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  1. Tan CS, Yam MF
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 2018 06;391(6):561-569.
    PMID: 29552696 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-018-1481-9
    Previous studies have demonstrated that 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) content in Orthosiphon stamineus fractions correlate with its vasorelaxation activity. Even with the availability of previous studies, there is still very little information on the vasorelaxation effect of TMF, and few scientific studies have been carried out. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxation activity and mechanism of action of the TMF. The vasorelaxation activity and the underlying mechanisms of TMF were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. TMF caused the relaxation of aortic rings with endothelium pre-contracted with phenylephrine. However, the vasorelaxant effect of TMF was significantly decreased in PE-primed endothelium-denuded and potassium chloride-primed endothelium-intact aortic rings. In the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, indomethacin, tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, atropine and propranolol, the relaxation stimulated by TMF was significantly reduced. TMF was also found to reduce Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (via IP3R) and block calcium channels (VOCC). The present study demonstrates the vasorelaxant effect of TMF involves NO/sGC/cGMP and prostacyclin pathways, calcium and potassium channels and muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors.
  2. Devaraj S, Ismail S, Ramanathan S, Yam MF
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:353128.
    PMID: 25133223 DOI: 10.1155/2014/353128
    Curcuma xanthorrhiza (CX) has been used for centuries in traditional system of medicine to treat several diseases such as hepatitis, liver complaints, and diabetes. It has been consumed as food supplement and "jamu" as a remedy for hepatitis. Hence, CX was further explored for its potential as a functional food for liver related diseases. As such, initiative was taken to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of CX rhizome. Antioxidant activity of the standardized CX fractions was determined using in vitro assays. Hepatoprotective assay was conducted against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of hexane fraction. Highest antioxidant activity was found in hexane fraction. In the case of hepatoprotective activity, CX hexane fraction showed significant improvement in terms of a biochemical liver function, antioxidative liver enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activity. Good recovery was observed in the treated hepatic tissues histologically. Hence, the results concluded that CX hexane fraction possessed prominent hepatoprotective activities which might be due to its in vitro antioxidant activity. These findings also support the use of CX as a functional food for hepatitis remedy in traditional medicinal system.
  3. Ang LF, Por LY, Yam MF
    PLoS One, 2013;8(8):e70597.
    PMID: 23940599 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070597
    Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave the potential to be a suitable matrix for the development of glucose biosensors.
  4. Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, Basir R
    J Med Food, 2008 Jun;11(2):362-8.
    PMID: 18598181 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2006.065
    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a standardized Orthosiphon stamineus methanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) leaf extract (SEOS) were evaluated in animal models. Oral administration of SEOS at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly reduced the hind paw edema in rats at 3 and 5 hours after carrageenan administration (P < .01 and P < .01; P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). SEOS (1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) also produced significant (P < .05) analgesic activity in both the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin-induced licking test (late phase) in mice and rats, respectively. However, SEOS showed no effect on the tail flick and hot plate tests in mice. The results of the present study support the proposal that O. stamineus has anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic activities. These findings justify the traditional use of the plant for treating pain and inflammation.
  5. Ang LF, Por LY, Yam MF
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0111859.
    PMID: 25789757 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111859
    An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable.
  6. Akowuah GA, Zhari I, Mariam A, Yam MF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2009 Sep;47(9):2321-6.
    PMID: 19540299 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.06.022
    A simple and validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection has been used to determine the content of andrographolide (AP) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DIAP) in rat plasma after oral dose of methanol extract (1 g/kg body weight) of Andrographis paniculata leaf. An increase in plasma concentration of AP and DIAP was observed from 30 min to 3 h after oral administration of the extract. The maximum plasma concentrations of AP and DIAP were 1.42+/-0.09 microg/ml and 1.31+/-0.04 microg/ml, respectively. Fourteen days oral treatment of rats with the methanol extract (1 g/kg body weight) followed by CCl(4) administration preserved catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in erythrocytes, whereas plasma lipid peroxidation, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were restored to values comparable with control values. Treatment of rats with CCl(4) did not showed significant alteration (p>0.05) in plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) as compare to values of control group.
