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  1. Zhou LX, Xiao Y, Xia W, Yang YD
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2015;14(4):16247-54.
    PMID: 26662418 DOI: 10.4238/2015.December.8.15
    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species.
  2. Lazarescu A, Chan WW, Gyawali CP, Lee YY, Xiao Y, Wu P
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2020 12;1481(1):108-116.
    PMID: 32875574 DOI: 10.1111/nyas.14453
    Esophageal dysphagia is a common symptom in adults. Fluoroscopic contrast studies, endoscopy, and esophageal manometry have been used in the diagnosis of esophageal dysphagia for many years. The diagnostic yield has been improved with new test protocols that highlight abnormal bolus transit in the esophagus and outflow obstruction, as well as new high-definition and high-resolution technical advances in equipment. Functional luminal impedance planimetry and the addition of impedance to high-resolution esophageal manometry have also allowed the assessment of new parameters to better understand esophageal structure and function. In this concise review, we describe the role and utility of various diagnostic modalities in the assessment of patients with esophageal dysphagia.
  3. Huang Y, Zhang L, Li Z, Gopinath SCB, Chen Y, Xiao Y
    PMID: 33245588 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2008
    17β-Estradiol-E2 (17β-E2) is a steroid hormone that plays a major role in the reproductive endocrine system and is involved in various processes, such as pregnancy, fertility, and menopause. In this study, the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 17β-E2 quantification was enhanced by using a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated aptamer. An anti-17β-E2-aptamer-GNP antibody was immobilized on an amine-modified ELISA surface. Then, 17β-E2 was allowed to interact with and be sandwiched by antibodies. Aptamer-GNP conjugation was confirmed by colorimetric assays via the naked eye and UV-visible light spectroscopy. The detection limit based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 was estimated to be 1.5 nM (400 pg/mL), and the linear range was 1.5-50 nM. Control experiments (without 17β-E2/with a complementary aptamer sequence/with a nonimmune antibody) confirmed the specific detection of 17β-E2. Moreover, 17β-E2 spiking of human serum did not interrupt the interaction between 17β-E2 and its antibody and aptamer. Thus, the developed ELISA can be used as an alternate assay for quantification of 17β-E2 and assessment of endocrine-related gynecological problems.
  4. Han H, Hu S, Syed-Hassan SSA, Xiao Y, Wang Y, Xu J, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Jul;236:138-145.
    PMID: 28399417 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.112
    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions.
  5. Yang T, Xiao Y, Zhang Z, Liang Y, Li G, Zhang M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 09 28;8(1):14518.
    PMID: 30266999 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32757-9
    Soft robots driven by stimuli-responsive materials have their own unique advantages over traditional rigid robots such as large actuation, light weight, good flexibility and biocompatibility. However, the large actuation of soft robots inherently co-exists with difficulty in control with high precision. This article presents a soft artificial muscle driven robot mimicking cuttlefish with a fully integrated on-board system including power supply and wireless communication system. Without any motors, the movements of the cuttlefish robot are solely actuated by dielectric elastomer which exhibits muscle-like properties including large deformation and high energy density. Reinforcement learning is used to optimize the control strategy of the cuttlefish robot instead of manual adjustment. From scratch, the swimming speed of the robot is enhanced by 91% with reinforcement learning, reaching to 21 mm/s (0.38 body length per second). The design principle behind the structure and the control of the robot can be potentially useful in guiding device designs for demanding applications such as flexible devices and soft robots.
  6. Xia W, Luo T, Zhang W, Mason AS, Huang D, Huang X, et al.
    PMID: 30809240 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00130
    High-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used as highly favored makers to analyze genetic diversity and population structure, to construct high-density genetic maps and provide genotypes for genome-wide association analysis. In order to develop genome-wide SNP markers in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), single locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology was performed in a diversity panel of 200 oil palm individuals and 1,261,501 SNPs were identified with minor allele frequency > 0.05 and integrity > 1. Among them, only 17.81% can be mapped within the genic region and the remaining was located into the intergenic region. A positive correlation was detected between the distribution of SNP markers and retrotransposons [transposable elements (TEs)]. Population structure analysis showed that the 200 individuals of oil palm can be divided into five subgroups based on cross-validation errors. However, the subpopulations divided for the 200 oil palm individuals based on the SNP markers were not accurately related to their geographical origins and 80 oil palm individuals from Malaysia showed highest genetic diversity. In addition, the physical distance of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in the analyzed oil palm population was 14.516 kb when r2 = 0.1. The LD decay distances for different chromosomes varied from 3.324 (chromosome 15) to 19.983 kb (chromosome 7). Our research provides genome-wide SNPs for future targeted breeding in palm oil.
  7. Kelly B, Hebden L, King L, Xiao Y, Yu Y, He G, et al.
    Health Promot Int, 2016 Mar;31(1):144-52.
    PMID: 24997194 DOI: 10.1093/heapro/dau055
    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice.
  8. Lai CC, Lee K, Xiao Y, Ahmad N, Veeraraghavan B, Thamlikitkul V, et al.
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2014 Sep;2(3):141-147.
    PMID: 27873720 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2014.02.007
    The rapid development of antimicrobial resistance among micro-organisms is a serious public health concern. Moreover, the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria makes this issue a global problem, and Asia is no exception. For example, since New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified in India, further spread of NDM has become a worldwide threat. However, the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in Asia may be different to other regions, and clinical condition may be worse than in western countries. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including community-acquired and hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, macrolide- and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, extend-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., are becoming prevalent in many countries in Asia. Moreover, the prevalence of each antibiotic-resistant bacterium in each country is not identical. This review provides useful information regarding the critical condition of antibiotic resistance in Asia and emphasises the importance of continuous surveillance of resistance data.
  9. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

