pycnothyria in a superficial brownish mycelial mat, similar to the colonies produced on apple fruit. Findings from the present study add to the >80 named and putative SBFS species so far described worldwide.
  3. Ismail SI, Batzer JC, Harrington TC, Crous PW, Lavrov DV, Li H, et al.
    Mycologia, ;108(2):292-302.
    PMID: 26740537 DOI: 10.3852/15-036
    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi.
  4. Grabowski MK, Gray RH, Serwadda D, Kigozi G, Gravitt PE, Nalugoda F, et al.
    Sex Transm Infect, 2014 Jun;90(4):337-43.
    PMID: 24482488 DOI: 10.1136/sextrans-2013-051230
    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) viral load is associated with HR-HPV transmission and HR-HPV persistence in women. It is unknown whether HR-HPV viral load is associated with persistence in HIV-negative or HIV-positive men.
  5. Ng KT, Ng KY, Khong WX, Chew KK, Singh PK, Yap JK, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e80884.
    PMID: 24312505 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080884
    HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE are the predominant infecting subtypes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. The genetic history, population dynamics and pattern of transmission networks of these genotypes remain largely unknown. We delineated the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently characterized CRF51_01B strains circulating among the MSM population in Singapore. A total of 105 (49.5%) newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve MSM were recruited between February 2008 and August 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the protease gene (HXB2: 2239 - 2629), gp120 (HXB2: 6942 - 7577) and gp41 (HXB2: 7803 - 8276) of the env gene uncovered five monophyletic transmission networks (two each within subtype B and CRF01_AE and one within CRF51_01B lineages) of different sizes (involving 3 - 23 MSM subjects, supported by posterior probability measure of 1.0). Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the emergence and dissemination of multiple sub-epidemic networks occurred between 1995 and 2005, driven largely by subtype B and later followed by CRF01_AE. Exponential increase in effective population size for both subtype B and CRF01_AE occurred between 2002 to 2007 and 2005 to 2007, respectively. Genealogical estimates suggested that the novel CRF51_01B lineages were probably generated through series of recombination events involving CRF01_AE and multiple subtype B ancestors. Our study provides the first insight on the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B viral strains circulating among MSM in Singapore.
  6. Héritier S, Emile JF, Barkaoui MA, Thomas C, Fraitag S, Boudjemaa S, et al.
    J. Clin. Oncol., 2016 09 01;34(25):3023-30.
    PMID: 27382093 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2015.65.9508
    PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae.

    RESULTS: Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAF(V600E) mutation. Patients with BRAF(V600E) manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAF(V600E) comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAF(V600E) mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAF(V600E) more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001).

    CONCLUSION: In children with LCH, BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.

  7. Liu J, Lončar I, Collée JM, Bolla MK, Dennis J, Michailidou K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 11 15;6:36874.
    PMID: 27845421 DOI: 10.1038/srep36874
    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.
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