  7. Yam MF, Tan CS, Shibao R
    Hypertens Res, 2018 Oct;41(10):787-797.
    PMID: 30111856 DOI: 10.1038/s41440-018-0083-8
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lambiaceae) is an important traditional plant for the treatment of hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that the sinensetin content in O. stamineus is correlated with its vasorelaxant activity. However, there is still very little information regarding the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin due to a lack of scientific studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of action of sinensetin in vasorelaxation using an in vitro precontraction aortic ring assay. The changes in the tension of the aortic ring preparations were recorded using a force-displacement transducer and the PowerLab system. The mechanisms of the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin were determined in the presence of antagonists. Sinensetin caused relaxation of the aortic ring precontracted with PE in the presence and absence of the endothelium and with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic rings. In the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (cyclic guanosine monophosphate lowering agent), ODQ (selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), indomethacin (a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), tetraethylammonium (nonselective calcium activator K+ channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker), barium chloride (inwardly rectifying Kir channel blocker), glibenclamide (nonspecific ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor blocker), or propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor blocker), the relaxation stimulated by sinensetin was significantly reduced. Sinensetin was also active in reducing Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (via IP3R) and in blocking calcium channels (VOCC). The present study demonstrates the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin, which involves the NO/sGC/cGMP and indomethacin pathways, calcium and potassium channels, and muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors.
  8. Hassan Z, Yam MF, Ahmad M, Yusof AP
    Molecules, 2010;15(12):9008-23.
    PMID: 21150821 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15129008
    Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr (family Compositae) is cultivated in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, for medicinal purposes. This study evaluated the in vivo hypoglycemic properties of the water extract of G. procumbens following 14 days of treatment and in vitro in RIN-5F cells. Glucose absorption from the intestines and its glucose uptake in abdominal skeletal muscle were assessed. The antidiabetic effect of water extract of G. procumbens leaves was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed in diabetic rats treated with G. procumbens water extract for 14 days. In the IPGTT, blood was collected for insulin and blood glucose measurement. After the IPGTT, the pancreases were collected for immunohistochemical study of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans. The possible antidiabetic mechanisms of G. procumbens were assessed through in vitro RIN-5F cell study, intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by muscle. The results showed that G. procumbens significantly decreased blood glucose levels after 14 days of treatment and improved outcome of the IPGTT. However, G. procumbens did not show a significant effect on insulin level either in the in vivo test or the in vitro RIN-5F cell culture study. G. procumbens also showed minimal effects on β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. However, G. procumbens only significantly increased glucose uptake by muscle tissues. From the findings we can conclude that G. procumbens water extract exerted its hypoglycemic effect by promoting glucose uptake by muscles.
  9. Devaraj S, Esfahani AS, Ismail S, Ramanathan S, Yam MF
    Molecules, 2010 Apr;15(4):2925-34.
    PMID: 20428088 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042925
    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
  10. Aziz HA, Tan YT, Peh KK, Yam MF
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2010 Oct-Dec;4(4):e247-342.
    PMID: 24345689 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2010.07.001
    Khat (Catha edulis) as well as garlic (Allium sativum) has a potential effect on reducing the lipid contents of blood. However, a mechanism by which garlic or khat reduces plasma lipids has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the direct action of khat and/or garlic (in vitro). The effects of extracted khat and/or garlic on human blood constituents (cholesterol and triglycerides) and on vegetable oil were investigated. The results showed that aqueous garlic extract was able to form an emulsion with oil but not khat extract. Even though, either khat or garlic extract has slight effect on reducing lipid contents of blood; a higher reduction was obtained when the extracts were added in combination. The mechanism of garlic on reducing lipids could be explained by its emulsifying property, while the mechanism of khat is by lipolysis. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of garlic and khat extracts opened an interesting area for further investigation on their roles in combating cardiovascular and obesity disorders.:
  11. Yam MF, Basir R, Asmawi MZ, Ismail Z
    Am. J. Chin. Med., 2007;35(1):115-26.