  10. Jagadeesan B, Gerner-Smidt P, Allard MW, Leuillet S, Winkler A, Xiao Y, et al.
    Food Microbiol., 2019 Jun;79:96-115.
    PMID: 30621881 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2018.11.005
    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) combined with powerful bioinformatic approaches are revolutionising food microbiology. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of single isolates allows the most detailed comparison possible hitherto of individual strains. The two principle approaches for strain discrimination, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) are showing concordant results for phylogenetic clustering and are complementary to each other. Metabarcoding and metagenomics, applied to total DNA isolated from either food materials or the production environment, allows the identification of complete microbial populations. Metagenomics identifies the entire gene content and when coupled to transcriptomics or proteomics, allows the identification of functional capacity and biochemical activity of microbial populations. The focus of this review is on the recent use and future potential of NGS in food microbiology and on current challenges. Guidance is provided for new users, such as public health departments and the food industry, on the implementation of NGS and how to critically interpret results and place them in a broader context. The review aims to promote the broader application of NGS technologies within the food industry as well as highlight knowledge gaps and novel applications of NGS with the aim of driving future research and increasing food safety outputs from its wider use.
  11. Yang XR, Devi BCR, Sung H, Guida J, Mucaki EJ, Xiao Y, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2017 Oct;165(3):687-697.
    PMID: 28664506 DOI: 10.1007/s10549-017-4356-8
    PURPOSE: To characterize the spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 in population-based unselected breast cancer cases in an Asian population.

    METHODS: Germline DNA from 467 breast cancer patients in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia, where 93% of the breast cancer patients in Sarawak are treated, was sequenced for the entire coding region of BRCA1; BRCA2; PALB2; Exons 6, 7, and 8 of TP53; and Exons 7 and 8 of PTEN. Pathogenic variants included known pathogenic variants in ClinVar, loss of function variants, and variants that disrupt splice site.

    RESULTS: We found 27 pathogenic variants (11 BRCA1, 10 BRCA2, 4 PALB2, and 2 TP53) in 34 patients, which gave a prevalence of germline mutations of 2.8, 3.23, and 0.86% for BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2, respectively. Compared to mutation non-carriers, BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to have an earlier age at onset, triple-negative subtype, and lower body mass index, whereas BRCA2 mutation carriers were more likely to have a positive family history. Mutation carrier cases had worse survival compared to non-carriers; however, the association was mostly driven by stage and tumor subtype. We also identified 19 variants of unknown significance, and some of them were predicted to alter splicing or transcription factor binding sites.

    CONCLUSION: Our data provide insight into the genetics of breast cancer in this understudied group and suggest the need for modifying genetic testing guidelines for this population with a much younger age at diagnosis and more limited resources compared with Caucasian populations.

  12. Oshima T, Siah KTH, Kim YS, Patcharatrakul T, Chen CL, Mahadeva S, et al.
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil, 2021 Jan 30;27(1):46-54.
    PMID: 33106443 DOI: 10.5056/jnm20117
    Background/Aims: Gastroparesis is identified as a subject that is understudied in Asia. The scientific committee of the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association performed a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey on gastroparesis among doctors in Asia.

    Methods: The questionnaire was created and developed through a literature review of current gastroparesis works of literature by the scientific committee of Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association.