    PMID: 17265556
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), Benth. (Lamiaceae) is widely used in Malaysia for treatments of various kidney and liver ailments. In the experiment, DPPH* radicals scavenging, Fe(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of methanol/water extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (SEOS) were determined. The results indicated that SEOS exhibited antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging activities. The hepatoprotective activity of the SEOS was studied using CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. The activity was assessed by monitoring liver function tests through the measurement of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, hepatic tissues were also subjected to histopathological studies. Pretreatment of SEOS (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently reduced the necrotic changes in rat liver and inhibited the increase of serum ALT and AST activities. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of Orthosiphon stamineus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.
  12. Yam MF, Tan CS, Ahmad M, Shibao R
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct 15;789:27-36.
    PMID: 27370961 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.06.047
    Previous studies demonstrated that eupatorin content in Orthosiphon stamineus fractions correlated with their vasorelaxation activity. Even with previous studies, there is still very little information on the vasorelaxation effect of eupatorin, and not many scientific studies had been carried out. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxation activity and mechanism of action of eupatorin. The vasorelaxation activity and the underlying mechanisms of eupatorin was evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. Eupatorin caused the relaxation of aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine with and without endothelium (pD2=6.66±0.13, EMAX=99.72±6.39%; pD2=6.10±0.22, EMAX=65.78±8.01%), and also the relaxation of endothelium-intact aortic rings pre-contracted with potassium chloride (pD2=6.20±0.30, EMAX=71.89±12.25%). In the presence of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (pD2<4.60, EMAX=24.91±6.39%), methylene blue (pD2=6.05±0.38, EMAX=66.79±9.69%), ODQ (pD25.84±0.32, EMAX=60.47±9.6%), indomethacin (pD2=6.27±0.21, EMAX=76.03±9.45%), tetraethylammonium (pD2=6.09±0.35, EMAX=69.35±11.31%), 4-aminopyridine (pD2=6.34±0.12, EMAX=76±6.1%), barium chloride (pD2=6.47±0.14, EMAX=79.61±10.02%), atropine (pD2=6.36±0.29, EMAX=86.47±12.95%) and propranolol (pD2=6.49±0.26, EMAX=83.2±12.01%), relaxation stimulated by eupatorin was significantly reduced. Eupatorin was also found to be active in reducing Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and in blocking calcium channels. The present study demonstrates the vasorelaxation effect of eupatorin involving NO/sGC/cGMP and indomethacin pathways, calcium and potassium channels, and muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors.
  13. Yam MF, Tan CS, Ahmad M, Ruan S
    Am. J. Chin. Med., 2016;44(7):1413-1439.
    PMID: 27785939
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an important plant in traditional folk medicine that is used to treat hypertension and kidney stones. In humans, this plant has been tested as an addition regiment for antihypertensive treatment. Among the treatments for hypertension, O. stamineus had been to have diuretic and vasorelaxant effects in animal models. There is still very little information regarding the vasorelaxant effect of O. stamineus. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxant activity and mechanism of action of the fractions of O. stamineus. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of the chloroform fraction of the 50% methanolic extract of O. stamineus (CF) was evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. CF caused relaxation of the aortic ring pre-contracted with phenylephrine in the presence and absence of endothelium, and pre-contracted with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic ring. In the presence of endothelium, both indomethacin (a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and [Formula: see text]-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-[Formula: see text]]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor) had a small effect on the vasorelaxation response. On the other hand, in the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (cyclic guanosine monophosphate lowering agent), tetraethylammonium ([Formula: see text], nonselective calcium activator [Formula: see text] channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, voltage-dependent [Formula: see text] channel blocker), barium chloride ([Formula: see text], inwardly rectifying [Formula: see text] channel blocker), glibenclamide (nonspecific ATP-sensitive [Formula: see text] channel blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor blocker) and propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor blocker), the vasorelaxant effect significantly reduced the relaxation stimulated by CF. CF was also found to be active in reducing [Formula: see text] release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and blocking calcium channels.
  14. Ang LF, Darwis Y, Por LY, Yam MF
    Pharmaceutics, 2019 Sep 02;11(9).
    PMID: 31480767 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11090451
    Curcuminoids have been long proven to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties which are crucial in their role as a pharmacological active agent. However, its poor solubility, high oxidative degradation, light sensitivity and poor bioavailability have been huge hurdles that need to be overcome for it to be administered as an oral or even a topical medication. In this present study, a complex coacervation microencapsulation approach was used to encapsulate the curcuminoids using both gelatin B and chitosan (at the optimum ratio of 30:1% w/w) for a more efficient drug delivery system. Curcuminoids microcapsules (CPM) were developed to be spherical in shape, discrete and free flowing with a reduced color staining effect. The thick wall of the CPM contributes directly to its integrity and stability. Cross-linking increases the density of polymers' wall network, hence, further increasing the decomposition temperature of curcuminoids microcapsules. Microencapsulation demonstrated an increment in curcuminoids solubility, while chemical cross-linking allowed for sustained release of the drug from the microcapsules by lowering the swelling rate of the available polymer networks. Thus, the microcapsules complied with the zero order release kinetics with super case-II transport mechanism. On the basis of all that was discussed above, it can be safely concluded that CPM should be incorporated in delivery system of curcuminoid, especially in its topical delivery for controlled drug release purposes, for not only a more efficient drug delivery system design but also a more efficacious optimization of the pharmacological benefits of curcuminoids.
  15. Tew WY, Tan CS, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2020 Aug 05;880:173123.
    PMID: 32335091 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173123
    Morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a yellow coloured natural flavonoid found in plants of the Moraceae family. This favonoid is easily sources from readily available fruits, vegetables and eve certain beverages. Among the sources that was identified, it is clear that morin is most abundantly found in almond, old fustic, Indian guava, and Osage orange. Multiple studies have suggested that morin has multiple therapeutic actions and possess potential to be a functional potent drug. Previous studies demonstrated that morin is capable of resolving deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension and possess strong vasorelaxant properties. However, the exact mechanisms remains unknown. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the in vitro mechanism of morin-induced vasorelaxant effects. The underlying mechanisms of morin's vasorelaxant activities were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Results from the study demonstrated morin causing vasodilatory reaction in phenylephrine and potassium chloride pre-contracted endothelium-intact aortic rings with the effect being significantly affected in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pre-incubation of the aortic rings with ODQ (selective cGMP-independent sGC inhibitor), indomethacin (nonselective COX inhibitor), L-NAME (endothelial nitric oxide inhibitor), propranolol (β2-adrenegic receptors blocker), and atropine (muscarinic receptors blocker) significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effect of morin. It was also found to be able to reduce the intracellular calcium level by blocking VOCC and calcium intake from the extracellular environment and the intracellular release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The present study showed that the vasorelaxant effect of morin potentially involves the NO/sGC, muscarinic receptors, β2-adrenegic receptors, and calcium channels.
  16. Chan SY, Loh YC, Oo CW, Yam MF
    Bioorg Chem, 2020 11;104:104239.
    PMID: 33142420 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104239
    The development of vasorelaxant as the antihypertensive drug is important as it produces a rapid and direct relaxation effect on the blood vessel muscles. Resveratrol (RV), as the most widely studied stilbenoid and the lead compound, inducing the excellent vasorelaxation effect through the multiple signalling pathways. In this study, the in vitro vascular response of the synthesized trans-stilbenoid derivatives, SB 1-8e were primarily evaluated by employing the phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted endothelium-intact isolated aortic rings. Herein we report trans-3,4,4'-trihydroxystilbene (SB 8b) exhibited surprisingly more than 2-fold improvement to the maximal relaxation (Rmax) of RV. This article also highlights the characterization of the aromatic protons in terms of their unique splitting patterns in 1H NMR.
  17. Tan CS, Loh YC, Tew WY, Yam MF
    Inflammopharmacology, 2020 Aug;28(4):869-875.