    Results: A total of 490 doctors from across Asia (including Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) participated in the survey. Gastroparesis is a significant gastrointestinal condition. However, a substantial proportion of respondents was unable to give the correct definition and accurate diagnostic test. The main reason for lack of interest in diagnosing gastroparesis was "the lack of reliable diagnostic tests" (46.8%) or "a lack of effective treatment" (41.5%). Only 41.7% of respondents had access to gastric emptying scintigraphy. Most doctors had never diagnosed gastroparesis at all (25.2%) or diagnosed fewer than 5 patients a year (52.1%).

    Conclusions: Gastroparesis can be challenging to diagnose due to the lack of instrument, standardized method, and paucity of research data on normative value, risk factors, and treatment studies in Asian patients. Future strategies should concentrate on how to disseminate the latest knowledge of gastroparesis in Asia. In particular, there is an urgent need to estimate the magnitude of the problems in high risk and idiopathic patients as well as a standardized diagnostic procedure in Asia.

  13. Siah KTH, Rahman MM, Ong AML, Soh AYS, Lee YY, Xiao Y, et al.
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil, 2020 07 30;26(3):299-310.
    PMID: 32606253 DOI: 10.5056/jnm20107
    During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.
  14. Sifrim D, Roman S, Savarino E, Bor S, Bredenoord AJ, Castell D, et al.
    Gut, 2020 Oct 09.
    PMID: 33037054 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322627
    OBJECTIVE: Limitations of existing impedance-pH thresholds include small sample size of normative studies, inclusion of artefactual pH drops and incorrect identification of impedance reflux events. We aimed to obtain new impedance-pH thresholds from expert consensus analysis of tracings from a large number of healthy subjects.

    DESIGN: Of 541 studies performed worldwide using two different systems (Diversatek, USA, and Laborie, Netherlands), 150 tracings with oesophageal diagnoses, behavioural disorders and study-related artefacts were excluded. The remainder studies were subject to two reviewer consensus analysis, in-person or through video conference, consisting of editing meals and pH drops, identification of impedance reflux and postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) using strict pre-established criteria and measurement of distal mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI).

    RESULTS: Consensus analysis was performed in 391 tracings (age 32.7 years, range 18-71, 54.2% female). Normative thresholds were significantly different between Diversatek and Laborie (total acid exposure time: 2.8% and 5%; reflux episodes: 55 and 78; MNBI at 3 cm: 1400 and 1500 ohms, at 5 cm: 1400 and 1800 ohms). Males had higher acid exposure, more reflux episodes and lower MNBI. Significant regional differences were identified, including higher PSPW scores in Western countries, and higher MNBI in Asia using Diversatek, and higher acid exposure in the Netherlands, higher MNBI in Asia and South Africa, and lower MNBI in Turkey using Laborie.

    CONCLUSION: Normal impedance-pH monitoring thresholds have regional and system-related differences. Clinical interpretation needs to use normal thresholds valid for the system used and world region, following careful editing of the tracings.

  15. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Ruppé E, Bassetti M, Wright BJ, Ansaloni L, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2017;12:35.
    PMID: 28785301 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-017-0147-0
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13017-016-0089-y.].
  16. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Ruppé E, Bassetti M, Wright BJ, Ansaloni L, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2016;11:33.
    PMID: 27429642 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-016-0089-y
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
  17. Sartelli M, Labricciosa FM, Barbadoro P, Pagani L, Ansaloni L, Brink AJ, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2017;12:34.
    PMID: 28775763 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-017-0145-2
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) have been promoted to optimize antimicrobial usage and patient outcomes, and to reduce the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. However, the best strategies for an ASP are not definitively established and are likely to vary based on local culture, policy, and routine clinical practice, and probably limited resources in middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate structures and resources of antimicrobial stewardship teams (ASTs) in surgical departments from different regions of the world.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in 2016 on 173 physicians who participated in the AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections) project and on 658 international experts in the fields of ASPs, infection control, and infections in surgery.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 19.4%. One hundred fifty-six (98.7%) participants stated their hospital had a multidisciplinary AST. The median number of physicians working inside the team was five [interquartile range 4-6]. An infectious disease specialist, a microbiologist and an infection control specialist were, respectively, present in 80.1, 76.3, and 67.9% of the ASTs. A surgeon was a component in 59.0% of cases and was significantly more likely to be present in university hospitals (89.5%, p 

  18. Global Retinoblastoma Study Group, Fabian ID, Abdallah E, Abdullahi SU, Abdulqader RA, Adamou Boubacar S, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2020 05 01;6(5):685-695.
    PMID: 32105305 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6716
    Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale.

    Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis.

    Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]).

    Conclusions and Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.

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