    PMID: 31925617 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-019-00682-6
    Resveratrol is found in numerous plant-based foods and beverages and is known to have an impact on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of resveratrol and its underlying mechanisms by employing an aortic ring assay model. Resveratrol caused relaxation of aortic rings that had been precontracted with phenylephrine in the presence of endothelium or with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effect was decreased in the absence of an endothelium. The mechanisms underlying the vasorelaxant effect of resveratrol were determined through the addition of antagonists. In the presence of the endothelium, indomethacin (a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), methylene blue (cyclic guanosine monophosphate lowering agent), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), tetraethylammonium (TEA, nonselective calcium activator potassium channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker), barium chloride (BaCl2, inwardly rectifying K+ channel blocker), glibenclamide (non-specific ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker) and propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor blocker) led to a significant reduction in the vasorelaxation effect induced by resveratrol. Resveratrol was also found to reduce Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and block calcium channels. In conclusion, resveratrol targets multiple signalling pathways for exerting its vasorelaxant effects in the rat aortic ring model in both the presence and absence of endothelium.
  18. Yam MF, Loh YC, Oo CW, Basir R
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jun 19;21(12).
    PMID: 32575378 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21124355
    Pain is the most common sensation installed in us naturally which plays a vital role in defending us against severe harm. This neurological mechanism pathway has been one of the most complex and comprehensive topics but there has never been an elaborate justification of the types of analgesics that used to reduce the pain sensation through which specific pathways. Of course, there have been some answers to curbing of pain which is a lifesaver in numerous situations-chronic and acute pain conditions alike. This has been explored by scientists using pain-like behavioral study methodologies in non-anesthetized animals since decades ago to characterize the analgesic profile such as centrally or peripherally acting drugs and allowing for the development of analgesics. However, widely the methodology is being practiced such as the tail flick/Hargreaves test and Von Frey/Randall-Selitto tests which are stimulus-evoked nociception studies, and there has rarely been a complete review of all these methodologies, their benefits and its downside coupled with the mechanism of the action that is involved. Thus, this review solely focused on the complete protocol that is being adapted in each behavioral study methods induced by different phlogogenic agents, the different assessment methods used for phasic, tonic and inflammatory pain studies and the proposed mechanism of action underlying each behavioral study methodology for analgesic drug profiling. It is our belief that this review could significantly provide a concise idea and improve our scientists' understanding towards pain management in future research.
  19. Loh YC, Chan SY, Oo CW, Yam MF
    Life Sci, 2021 Aug 01;278:119560.
    PMID: 33915131 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119560
    AIMS: The structure-vasorelaxant activity relationships (SARs) assessment in previous study has found that trans-3,4,4'-trihydroxystilbene (344OH) could potentially act as a vasorelaxing agent with demonstration of over 2-fold maximal relaxation (Rmax) compared to its analogue, resveratrol. The present study focuses on the mechanism of actions and pathways employed by 344OH and compared to its analogue to further speculate the SAR of stilbenoids towards vasorelaxation.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 344OH employed in present study was synthesized based on the protocol in previous study. The vascular responses towards the cumulative addition of 344OH were evaluated using in vitro rat aortic rings assays.

    KEY FINDINGS: The pEC50 and Rmax values were found to be 4.33 ± 0.05 and 106 ± 3.99%, respectively. Results showed that the vasorelaxation of 344OH were predominated by G-protein-coupled muscarinic- (M3) and β2-adrenergic receptors, followed by PGI2/AC/cAMP- and NO/sGC/cGMP-dependent pathways. It was also identified that 344OH employed voltage-activated- (Kv), calcium-activated- (Kca) and inwardly-rectifying (Kir) potassium channels and act as an antagonist for both VOCC and IP3R while regulating the action potential in the vasculature.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The different position of hydroxyl substituent located in A-ring of the stilbenoid backbone in 344OH compared to resveratrol resulted in a significant difference in mechanistic actions that lead to 344OH's fast-acting and less time-dependent vasorelaxation behaviour. This has substantially increased the potential of 344OH to be developed as an effective antihypertensive drug in future. Present findings further strengthen our inferences where the SARs study approach should be carried out as the mainstream methodology in future drug development research.

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